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70 Amazingly Beautiful Gardens Around The World TSK-24

Butchart Gardens – Canada (HD1080p) MrBangthamai
*** ”Butchart Gardens” Enveloping you in lush greens and colorful blooms, The Butchart Gardens is a must-see oasis, growing in Victoria, British Columbia for over 100 years

The beautiful season has arrived (HD1080p) MrBangthamai

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Gardening and Plant Science | The Great Courses

Watch free courses on horticulture, gardening, landscaping, botany, agriculture, garden design, plant biology, how to classify plants, and more in this video playlist.

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Official Trailer: The Science of Gardening | The Great Courses Plus

New from The Great Courses and now on The Great Courses Plus! An award-winning horticulturist guides you in developing a science-based, sustainable, vibrant home landscape. Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l…

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The Great Courses Plus

Learn how to take advantage of small spaces to blend ornamental and edible plants, and come up with creative solutions for everyday gardening challenges, including color balance, climate restrictions and more. Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l…

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How To Grow Anything: Refresh Your Summer Garden | The Great Courses

The Great Courses Plus

Summer is the perfect time to reassess your garden and find out what you need to do to keep your plants healthy and looking their best. First, learn the tricks to effective garden maintenance throughout the season: growing more abundant harvests of fruits and vegetables, controlling pests in the most eco-friendly ways, locating the cause of discolored leaves, and more. Then, Ms. Myers takes you back to a small-space garden to gauge solutions to function, beauty, and accessibility challenges first tackled in the spring. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…

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The Great Courses Plus


Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l… Explore some of the many ways you can extend your garden through fall and take advantage of the cool air and warm soil (which is great for planting a variety of trees, shrubs, and perennials). You’ll learn how to add bulbs for a splash of spring beauty, prune and protect your plants (and your lawn) from a potentially harsh winter, install a lovely cool-season garden, harvest and store herbs, and learn from your experience to plan for an even better garden in the spring. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…

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The Great Courses Plus

Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l… A dream garden starts with two things: an awareness of what you have to do and a solid plan for getting there. Ms. Myers gives you an overview of the step-by-step process for creating a garden, guiding you through the process of weeding old garden spaces; testing your soil; evaluating growing conditions; picking the best topsoil; using annuals, perennials, and biennials to best effect; and mapping out your garden with the space available. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…

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Four Seasons Gardening- Hydroponics for the Home Gardener

University of Illinois Extension Horticulture

Four Seasons gardening presentation presented by Jeff Kindhart, Senior Research Specialist in Agriculture, on October 7, 2014. This session provides a brief overview of some of the hydroponic systems that are suitable for small scale production. In addition, it will provide an outline to success for those interested in starting a small scale hobby hydroponic project. It will cover aspects such as fertilizer selection, timing, and most suitable crops for use in a home hydroponic system.

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Growing Plants inhttps://www.nasa.gov/content/growing-plants-in-space Space

NASA's Matt Romeyn works in the Veggie Lab of the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center.

NASA’s Matt Romeyn works in the Crop Food Production Research Area of the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.Credits: NASA/Cory Huston

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 An example of ideal is a home with three bedrooms to house a family with two parents and two children.

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The best ideal years of life human wants to be kept are 20 and 30 years old age with vitality, feeling, energy, strength for all 80 or 100 plus years of life, For 50th, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100+ age plus gaining, more knowledge, experience, wisdom, insight, caring, loving, helping and serving self, family, others plus higher purpose.

Also becoming Father and Mother, GrandFather and Mother, plus Grant, GrandFather, Grand, grant GrandFather, and mother, ideal centenarian, four seasons gardeners family are 4 grant parents and 4 grant children always in the living family )

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The 5 Elements of Existence Explained | Sadhguru

Sadhguru5.31M subscribersSUBSCRIBESadhguru looks at how the human body and the cosmos itself, is essentially made of 5 elements – space, air, fire, water and earth. He explains that every yogic practice is essentially about Bhuta Shuddhi or cleansing of the elements. He also explains that if we cleanse them enough, we can move into Bhuta Siddhi, or mastery of the elements. Sadhguru Talks @ Sathsang, Singapore, Aug 2012 **************************************** Transcript: http://isha.sadhguru.org/blog/video/t… Sadhguru: All yogic practices, it doesn’t matter what you’re doing, whether you do asana, yama, niyama, pranayama, asana, whatever dharana, dhyana, samadhi, shoonya, whatever you may be doing, essentially all of it is coming from the fundamentals of bootha suddhi or cleansing the elements or if you cannot cleanse, if you’re such a hopeless case, transcending the elements. (Laughs) Vibhuthi – that’s why, beyond the elements. If you cleanse the elements you’ll live a wonderful life. If you are beyond that, the best thing is to transcend, forget about living a beautiful life just transcend the life because living a beautiful life is a more complex situation than transcending. Transcending means you’re beyond it. What’s beyond is not bothered by so many complexities of the physicality. But if you want to be in the physical and still above that then it takes little more mastery over the physical. If you have no mastery over the physical you will get enslaved to the physical. So bootha suddhi essentially means you want to first cleanse it so that slowly you come to a state which we call as bootha siddhi that means you have mastery over the elements. Everybody has some kind of capability with the elements otherwise you wouldn’t even live a normal life. Right now how well organized the five elements are in your system decides how firm and stable and organically strong this body is. It’s just… body is a play of five elements, so is the world, so is the universe. Everything is a play of five elements. In these five unless you want to explore mystical dimensions you don’t have to bother about the space. So there’re only four. Among the four seventy percent of your body is just water. Just shake and see, you’re just a water-bottle, three-fourth full, you know. You need to understand it is in sync with the planet; approximately seventy-two percent of the planet is water. You know this? Yes, that is how life is evolved. Whichever the way the nature of the planet is manifested in your body many many different ways. So about two-thirds of the planet is water, two-thirds of the body is water. So when you eat food, you must always eat food where the water content in the food is about over seventy percent. This one thing the western societies are ignoring and paying a huge price. Now everywhere it’s becoming like that, if you eat any vegetable it will be over seventy percent water. If you eat a fruit it’ll over ninety percent water. If you want cleansing to happen you must eat fruit. If you just want to maintain the body as it is, vegetable does this. Almost any Asian cooking usually has over seventy percent water naturally. That’s how traditions created it; they were aware of it. It’s only western diets which are dry. You drink water, it doesn’t work like that. The food should have over seventy percent water content. So seventy-two percent is water. Another twelve percent is earth, you know only twelve percent of your body is actually earth, largely it is water. So it’s eighty-four percent. Another six percent is air; air is the easiest thing to manage and take charge of because there is breath and you can take charge of it in a certain way. Another four percent is fire. Taking mastery over fire could do many things to you but because you are house-holders living in family situation, you don’t have to take charge of fire. You can keep it as it is; sometimes you can burn somebody a bit. You need it right? You’re married (Laughs)… Read Full Transcript: http://isha.sadhguru.org/blog/video/t…

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The Four Elements – embodiment demo

The embodiment channel The Four Elements – embodiment demo, with Mark Walsh and Francis Briers

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Classical element

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Classical_element
Classical elements
Stoicheion (στοιχεῖον)
Greek Air WaterAetherFire Earth 

Tattva / Panchikarana / Mahābhūta
Hinduism / Jainism / Buddhism Vayu ApAkashaAgni Prithvi 

Wuxing (五行)
Chinese Wood (木) Water (水) Fire (火)Metal (金)Earth (土)

Godai (五大)
Japanese Air (風) Water (水)Void (空)Fire (火) Earth (地) 

Bön
Tibetan Air WaterAetherFire Earth 

Alchemy
Medieval Air  Water AetherFire  Earth Sulphur MercurySalt 

Segment of the macrocosm showing the elemental spheres of terra (earth), aqua (water), aer (air), and ignis (fire), Robert Fludd, 1617

Segment of the macrocosm showing the elemental spheres of terra (earth), aqua (water), aer (air), and ignis (fire), Robert Fludd, 1617

Rococo set of personification figurines of the Four Elements, 1760s, Chelsea porcelain, Indianapolis Museum of Art

