4 Seasons Gardening

Best 100 Four Seasons Gardening Books, eBooks, Information, Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables, Products and Services plus lots of Promotional Contents, Free for all Visitors

The Future of Farming The Daily Conversation
Technology is revolutionizing farming. That’s great news—by the year 2050 Earth’s population will be 10 billion, so we need to almost double the amount of food we now produce.
WOW! World’s Strangest Fruits – That Look Like Aliens TSK-24
15 BIGGEST Fruits & Vegetables Ever Recorded Top Fives
These are the biggest fruits and vegetables ever seen! What did they feed them? Photosynthesis has seriously gone haywire here!
WOW! Giant Fruits and Vegetables You Won’t Believe TSK-24
Giant Fruits and Vegetables You Won’t Believe. Here are the biggest fruits and vegetables that amazing farmers and gardeners have ever grown from giant strawberries to fungus!

This sites are in developments, by Promotional Guide :

1+ www. Promotional Guide .net

2+ www. 4 seasons gardens plus .com 

3+ www. Smart ebooks reading .info

4+ www. Best 100 plus .info


Best 100 Books, eBooks, Foods, Gifts, Products, Services and Information Plus for :

1+ Four Seasons Gardens and gardening 

2+ Spring gardening

3+ Summer Gardening

4+ Fall Gardening

5+ Winter Gardening

6+ Water and Drinking Water

7+ Sunshine energy or Fire

8+ Air and  Weathers

9+ Soil  and Foods

10+ Flowers and Rose Gardens Specially Rosy

11+ Raw Vegetarian Foods and Sprouts

12+ Natural Health Food + Greens and Drinks

13+ Centenarian Info, Foods ?

14+ Atlantic 4s gardens Islands, north Atlantic ocean

15+Shakspear Smoothies

16+ Shakespeare: First Folio book

17+ Shakespeare comedy: As You Like It!

18+ Shakespeare Flowers Gardens

19+ Shakespeare Roses

20+ Smart Thinking


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Gardening Tips For All Seasons 4 In 1 Bundle:

The Food Growers Top Jobs For The Autumn, Winter, Spring And Summer Planting Seasons


This 4-Book gardening bundle highlights the different gardening tasks throughout the gardening seasons, it is a book packed with things to do throughout the vegetable gardening year.

Episodes included in this 4-book bundle…

Book 1: Gardening Tips For Autumn: The Food Growers Top 5 Jobs For The Fall

Book 2: Gardening Tips For Winter: The Food Growers Top Jobs For The Winter

Book 3: Gardening Tips For Spring: The Food Growers Top Jobs For The Spring Planting Season.

Book 4: Gardening Tips For Summer: The Vegetable Gardeners Top Jobs For The Summer Growing Season.

Tasks covered include such things as Composting, pruning, plant care, plant support, organicpest control, harvesting, planting, growing, harvesting, plant hardiness zone maps for the United States and the United Kingdom.

Many tasty recipes are also included thanks to F. A. Paris excellent recipe books covering jams, pickles, marmalades, and tasty soup dishes – ideal for making the most out of your gardening efforts.


The Winter Harvest Handbook: Year Round Vegetable Production Using Deep-Organic Techniques and Unheated Greenhouses
The Winter Harvest Handbook: Year Round Vegetable Production Using Deep-Organic Techniques and Unheated Greenhouses

by Eliot Coleman and Barbara Damrosch | Sold by: Amazon.com Services LLCKindle Edition$15.76   +++++++++++

The Year-Round Vegetable Gardener: How to Grow Your Own Food 365 Days a Year, No Matter Where You Live
The Year-Round Vegetable Gardener: How to Grow Your Own Food 365 Days a Year, No Matter Where You Live

by Niki Jabbour and Joseph De Sciose | Sold by: Amazon.com Services LLCKindle Edition$9.99 ++++++++++++  

Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long, 2nd Edition
Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long, 2nd Edition

by Eliot Colman, Barbara Damrosch, et al. | Sold by: Amazon.com Services LLCKindle Edition$11.11   ++++++++++++

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Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location: Featuring More Than 3,000 Plants Kindle EditionKindersley Dorling

Including more than 2,000 recommendations from gardening experts, Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location includes planting suggestions for over 30 types of sites, from notoriously dry ground by a hedge or fence to cracks in walls or paving, explains how to assess site and soil, and presents a stunning range of plant partners and planting schemes.

Produced in association with the Smithsonian Institution, whose Smithsonian’s Gardens creates and manages the Smithsonian’s outdoor gardens, interiorscapes, and horticulture-related collections and exhibits, Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location is the perfect book for gardeners looking to make the most out of their plot.


Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers by [Brickell, Christopher]
Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Kindle Edition

by Christopher Brickell  (Author)


An updated edition of the best-selling highly illustrated garden plant reference, featuring more than 8,000 plants and 4,000 photographs.

Choose the right plants for your garden and find all the inspiration and guidance you need with the Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers. Drawing on expert advice from the RHS, this best-selling book features a photographic catalogue of more than 4,000 plants and flowers, all organized by color, size, and type, to help you select the right varieties for your outdoor space. Discover perennials, bulbs, shrubs, and trees, succulents, and ornamental shrubs, all showcased in beautiful, full-color photography. Browse this photographic catalogue to find at-a-glance plant choice inspiration. Or use the extensive plant dictionary to look up more than 8,000 plant varieties and the best growing conditions.

This new edition features the latest and most popular cultivars, with more than 1,380 new plants added, as well as updated photography, comprehensive hardiness ratings, and a brand-new introduction. Fully comprehensive yet easy to use, the Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers is the inspirational, informative guide every gardener needs on their bookshelf.  +++++++++++++++++++++++

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 See all 3 formats and editions

A unique guide to the extraordinary world of plants, from the smallest seeds to the tallest trees.

We couldn’t live without plants. We need them for food, shelter, and even the air we breathe, yet we know surprisingly little about them. Why do thistles bristle with spines? How do some plants trap and eat insects? Did you know there are trees that are 5,000 years old? Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds explores the mysterious world of plants to find the answers to these and many more questions.

Each type of plant–such as a flowering plant, tree, grass, or cactus–is examined close up, with an example shown from all angles and even in cross section, to highlight the key parts. Then picture-packed galleries show the wonderful variety of plants on different themes, perhaps the habitat they grow in, a flower family, or the plants that supply us with our staple foods. But the book also takes a fun look at some truly weird and wonderful plants, including trees with fruits like a giant’s fingers, orchids that look like monkey faces, seeds that spin like helicopters, and trees that drip poison.

So open this beautiful book and find out more about amazing Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds.


The Sprouting Book: How to Grow and Use Sprouts to Maximize Your