Rococo set of personification figurines of the Four Elements, 1760s, Chelsea porcelainIndianapolis Museum of Art

Allegories of the Classical elements, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo. From left to right and from up to down: air, fire, earth and water

Allegories of the Classical elements, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo. From left to right and from up to down: air, fire, earth and water

Allegories of the Classical elements, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo. From left to right and from up to down: air, fire, earth and water

Allegories of the Classical elements, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo. From left to right and from up to down: air, fire, earth and water

Allegories of the Classical elements, by Giuseppe Arcimboldo. From left to right and from up to down: air, fire, earth and water

Clas­si­cal elements typ­i­cally refer to the con­cepts of earthwaterairfire, and (later) aether, which were pro­posed to ex­plain the na­ture and com­plex­ity of all mat­ter in terms of sim­pler substances. An­cient cul­tures in GreecePer­siaBaby­lo­niaJapanTibet, and India had all sim­i­lar lists, some­times re­fer­ring in local lan­guages to “air” as “wind” and the fifth el­e­ment as “void”. The Chi­nese Wu Xing sys­tem lists Wood ( ), Fire ( huǒ), Earth ( ), Metal ( jīn), and Water ( shuǐ), though these are de­scribed more as en­er­gies or tran­si­tions rather than as types of ma­te­r­ial.

These dif­fer­ent cul­tures and even in­di­vid­ual philoso­phers had widely vary­ing ex­pla­na­tions con­cern­ing their at­trib­utes and how they re­lated to ob­serv­able phe­nom­ena as well as cos­mol­ogy. Some­times these the­o­ries over­lapped with mythol­ogy and were per­son­i­fied in deities. Some of these in­ter­pre­ta­tions in­cluded atom­ism (the idea of very small, in­di­vis­i­ble por­tions of mat­ter), but other in­ter­pre­ta­tions con­sid­ered the el­e­ments to be di­vis­i­ble into in­fi­nitely small pieces with­out chang­ing their na­ture.

While the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the ma­te­r­ial world in an­cient In­dianHel­lenis­tic Egypt, and an­cient Greece into Air, Earth, Fire and Water was more philo­soph­i­cal, dur­ing the Is­lamic Golden Age me­dieval mid­dle east­ern sci­en­tists used prac­ti­cal, ex­per­i­men­tal ob­ser­va­tion to clas­sify materials. In Eu­rope, the An­cient Greek sys­tem of Aris­to­tle evolved slightly into the me­dieval sys­tem, which for the first time in Eu­rope be­came sub­ject to ex­per­i­men­tal ver­i­fi­ca­tion in the 1600s, dur­ing the Sci­en­tific Rev­o­lu­tion.

Mod­ern sci­ence does not sup­port the clas­si­cal el­e­ments as the ma­te­r­ial basis of the phys­i­cal world. Atomic the­ory clas­si­fies atoms into more than a hun­dred chem­i­cal el­e­ments such as oxy­geniron, and mer­cury. These el­e­ments form chem­i­cal com­pounds and mix­tures, and under dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­tures and pres­sures, these sub­stances can adopt dif­fer­ent states of mat­ter. The most com­monly ob­served states of solidliq­uidgas, and plasma share many at­trib­utes with the clas­si­cal el­e­ments of earth, water, air, and fire, re­spec­tively, but these states are due to sim­i­lar be­hav­ior of dif­fer­ent types of atoms at sim­i­lar en­ergy lev­els, and not due to con­tain­ing a cer­tain type of atom or a cer­tain type of sub­stance.

Contents

Ancient history

Ancient Greece

In West­ern thought, the four el­e­ments earthwaterair, and fire as pro­posed by Empe­do­cles (5th cen­tury BC) fre­quently occur. In an­cient Greece, dis­cus­sion of the el­e­ments in the con­text of search­ing for an arche (“first prin­ci­ple”) pre­dated Empe­do­cles by sev­eral cen­turies. For in­stance, Thales sug­gested in the 7th cen­tury BCE that water was the ul­ti­mate un­der­ly­ing sub­stance from which every­thing is de­rived; Anaximenes sub­se­quently made a sim­i­lar claim about air. How­ever, none be­fore Empe­do­cles pro­posed that mat­ter could ul­ti­mately be com­posed of all four el­e­ments in dif­fer­ent com­bi­na­tions of one another. Later on, Aris­to­tle added a fifth el­e­ment to the sys­tem, which he called aether.

Persia

The Per­sian philoso­pher Zarathus­tra (600-583 BCE), also known as Zoroaster, de­scribed the four el­e­ments of earth, water, air and fire as “sa­cred,” i.e., “es­sen­tial for the sur­vival of all liv­ing be­ings and there­fore should be ven­er­ated and kept free from any contamination”.

Cosmic elements in Babylonia

In Baby­lon­ian mythol­ogy, the cos­mogony called Enûma Eliš, a text writ­ten be­tween the 18th and 16th cen­turies BC, in­volves four gods that we might see as per­son­i­fied cos­mic el­e­ments: sea, earth, sky, wind. In other Baby­lon­ian texts these phe­nom­ena are con­sid­ered in­de­pen­dent of their as­so­ci­a­tion with deities, though they are not treated as the com­po­nent el­e­ments of the uni­verse, as later in Empe­do­cles.

India

The con­cept of the five el­e­ments formed a basis of analy­sis in both Hin­duism and Bud­dhism. In Hin­duism, par­tic­u­larly in an es­o­teric con­text, the four states-of-mat­ter de­scribe mat­ter, and a fifth el­e­ment de­scribes that which was be­yond the ma­te­r­ial world. This fifth el­e­ment has been called akasha in India and quin­tes­sence in Eu­rope. Sim­i­lar lists ex­isted in an­cient ChinaKorea and Japan. In Bud­dhism the four great el­e­ments, to which two oth­ers are some­times added, are not viewed as sub­stances, but as cat­e­gories of sen­sory ex­pe­ri­ence.

Hinduism

Main articles: Mahābhūta and Guṇa

The sys­tem of five el­e­ments are found in Vedas, es­pe­cially Ayurveda, the pan­cha ma­hab­huta, or “five great el­e­ments”, of Hin­duism are bhūmi (earth), ap or jala (water), tejas or agni (fire), marutvayu or pavan (air or wind) and vyom or shunya (space or zero) or akash (aether or void). They fur­ther sug­gest that all of cre­ation, in­clud­ing the human body, is made up of these five es­sen­tial el­e­ments and that upon death, the human body dis­solves into these five el­e­ments of na­ture, thereby bal­anc­ing the cycle of nature.

The five el­e­ments are as­so­ci­ated with the five senses, and act as the gross medium for the ex­pe­ri­ence of sen­sa­tions. The basest el­e­ment, earth, cre­ated using all the other el­e­ments, can be per­ceived by all five senses — (i) hear­ing, (ii) touch, (iii) sight, (iv) taste, and (v) smell. The next higher el­e­ment, water, has no odor but can be heard, felt, seen and tasted. Next comes fire, which can be heard, felt and seen. Air can be heard and felt. “Akasha” (aether) is be­yond the senses of smell, taste, sight, and touch; it being ac­ces­si­ble to the sense of hear­ing alone.

Buddhism

Main article: Mahābhūta

In the Pali lit­er­a­ture, the ma­hab­huta (“great el­e­ments”) or catudhatu (“four el­e­ments”) are earth, water, fire and air. In early Bud­dhism, the four el­e­ments are a basis for un­der­stand­ing suf­fer­ing and for lib­er­at­ing one­self from suf­fer­ing. The ear­li­est Bud­dhist texts ex­plain that the four pri­mary ma­te­r­ial el­e­ments are the sen­sory qual­i­ties so­lid­ity, flu­id­ity, tem­per­a­ture, and mo­bil­ity; their char­ac­ter­i­za­tion as earth, water, fire, and air, re­spec­tively, is de­clared an ab­strac­tion — in­stead of con­cen­trat­ing on the fact of ma­te­r­ial ex­is­tence, one ob­serves how a phys­i­cal thing is sensed, felt, perceived.

The Bud­dha’s teach­ing re­gard­ing the four el­e­ments is to be un­der­stood as the base of all ob­ser­va­tion of real sen­sa­tions rather than as a phi­los­o­phy. The four prop­er­ties are co­he­sion (water), so­lid­ity or in­er­tia (earth), ex­pan­sion or vi­bra­tion (air) and heat or en­ergy con­tent (fire). He pro­mul­gated a cat­e­go­riza­tion of mind and mat­ter as com­posed of eight types of “kala­pas” of which the four el­e­ments are pri­mary and a sec­ondary group of four are color, smell, taste, and nu­tri­ment which are de­riv­a­tive from the four primaries.

Thanis­saro Bhikkhu (1997) ren­ders an ex­tract of Shakya­muni Bud­dha’s from Pali into Eng­lish thus:

Just as a skilled butcher or his ap­pren­tice, hav­ing killed a cow, would sit at a cross­roads cut­ting it up into pieces, the monk con­tem­plates this very body — how­ever it stands, how­ever it is dis­posed — in terms of prop­er­ties: ‘In this body there is the earth prop­erty, the liq­uid prop­erty, the fire prop­erty, & the wind property.’

Ti­betan Bud­dhist med­ical lit­er­a­ture speaks of the Panch Mahābhūta (five elements).

China

Main article: Wu Xing

The Chi­nese had a some­what dif­fer­ent se­ries of el­e­ments, namely Fire, Earth, Metal (lit­er­ally gold), Water and Wood, which were un­der­stood as dif­fer­ent types of en­ergy in a state of con­stant in­ter­ac­tion and flux with one an­other, rather than the West­ern no­tion of dif­fer­ent kinds of ma­te­r­ial.

Al­though it is usu­ally trans­lated as “el­e­ment”, the Chi­nese word xing lit­er­ally means some­thing like “chang­ing states of being”, “per­mu­ta­tions” or “meta­mor­phoses of being”. In fact Si­nol­o­gists can­not agree on any sin­gle trans­la­tion. The Chi­nese el­e­ments were seen as ever chang­ing and mov­ing – one trans­la­tion of wu xing is sim­ply “the five changes”.

The Wu Xing are chiefly an an­cient mnemonic de­vice for sys­tems with five stages; hence the pre­ferred trans­la­tion of “move­ments”, “phases” or “steps” over “el­e­ments.”

In the baguametal is as­so­ci­ated with the div­ina­tion fig­ure 兌 Duì (☱, the lake or marsh: 澤/泽 ) and with 乾 Qián (☰, the sky or heav­ens: 天 tiān). Wood is as­so­ci­ated with 巽 Xùn (☴, the wind: 風/风 fēng) and with 震 Zhèn (☳, the arous­ing/thun­der: 雷 léi). In view of the dura­bil­ity of me­te­oric iron, metal came to be as­so­ci­ated with the aether, which is some­times con­flated with Stoic pneuma, as both terms orig­i­nally re­ferred to air (the for­mer being higher, brighter, more fiery or ce­les­tial and the lat­ter being merely warmer, and thus vital or bio­genetic). In Tao­ismqi func­tions sim­i­larly to pneuma in a prime mat­ter (a basic prin­ci­ple of en­er­getic trans­for­ma­tion) that ac­counts for both bi­o­log­i­cal and inan­i­mate phe­nom­ena.

In Chi­nese phi­los­o­phy the uni­verse con­sists of heaven and earth. The five major plan­ets are as­so­ci­ated with and even named after the el­e­ments: Jupiter 木星 is Wood (), Mars 火星 is Fire (), Sat­urn 土星 is Earth (), Venus 金星 is Metal (), and Mer­cury 水星 is Water (). Also, the Moon rep­re­sents Yin (), and the Sun 太陽 rep­re­sents Yang (). Yin, Yang, and the five el­e­ments are as­so­ci­ated with themes in the I Ching, the old­est of Chi­nese clas­si­cal texts which de­scribes an an­cient sys­tem of cos­mol­ogy and phi­los­o­phy. The five el­e­ments also play an im­por­tant part in Chi­nese as­trol­ogy and the Chi­nese form of ge­o­mancy known as Feng shui.

The doc­trine of five phases de­scribes two cy­cles of bal­ance, a gen­er­at­ing or cre­ation (生, shēng) cycle and an over­com­ing or de­struc­tion (克/剋, kè) cycle of in­ter­ac­tions be­tween the phases.

Gen­er­at­ing

  • Wood feeds fire;
  • Fire creates earth (ash);
  • Earth bears metal;
  • Metal collects water;
  • Water nourishes wood.

Over­com­ing

  • Wood parts earth;
  • Earth absorbs water;
  • Water quenches fire;
  • Fire melts metal;
  • Metal chops wood.

There are also two cy­cles of im­bal­ance, an over­act­ing cycle (乘,cheng) and an in­sult­ing cycle (侮,wu).

Greece

Aristotelian elements and qualities
Four classical elementsEmpe­do­clean elements    fire  ·  air    
 water  ·  earth

The an­cient Greek con­cept of four basic el­e­ments, these being earth (γῆ ), water (ὕδωρ hýdōr), air (ἀήρ aḗr), and fire (πῦρ pŷr), dates from pre-So­cratic times and per­sisted through­out the Mid­dle Ages and into the Re­nais­sance, deeply in­flu­enc­ing Eu­ro­pean thought and cul­ture.The four classical elements of Empedocles and Aristotle illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.

Si­cil­ian philoso­pher Empe­do­cles (ca. 450 BC) proved (at least to his sat­is­fac­tion) that air was a sep­a­rate sub­stance by ob­serv­ing that a bucket in­verted in water did not be­come filled with water, a pocket of air re­main­ing trapped inside. Prior to Empe­do­cles, Greek philoso­phers had de­bated which sub­stance was the pri­mor­dial el­e­ment from which every­thing else was made; Her­a­cli­tus cham­pi­oned fire, Thales sup­ported water, and Anaximenes plumped for air. Anax­i­man­der ar­gued that the pri­mor­dial sub­stance was not any of the known sub­stances, but could be trans­formed into them, and they into each other. Empe­do­cles was the first to pro­pose four el­e­ments, fire, earth, air, and water. He called them the four “roots” (ῥιζώματα, rhizōmata).

Plato seems to have been the first to use the term “el­e­ment (στοιχεῖον, sto­icheîon)” in ref­er­ence to air, fire, earth, and water. The an­cient Greek word for el­e­ment, sto­icheion (from sto­icheo, “to line up”) meant “small­est di­vi­sion (of a sun-dial), a syl­la­ble”, as the com­pos­ing unit of an al­pha­bet it could de­note a let­ter and the small­est unit from which a word is formed.

In On the Heav­ens, Aris­to­tle de­fines “el­e­ment” in gen­eral:

An el­e­ment, we take it, is a body into which other bod­ies may be analysed, pre­sent in them po­ten­tially or in ac­tu­al­ity (which of these, is still dis­putable), and not it­self di­vis­i­ble into bod­ies dif­fer­ent in form. That, or some­thing like it, is what all men in every case mean by element.

In his On Gen­er­a­tion and Cor­rup­tion, Aris­to­tle re­lated each of the four el­e­ments to two of the four sen­si­ble qual­i­ties:

  • Fire is both hot and dry.
  • Air is both hot and wet (for air is like vapor, ἀτμὶς).
  • Water is both cold and wet.
  • Earth is both cold and dry.

A clas­sic di­a­gram has one square in­scribed in the other, with the cor­ners of one being the clas­si­cal el­e­ments, and the cor­ners of the other being the prop­er­ties. The op­po­site cor­ner is the op­po­site of these prop­er­ties, “hot – cold” and “dry – wet”.

Aris­to­tle added a fifth el­e­ment, aether (αἰθήρ aither), as the quin­tes­sence, rea­son­ing that whereas fire, earth, air, and water were earthly and cor­rupt­ible, since no changes had been per­ceived in the heav­enly re­gions, the stars can­not be made out of any of the four el­e­ments but must be made of a dif­fer­ent, un­change­able, heav­enly substance. It had pre­vi­ously been be­lieved by pre-So­crat­ics such as Empe­do­cles and Anaxago­ras that aether, the name ap­plied to the ma­te­r­ial of heav­enly bod­ies, was a form of fire. Aris­to­tle him­self did not use the term aether for the fifth el­e­ment, and strongly crit­i­cised the pre-So­crat­ics for as­so­ci­at­ing the term with fire. He pre­ferred a num­ber of other terms that in­di­cated eter­nal move­ment, thus em­pha­sis­ing the ev­i­dence for his dis­cov­ery of a new element. These five el­e­ments have been as­so­ci­ated since Plato’s Timaeus with the five pla­tonic solids.

A text writ­ten in Egypt in Hel­lenis­tic or Roman times called the Kore Kosmou (“Vir­gin of the World”) as­cribed to Her­mes Tris­megis­tus (as­so­ci­ated with the Egypt­ian god Thoth), names the four el­e­ments fire, water, air, and earth. As de­scribed in this book:

And Isis an­swer made: Of liv­ing things, my son, some are made friends with fire, and some with water, some with air, and some with earth, and some with two or three of these, and some with all. And, on the con­trary, again some are made en­e­mies of fire, and some of water, some of earth, and some of air, and some of two of them, and some of three, and some of all. For in­stance, son, the lo­cust and all flies flee fire; the eagle and the hawk and all high-fly­ing birds flee water; fish, air and earth; the snake avoids the open air. Whereas snakes and all creep­ing things love earth; all swim­ming things love water; winged things, air, of which they are the cit­i­zens; while those that fly still higher love the fire and have the habi­tat near it. Not that some of the an­i­mals as well do not love fire; for in­stance sala­man­ders, for they even have their homes in it. It is be­cause one or an­other of the el­e­ments doth form their bod­ies’ outer en­ve­lope. Each soul, ac­cord­ingly, while it is in its body is weighted and con­stricted by these four.

Ac­cord­ing to Galen, these el­e­ments were used by Hip­pocrates in de­scrib­ing the human body with an as­so­ci­a­tion with the four hu­mours: yel­low bile (fire), black bile (earth), blood (air), and phlegm (water). Med­ical care was pri­mar­ily about help­ing the pa­tient stay in or re­turn to his/her own per­sonal nat­ural bal­anced state.

The Neo­pla­tonic philoso­pher Pro­clus re­jected Aris­to­tle’s the­ory re­lat­ing the el­e­ments to the sen­si­ble qual­i­ties hot, cold, wet, and dry. He main­tained that each of the el­e­ments has three prop­er­ties. Fire is sharp, sub­tle, and mo­bile while its op­po­site, earth, is blunt, dense, and im­mo­bile; they are joined by the in­ter­me­di­ate el­e­ments, air and water, in the fol­low­ing fashion:

FireSharpSubtleMobile
AirBluntSubtleMobile
WaterBluntDenseMobile
EarthBluntDenseImmobile

Tibet

In Bön or an­cient Ti­betan phi­los­o­phy, the five el­e­men­tal processes of earthwaterfireair and space are the es­sen­tial ma­te­ri­als of all ex­is­tent phe­nom­ena or ag­gre­gates. The el­e­men­tal processes form the basis of the cal­en­daras­trol­ogymed­i­cinepsy­chol­ogy and are the foun­da­tion of the spir­i­tual tra­di­tions of shaman­ismtantra and Dzogchen.

Ten­zin Wangyal Rin­poche states that

phys­i­cal prop­er­ties are as­signed to the el­e­ments: earth is so­lid­ity; water is co­he­sion; fire is tem­per­a­ture; air is mo­tion; and space is the spa­tial di­men­sion that ac­com­mo­dates the other four ac­tive el­e­ments. In ad­di­tion, the el­e­ments are cor­re­lated to dif­fer­ent emo­tions, tem­pera­ments, di­rec­tions, col­ors, tastes, body types, ill­nesses, think­ing styles, and char­ac­ter. From the five el­e­ments arise the five senses and the five fields of sen­sory ex­pe­ri­ence; the five neg­a­tive emo­tions and the five wis­doms; and the five ex­ten­sions of the body. They are the five pri­mary pranas or vital en­er­gies. They are the con­stituents of every phys­i­cal, sen­sual, men­tal, and spir­i­tual phenomenon.

The names of the el­e­ments are anal­o­gous to cat­e­gorised ex­pe­ri­en­tial sen­sa­tions of the nat­ural world. The names are sym­bolic and key to their in­her­ent qual­i­ties and/or modes of ac­tion by anal­ogy. In Bön the el­e­men­tal processes are fun­da­men­tal metaphors for work­ing with ex­ter­nal, in­ter­nal and se­cret en­er­getic forces. All five el­e­men­tal processes in their es­sen­tial pu­rity are in­her­ent in the mind­stream and link the trikaya and are as­pects of pri­mor­dial en­ergy. As Her­bert V. Günther states:

Thus, bear­ing in mind that thought strug­gles in­ces­santly against the treach­ery of lan­guage and that what we ob­serve and de­scribe is the ob­server him­self, we may nonethe­less pro­ceed to in­ves­ti­gate the suc­ces­sive phases in our be­com­ing human be­ings. Through­out these phases, the ex­pe­ri­ence (das Erlebnis) of our­selves as an in­ten­sity (im­aged and felt as a “god”, lha) set­ting up its own spa­tial­ity (im­aged and felt as a “house” khang) is pre­sent in var­i­ous in­ten­si­ties of il­lu­mi­na­tion that occur within our­selves as a “tem­ple.” A corol­lary of this Er­leb­nis is its light char­ac­ter man­i­fest­ing it­self in var­i­ous “fre­quen­cies” or col­ors. This is to say, since we are be­ings of light we dis­play this light in a mul­ti­plic­ity of nuances.

In the above block quote the trikaya is en­coded as: dhar­makaya “god”; samb­hogakaya “tem­ple” and nir­manakaya “house”.

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Post-classical history

Alchemy

Seventeenth century alchemical emblem showing the four Classical elements in the corners of the image, alongside the tria prima on the central triangle

Seventeenth century alchemical emblem showing the four Classical elements in the corners of the image, alongside the tria prima on the central triangle

The el­e­men­tal sys­tem used in Me­dieval alchemy was de­vel­oped pri­mar­ily by the Arab al­chemist Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber). His sys­tem con­sisted of the four clas­si­cal el­e­ments of air, earth, fire, and water, in ad­di­tion to two philo­soph­i­cal el­e­ments: sul­phur, char­ac­ter­iz­ing the prin­ci­ple of com­bustibil­ity, “the stone which burns”; and mer­cury, char­ac­ter­iz­ing the prin­ci­ple of metal­lic prop­er­ties. They were seen by early al­chemists as ide­al­ized ex­pres­sions of ir­re­ducible com­po­nents of the uni­verse and are of larger con­sid­er­a­tion within philo­soph­i­cal alchemy.

The three metal­lic prin­ci­ples—sul­phur to flam­ma­bil­ity or com­bus­tion, mer­cury to volatil­ity and sta­bil­ity, and salt to so­lid­ity—be­came the tria prima of the Swiss al­chemist Paracel­sus. He rea­soned that Aris­to­tle’s four el­e­ment the­ory ap­peared in bod­ies as three prin­ci­ples. Paracel­sus saw these prin­ci­ples as fun­da­men­tal and jus­ti­fied them by re­course to the de­scrip­tion of how wood burns in fire. Mer­cury in­cluded the co­he­sive prin­ci­ple, so that when it left in smoke the wood fell apart. Smoke de­scribed the volatil­ity (the mer­cu­r­ial prin­ci­ple), the heat-giv­ing flames de­scribed flam­ma­bil­ity (sul­phur), and the rem­nant ash de­scribed so­lid­ity (salt).

Islamic

The Is­lamic philoso­phers al-KindiAvi­cenna and Fakhr al-Din al-Razi con­nected the four el­e­ments with the four na­tures heat and cold (the ac­tive force), and dry­ness and mois­ture (the recipients).

Japan

Main article: Five elements (Japanese philosophy)

Japan­ese tra­di­tions use a set of el­e­ments called the 五大 (godai, lit­er­ally “five great”). These five are earthwaterfirewind/air, and void. These came from In­dian Vastu shas­tra phi­los­o­phy and Bud­dhist be­liefs; in ad­di­tion, the clas­si­cal Chi­nese el­e­ments (五行, wu xing) are also promi­nent in Japan­ese cul­ture, es­pe­cially to the in­flu­en­tial Neo-Con­fu­cian­ists dur­ing the me­dieval Edo pe­riod.

  • Earth represented things that were solid.
  • Water represented things that were liquid.
  • Fire represented things that destroy.
  • Air represented things that moved.
  • Void or Sky/Heaven represented things not of our everyday life.

Modern history

Artus Wolffort, The Four Elements, before 1641

Artus WolffortThe Four Elements, before 1641

Chemical element

See also: Chemical element § History

The Aris­totelian tra­di­tion and me­dieval alchemy even­tu­ally gave rise to mod­ern chem­istry, sci­en­tific the­o­ries and new tax­onomies. By the time of An­toine Lavoisier, for ex­am­ple, a list of el­e­ments would no longer refer to clas­si­cal elements. Some mod­ern sci­en­tists see a par­al­lel be­tween the clas­si­cal el­e­ments and the four states of mat­tersolidliq­uidgas and weakly ion­ized plasma.

Mod­ern sci­ence rec­og­nizes classes of el­e­men­tary par­ti­cles which have no sub­struc­ture (or rather, par­ti­cles that are not made of other par­ti­cles) and com­pos­ite par­ti­cles hav­ing sub­struc­ture (par­ti­cles made of other par­ti­cles).

Western astrology

Main article: Astrology and the classical elements

West­ern as­trol­ogy uses the four clas­si­cal el­e­ments in con­nec­tion with as­tro­log­i­cal charts and horo­scopes. The twelve signs of the zo­diac are di­vided into the four el­e­ments: Fire signs are Aries, Leo and Sagit­tar­ius, Earth signs are Tau­rus, Virgo and Capri­corn, Air signs are Gem­ini, Libra and Aquar­ius, and Water signs are Can­cer, Scor­pio, and Pisces.

Criticism

The Dutch his­to­rian of sci­ence Ed­uard Jan Dijk­ster­huis writes that the the­ory of the clas­si­cal el­e­ments “was bound to ex­er­cise a re­ally harm­ful in­flu­ence. As is now clear, Aris­to­tle, by adopt­ing this the­ory as the basis of his in­ter­pre­ta­tion of na­ture and by never los­ing faith in it, took a course which promised few op­por­tu­ni­ties and many dan­gers for sci­ence.”

In popular culture

Main article: Classical elements in popular culture

See also

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by John Heinerman(Author) Paperback $16.58 Shows how to use vegetable and fruit juices to help alleviate allergies, constipation, hypoglycemia, skin problems, joint pain, colitis, ulcers, and other ailments +++++++++++ 

The Healing Power of Fruits Vegetables and Herbs Paperback – 2009

In this amazing book noted medical anthropologist Dr. John Heinerman brings you a complete collection of natural healing Fruits, Vegetables and Herbs from all over the world! From plant medicines of the American Indians… to time-tested herbal remedies from ancient China, the Middle East and the Bible… here, says Dr. Heinerman, are ways to relieve scores of ailments quickly and inexpensively using safe and easily obtained ingredients you’ve been using all your life in new and unusual ways – your house is full of them right now. Dr. Heinerman says “Anyone who understands nature need never be sick”by Dr. John Heinerman(Author)Paperback   from $3.95++++++++++++ 

Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Healing Juices: From a Medical Anthropologist’s Files, Here Are Nature’s Own Healing Juices for Hundreds of Today’s Most Common Health Problems

Paperback
$13.99

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Heinerman's Encyclopedia of Healing Herbs & Spices
Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Healing Herbs & Spices

by John Heinerman and Juan Deguzman | Jan 1, 1996Hardcover   $14.99

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The Family Encyclopedia of Natural Healing
The Family Encyclopedia of Natural Healing

by John Heinerman and Lendon Smith | Sep 1, 2000Paperback$19.95 +++++  

Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Nuts, Berries, and Seeds Hardcover – June 1, 1995

$14.99by John Heinerman(Author)This new guide to using nutritional properties of nuts, berries and seeds to reverse illness and maximize health includes a listing for literally hundreds of nuts, berries and seeds. It has a complete Table of Symptoms readers can refer to easily and quickly to find remedies for their particular complaints, plus shopper’s tips for buying at the peak of ripeness and quality.+++++++++

John Heinerman

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Square Roots indoor urban farming in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
https://money.cnn.com/2015/09/03/news/companies/kimbal-musk-kitchen-community/index.html

Elon is not the only Musk trying to change the world. So is his younger brother Kimbal.

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Venture City

You’ll be seeing more and more high tech farms popping up in cities. As the population grows, and we run out of farming land, along with climate change, the future of farming is to bring them into our cities. Creating high tech vertical farms that use aeroponics or hydroponics. From an underground farm in London, to a Japanese office building with a rice paddy field. Across the world people and companies are investing in creating new ways and technology to provide a more sustainable future. Big name investors include Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Leonardo DiCaprio, and even the former McDonalds CEO Don Thompson. All pushing the technology of farming and agriculture forward. Companies highlighted in this video include: AeroFarms, Growing Underground, Square Roots (who have Kimbal Musk, brother of Elon Musk, as a co-founder), the Open Agriculture Initiative, Persona Group, Farm One, Bowery, Plenty, Impossible Foods, and Beyond Meat. CREDITS – Select AeroFarm Footage: (CC) by Futurism Originals (https://youtu.be/BrTuuepEYsQ) – Selected Farm One Photographs: Farm One and Sarah Blesener – Persona Group office images: By design firm Kon DesignsSHOW LESS

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Four Seasons Gardening:
Real Food for Everyone | Kimbal Musk | TEDxChicago

Kimbal Musk is applying what he learned in Silicon Valley to how real food can be scaled beyond just to those who can afford it. A true “farm to table” advocate for everybody, his family of restaurant concepts source food exclusively from American farmers. Kimbal’s urban, indoor vertical farming accelerator empowers thousands of young entrepreneurs to become real food farmers. His non-profit organization builds permanent, outdoor Learning Garden classrooms in hundreds of underserved schools around the U.S. Kimbal is Co-Founder of The Kitchen, a growing family of businesses that pursue an America where everyone has access to real food. For his impactful, scalable work, Kimbal was named a 2017 Social Entrepreneur by the Schwab Foundation, a sister organization to the World Economic Forum. His family of restaurant concepts source food from American farmers, stimulating the local farm economy. His non-profit organization builds permanent, outdoor Learning Garden classrooms in hundreds of underserved schools around the U.S. His urban, indoor vertical farming accelerator, Square Roots, seeks to empower thousands of young entrepreneurs to become real food farmers. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx

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Kimbal Musk: Can real food feed the world? – Couple Thinkers – EP 1

Couple Thinkers kicks off by thinking about how to feed the world. Craig and Megan want to know more about how to live a more sustainable life and they know just the person to ask. Kimbal Musk (yes, he’s Elon’s brother) is a man with a plan. He wants to transform food production from something big and industrial to being more local and organic. Step one, he believes, is to get kids interested – and he’s created a revolutionary way to do it because, as he says, “Food is the new internet!”. Want to discover more visit https://www.gant.com/

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Gardening and Plant Science | The Great Courses

Watch free courses on horticulture, gardening, landscaping, botany, agriculture, garden design, plant biology, how to classify plants, and more in this video playlist.

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Official Trailer: The Science of Gardening | The Great Courses Plus

New from The Great Courses and now on The Great Courses Plus! An award-winning horticulturist guides you in developing a science-based, sustainable, vibrant home landscape. Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l…

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The Great Courses Plus

Learn how to take advantage of small spaces to blend ornamental and edible plants, and come up with creative solutions for everyday gardening challenges, including color balance, climate restrictions and more. Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l…

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How To Grow Anything: Refresh Your Summer Garden | The Great Courses

The Great Courses Plus

Summer is the perfect time to reassess your garden and find out what you need to do to keep your plants healthy and looking their best. First, learn the tricks to effective garden maintenance throughout the season: growing more abundant harvests of fruits and vegetables, controlling pests in the most eco-friendly ways, locating the cause of discolored leaves, and more. Then, Ms. Myers takes you back to a small-space garden to gauge solutions to function, beauty, and accessibility challenges first tackled in the spring. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…

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The Great Courses Plus


Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l… Explore some of the many ways you can extend your garden through fall and take advantage of the cool air and warm soil (which is great for planting a variety of trees, shrubs, and perennials). You’ll learn how to add bulbs for a splash of spring beauty, prune and protect your plants (and your lawn) from a potentially harsh winter, install a lovely cool-season garden, harvest and store herbs, and learn from your experience to plan for an even better garden in the spring. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…

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The Great Courses Plus

Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l… A dream garden starts with two things: an awareness of what you have to do and a solid plan for getting there. Ms. Myers gives you an overview of the step-by-step process for creating a garden, guiding you through the process of weeding old garden spaces; testing your soil; evaluating growing conditions; picking the best topsoil; using annuals, perennials, and biennials to best effect; and mapping out your garden with the space available. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…

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Four Seasons Gardening- Hydroponics for the Home Gardener

University of Illinois Extension Horticulture

Four Seasons gardening presentation presented by Jeff Kindhart, Senior Research Specialist in Agriculture, on October 7, 2014. This session provides a brief overview of some of the hydroponic systems that are suitable for small scale production. In addition, it will provide an outline to success for those interested in starting a small scale hobby hydroponic project. It will cover aspects such as fertilizer selection, timing, and most suitable crops for use in a home hydroponic system.

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Growing Plants inhttps://www.nasa.gov/content/growing-plants-in-space Space

NASA's Matt Romeyn works in the Veggie Lab of the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center.

NASA’s Matt Romeyn works in the Crop Food Production Research Area of the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.Credits: NASA/Cory Huston

Scott Kelly photographed a bouquet of zinnias in the space station cupola against the backdrop of Earth

Astronaut Scott Kelly nursed dying space zinnias back to health on the International Space Station. He photographed a bouquet of the flowers in the space station’s cupola against the backdrop of Earth and shared the photo to his Instagram for Valentine’s Day 2016.Credits: NASA/Scott Kelly

Zinnia plants from the Veggie ground control system are being harvested in Kennedy's Flight Equipment Development Laboratory

Zinnia plants from the Veggie ground control system are being harvested in the Flight Equipment Development Laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy. A similar zinnia harvest was conducted by astronaut Scott Kelly on the International Space Station.Credits: NASA/Bill White

Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor harvests red Russian kale and dragoon lettuce from Veggie on Nov. 28, 2018.

Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor harvests red Russian kale and dragoon lettuce from Veggie on Nov. 28, 2018, just in time for Thanksgiving. The crew got to enjoy a mid-afternoon snack with balsamic vinegar, and Auñón-Chancellor reported the lettuce was “delicious!”Credits: ESA/Alexander Gerst

John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with Kennedy's Test and Operations Support Contract, opens APH Flight Unit No.1

John “JC” Carver, a payload integration engineer with Kennedy’s Test and Operations Support Contract, opens the door to the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit No. 1 for a test harvest of half of the Arabidopsis thaliana plants growing within.Credits: NASA/Leif Heimbold

The first growth test of crops in the Advanced Plant Habitat aboard the International Space Station.

The first growth test of crops in the Advanced Plant Habitat aboard the International Space Station yielded great results. Arabidopsis seeds – small flowering plants related to cabbage and mustard – grew for about six weeks, and dwarf wheat for five weeks.Credits: NASA

As humans explore space, we will want to bring plants for both aesthetic and practical reasons. We already know from our pioneering astronauts that fresh flowers and gardens on the International Space Station create a beautiful atmosphere and let us take a little piece of Earth with us on our journeys. They’re good for our psychological well-being on Earth and in space. They also will be critical for keeping astronauts healthy on long-duration missions.

A lack of vitamin C was all it took to give sailors scurvy, and vitamin deficiencies can cause a number of other health problems. Simply packing some multi-vitamins will not be enough to keep astronauts healthy as they explore deep space. They will need fresh produce.

Right now on the space station, astronauts receive regular shipments of a wide variety of freeze-dried and prepackaged meals to cover their dietary needs – resupply missions keep them freshly stocked. When crews venture further into space, traveling for months or years without resupply shipments, the vitamins in prepackaged form break down over time, which presents a problem for astronaut health.  

NASA is looking at ways to provide astronauts with nutrients in a long-lasting, easily absorbed form—freshly grown fresh fruits and vegetables. The challenge is how to do that in a closed environment without sunlight or Earth’s gravity.

Veggie

The Vegetable Production System, known as Veggie, is a space garden residing on the space station. Veggie’s purpose is to help NASA study plant growth in microgravity, while adding fresh food to the astronauts’ diet and enhancing happiness and well-being on the orbiting laboratory. The Veggie garden is about the size of a carry-on piece of luggage and typically holds six plants. Each plant grows in a “pillow” filled with a clay-based growth media and fertilizer. The pillows are important to help distribute water, nutrients and air in a healthy balance around the roots. Otherwise, the roots would either drown in water or be engulfed by air because of the way fluids in space tend to form bubbles.

In the absence of gravity, plants use other environmental factors, such as light, to orient and guide growth. A bank of light emitting diodes (LEDs) above the plants produces a spectrum of light suited for the plants’ growth. Since plants reflect a lot of green light and use more red and blue wavelengths, the Veggie chamber typically glows magenta pink.To date, Veggie has successfully grown a variety of plants, including three types of lettuce, Chinese cabbage, mizuna mustard, red Russian kale and zinnia flowers. The flowers were especially popular with astronaut Scott Kelly, who picked a bouquet and photographed it floating in the cupola against the backdrop of Earth. Some of the plants were harvested and eaten by the crew members, with remaining samples returned to Earth to be analyzed. One concern was harmful microbes growing on the produce. So far, no harmful contamination has been detected, and the food has been safe (and enjoyable) for the crew to eat.

Our team at Kennedy Space Center envisions planting more produce in the future, such as tomatoes and peppers. Foods like berries, certain beans and other antioxidant-rich foods would have the added benefit of providing some space radiation protection for crew members who eat them.

356 Best Four Season Garden Inspiration images | Garden …

Image result for 100 goals

I Love Nutritional Science: Dr. Joel Fuhrman at TEDxCharlottesville 2013

Growing Nutrient Dense Food with Dr. Joel Fuhrman – Tour His Garden

12 Reasons Why I Grow My Fresh Food – Fruits and Vegetables in my Front Yard
8 years ago John from http://www.growingyourgreens.com/ answers a viewers question about why grow food and the its benefits. This viewer is going to give a persuasive speech in their speech class to persuade his classmates to grow food! So John comes to the rescue and shares his 12 reasons for growing food ands why he thinks you should grow food too.

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Related image
Garden

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Autumn colours at Stourhead gardens

garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which display wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens.[1][2] Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden. Some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all.

Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements including statuary, folliespergolastrellisesstumperies, dry creek beds and water features such as fountainsponds (with or without fish), waterfalls or creeks. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some gardens also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the ornamental plants. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, and their purpose (enjoyment of a hobby or self-sustenance rather than producing for sale). Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses.

Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener. A gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space.

Landscape architecture is a related professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public and corporate clients.

Contents
Etymology

The etymology of the word gardening refers to enclosure: it is from Middle English gardin, from Anglo-French gardinjardin, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German gardgart, an enclosure or compound, as in Stuttgart. See Grad (Slavic settlement) for more complete etymology.[3] The words yardcourt, and Latin hortus (meaning “garden,” hence horticulture and orchard), are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space.[4]

The term “garden” in British English refers to a small enclosed area of land, usually adjoining a building.[5] This would be referred to as a yard in American English.

Design

Naturalistic design of a Chinese garden incorporated into the landscape, including a pavilionMain article: Garden design

Garden design is the process of creating plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals. Professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are also landscape architects, a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license.

Elements of garden design include the layout of hard landscape, such as paths, rockeries, walls, water features, sitting areas and decking, as well as the plants themselves, with consideration for their horticultural requirements, their season-to-season appearance, lifespan, growth habit, size, speed of growth, and combinations with other plants and landscape features. Consideration is also given to the maintenance needs of the garden, including the time or funds available for regular maintenance, which can affect the choices of plants regarding speed of growth, spreading or self-seeding of the plants, whether annual or perennial, and bloom-time, and many other characteristics. Garden design can be roughly divided into two groups, formal and naturalistic gardens.

The most important consideration in any garden design is how the garden will be used, followed closely by the desired stylistic genres, and the way the garden space will connect to the home or other structures in the surrounding areas. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget. Budget limitations can be addressed by a simpler garden style with fewer plants and less costly hard landscape materials, seeds rather than sod for lawns, and plants that grow quickly; alternatively, garden owners may choose to create their garden over time, area by area.

Partial view from the Botanical Garden of Curitiba (Southern Brazil): parterresflowersfountainssculpturesgreenhouses and tracks composes the place used for recreation and to study and protect the flora.

A garden can have aesthetic, functional, and recreational uses:

  • Cooperation with nature
  • Observation of nature
  • Relaxation
    • Family dinners on the terrace
    • Children playing in the garden
    • Reading and relaxing in the hammock
    • Maintaining the flowerbeds
    • Pottering in the shed
    • Cottaging in the bushes
    • Basking in warm sunshine
    • Escaping oppressive sunlight and heat
  • Growing useful produce
    • Flowers to cut and bring inside for indoor beauty
    • Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking
Types

Main article: List of garden types

Parc de Bagatelle, a rose garden in Paris

A typical Italian garden at Villa Garzoni, near Pistoia

Zen gardenRyōan-ji

French formal garden in the Loire Valley

A kaiyu-shiki or strolling Japanese garden

Gardens may feature a particular plant or plant type(s):

Gardens may feature a particular style or aesthetic:

Other types:

Other similar spaces

Other outdoor spaces that are similar to gardens include:

  • landscape is an outdoor space of a larger scale, natural or designed, usually unenclosed and considered from a distance.
  • park is a planned outdoor space, usually enclosed (‘imparked’) and of a larger size. Public parks are for public use.
  • An arboretum is a planned outdoor space, usually large, for the display and study of trees.
  • farm or orchard is for the production of food stuff.
  • botanical garden is a type of garden where plants are grown both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors.
  • A zoological garden, or zoo for short, is a place where wild animals are cared for and exhibited to the public.
  • Kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children and in the very sense of the word should have access or be part of a garden.
  • Männergarten is a temporary day-care and activities space for men in German-speaking countries while their wives or girlfriends go shopping. Historically, the expression has also been used for gender-specific sections in lunatic asylums, monasteries and clinics.
Gardens and the environment

Main articles: Sustainable gardening and Sustainable landscaping

Gardeners may cause environmental damage by the way they garden, or they may enhance their local environment. Damage by gardeners can include direct destruction of natural habitats when houses and gardens are created; indirect habitat destruction and damage to provide garden materials such as peat, rock for rock gardens, and by the use of tapwater to irrigate gardens; the death of living beings in the garden itself, such as the killing not only of slugs and snails but also their predators such as hedgehogs and song thrushes by metaldehyde slug killer; the death of living beings outside the garden, such as local species extinction by indiscriminate plant collectors; and climate change caused by greenhouse gases produced by gardening.

Climate change

Climate change will have many impacts on gardens; some studies suggest most of them will be negative.[8] Gardens also contribute to climate change. Greenhouse gases can be produced by gardeners in many ways. The three main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxidemethane, and nitrous oxide. Gardeners produce carbon dioxide directly by overcultivating soil and destroying soil carbon, by burning garden waste on bonfires, by using power tools which burn fossil fuel or use electricity generated by fossil fuels, and by using peat. Gardeners produce methane by compacting the soil and making it anaerobic, and by allowing their compost heaps to become compacted and anaerobic. Gardeners produce nitrous oxide by applying excess nitrogen fertiliser when plants are not actively growing so that the nitrogen in the fertiliser is converted by soil bacteria to nitrous oxide. Gardeners can help to prevent climate change in many ways, including the use of trees, shrubs, ground cover plants and other perennial plants in their gardens, turning garden waste into soil organic matter instead of burning it, keeping soil and compost heaps aerated, avoiding peat, switching from power tools to hand tools or changing their garden design so that power tools are not needed, and using nitrogen-fixing plants instead of nitrogen fertiliser.

Irrigation

Further information: Rain garden

Some gardeners manage their gardens without using any water from outside the garden. Examples in Britain include Ventnor Botanic Garden on the Isle of Wight, and parts of Beth Chatto‘s garden in Essex, Sticky Wicket garden in Dorset, and the Royal Horticultural Society’s gardens at Harlow Carr and Hyde HallRain gardens absorb rainfall falling onto nearby hard surfaces, rather than sending it into stormwater drains.[10] For irrigation, see rainwatersprinkler systemdrip irrigationtap watergreywaterhand pump and watering can.   ======================================================== 

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Persian gardens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eram Garden is a famous historic Persian garden in Shiraz, Iran

Eram Garden is a famous historic Persian garden in ShirazIran

The tra­di­tion and style of gar­den de­sign rep­re­sented by Per­sian gardens or Iran­ian gardens (Per­sian: باغ ایرانی‎), an ex­am­ple of the par­adise gar­den, has in­flu­enced the de­sign of gar­dens from An­dalu­sia to India and beyond.[1][2] The gar­dens of the Al­ham­bra show the in­flu­ence of Per­sian gar­den phi­los­o­phy and style in a Moor­ish palace scale, from the era of al-An­dalus in SpainHu­mayun’s Tomb and Taj Mahal have some of the largest Per­sian gar­dens in the world, from the era of the Mughal Em­pire in India.

Concept and etymology

A schematic diagram of a Persian garden. Note the quadripartite structure with focal water feature, connecting aqueducts, and surrounding trees, as well as the placement of the palace

A schematic diagram of a Persian garden. Note the quadripartite structure with focal water feature, connecting aqueducts, and surrounding trees, as well as the placement of the palace

From the time of the Achaemenid Em­pire, the idea of an earthly par­adise spread through Per­sian lit­er­a­ture and ex­am­ple to other cul­tures, both the Hel­lenis­tic gar­dens of the Se­leu­cid Em­pire and the Ptolemies in Alexan­dria. The Aves­tan word pairidaēza-Old Per­sian *paridaida-,[note 1] Me­dian *paridaiza- (walled-around, i.e., a walled gar­den), was bor­rowed into Akka­dian, and then into Greek An­cient Greek: πα­ρά­δει­σος, ro­man­izedparádeisos, then ren­dered into the Latin paradīsus, and from there en­tered into Eu­ro­pean lan­guages, e.g., French par­adisGer­man Paradies, and Eng­lish par­adise.[3]

As the word ex­presses, such gar­dens would have been en­closed. The gar­den’s pur­pose was, and is, to pro­vide a place for pro­tected re­lax­ation in a va­ri­ety of man­ners: spir­i­tual, and leisurely (such as meet­ings with friends), es­sen­tially a par­adise on earth. The Com­mon Iran­ian word for “en­closed space” was *pari-daiza- (Aves­tan pairi-daēza-), a term that was adopted by Chris­t­ian mythol­ogy to de­scribe the gar­den of Eden or Par­adise on earth.[4]

The gar­den’s con­struc­tion may be for­mal (with an em­pha­sis on struc­ture) or ca­sual (with an em­pha­sis on na­ture), fol­low­ing sev­eral sim­ple de­sign rules. This al­lows a max­i­miza­tion, in terms of func­tion and emo­tion, of what may be done in the gar­den.

History

Gardens outside of the Palace of Darius I of Persia in Persepolis.

Gardens outside of the Palace of Darius I of Persia in Persepolis.

Per­sian gar­dens may orig­i­nate as early as 4000 BC, but it is clear that this Iran­ian tra­di­tion began with the Achaemenid dy­nasty around the 6th cen­tury BCE.[5] Dec­o­rated pot­tery of that time dis­plays the typ­i­cal cross plan of the Per­sian gar­den. The out­line of Pasar­gadae, built around 500 BC, is still view­able today. Clas­si­cal Ira­ni­ans were seen by the Greeks as the ‘great gar­den­ers’ of an­tiq­uity; Cyrus II (known also as Cyrus the Younger) is al­leged to have told the Spar­tan com­man­der Lysander that he gar­dened daily when not cam­paign­ing, and had him­self laid out the park at Sardis, which he called his ‘par­adise’ (a Greek cor­rup­tion of the Old Per­sian word for garden). [6]

Dur­ing the suzerainty of the Sasan­ian Em­pire, under the in­flu­ence of Zoroas­tri­an­ismwater in art grew in­creas­ingly im­por­tant. This trend man­i­fested it­self in gar­den de­sign, with greater em­pha­sis on foun­tains and ponds in gar­dens.

Dur­ing the Umayyad and Ab­basid pe­ri­ods, the aes­thetic as­pect of the gar­den in­creased in im­por­tance, over­tak­ing util­ity. Dur­ing this time, aes­thetic rules that gov­ern the gar­den grew in im­por­tance. An ex­am­ple of this is the chahār bāgh (چهارباغ), a form of gar­den that at­tempts to em­u­late the Abra­hamic no­tion of a Gar­den of Eden, with four rivers and four quad­rants that rep­re­sent the world. The de­sign some­times ex­tends one axis longer than the cross-axis and may fea­ture water chan­nels that run through each of the four gar­dens and con­nect to a cen­tral pool.

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Persian rose (HD1080p) MrBangthamai


Persian Rose

Persian Roses particularly belong to Shirazthe cultural capital of Iran. In fact, many people around the world know Shiraz by its enhancing Persian Roses.

Persian red rose is believed to be popular among the roses. It has a long, jagged stem and dark green leaves. This flower has a good aroma, so its aromas are used in cosmetics and hygiene products.   Shiraz RosesShiraz Rose

Persian Red Rose

Shiraz Rose

The best time to travel to Shiraz is in the spring, in May. When there is no news from the crowds of Norouz, as well as flamboyant flowers, Persian Rose, MohammadiNarges and Baboonai flowers have flown a flower festival in the city. It should breathe the city’s air with the smell of colorful flowers.Persian Rose

Persian Pink Rose

Different Colors of Persian Roses

Persian Roses are produced in 4 colors, and all are available on the market during the whole year. Pink Roses are so favorable by Iranian which is reflected on the Persian architecture and aesthetic monuments, such as Pink Mosque and beautiful Persian gardens in Shiraz.Persian Rose , Eram Garden

Persian Rose , Eram Garden

Differences between Persian and Dutch roses:

Appearance of buds: Difference in the appearance of Dutch and Persian roses in the form that the stalks of Persian rose is full of thorns, and also red roses of Persian with ordinary petals and bright red and Dutch rose with the petal is dark-red. Shiraz Roses

Duration of Rose Shelf: The most important difference is the duration of flowering or its useful life, so that the useful life of roses in Iran is between 3 and 6 days and the Dutch rose in the life of 10 to 20 days is not comparable to its Iranian counterpart.

Persian Roses are more suitable for gardens, and they are more durable when you plant them on the garden not to pick them for the vase. Persian RosePersian Rose , Shiraz

Pink Rose , Shiraz

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TSK-24 Amazing Montreal Botanical Garden Canada. The Montreal Botanical Garden (French: Jardin botanique de Montréal) is a large botanical garden in Montreal, Quebec, Canada comprising 75 hectares (190 acres) of thematic gardens and greenhouses. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2008 as it is considered to be one of the most important botanical gardens in the world due to the extent of its collections and facilities

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 Beautiful Flower Garden in Canada, The Butchart Gardens Beautiful 4K And HDR Videos The Butchart Gardens is a group of floral display gardens in Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, Canada, located near Victoria on Vancouver Island and the gardens have been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. As you see in this video clip, it is the compilation of beautiful flowers garden to be displayed along with roses flowers from other gardens that have been remixed in this video.

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Banff National Park – Canada (HD1080p)

MrBangthamai ”Banff National Park” is Canada’s oldest national park. It was established in 1885 and is located in the Rocky Mountains (in province Alberta). The main commercial centre of the park is the town Banff, in the Bow River valley. The Park has a subarctic climate with three ecoregions, including montane, subalpine, and alpine. The mountains are formed from sedimentary rocks which were pushed east over newer rock strata, between 80 and 55 million years ago. Erosion from water and ice have carved the mountains into their current shapes. …

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NIAGARA FALLS – ONTARIO, CANADA 4K Jacek Zarzycki
Niagara Falls – Ontario , Canada. Best Things To Do/See When You Visiting Niagara Falls City: Horseshoe Falls 01:00 American Falls 05:00 Hornblower Niagara Cruise 11:55 Skylon Tower 05:55 Clifton Hill Street 16:45 Niagara Whirlpool 09:00 #niagarafalls

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Exbury Gardens – England (HD1080p) Exbury Gardens is a renowned botanical garden and garden collection of great repute, located in Hampshire, England, which belongs to the English branch of the Rothschild family of bankers.

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Most Beautiful Gardens in Europe (HD1080p) MrBangthamai

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TSK-24 The Most Beautiful Scenery in the World – Beautiful Pictures


WaynesVDOs
Palawan in Phillipines, The Faroe Islands, New Zealand Geothermal region (near Rotorua), Lofoten Island, Zhangye Danxia in China (google this). Q) You realize you left out Machu Picchu? A) Over-rated! Over-rated! just kidding, it’s not made by Mother Nature. Q) Why isnt Greece/Nepal in your video. Me and my countrymen will harass you untill you add our beloved countries. A) I noticed there are a lot of people from these two countries patrolling youtube and flaming any videos that left out their country. Greece and Nepal are beautiful countries with rich history. Places like Meteora/Santorini or Taktsang/Bhaktapur are breathtaking. However, these places are man made and do not belong in my video! However, I generously have Greek Coast at #37 and Southern Himalayas at #48. I have respect for your countries, so please don’t harass me. Q). You seemed to be biased toward China! *points fingers at me* A). On one hand, if I were to redo the list, I probably would have moved down Huangshan. On the other hand, despite what’s in the video, I have left out more worthwhile places in China than any other country. Just google “China Danxia” (6 unique areas of scenery throughout China group together as one unesco heritage site), “yunnan Province Scenery/stone forest”, Guizhou Province, “longhu mountain”, etc etc,. Q) What is song #12 and #15 A) Run by Snow Patrol and Resistance by Muse Q) Can we have a list of all the songs? A) No I’m too lazy. But 10 of the 25 songs are by the Cure, greatest band in History. Q) Where is Angel Falls, Bora Bora, Grand Canyon, Milford Sound, Halong Bay? A) They are covered in the video under other names, look again… Q) Where is Serengeti, Galapagos, Redwoods, Sequoia, Socotra?!? A) This videos looks at natural art with a geological canvas. Plants and animals will not be a main factor. Q) Palau is not in Indonesia, you moron! A) I didnt say it is. #18 is the island landscape that covers parts Palau and parts of Indonesia. Q) It seems like that you group different countries or national parks together. A) This is a video of Nature’s work. It’s humans that drew a line between USA/Canada or Brazil/Argentina. It’s humans that defined Grand Canyon vs Zion National Park and Yellowstone vs Grand Teton. I tried to group the places by proximity and geology.

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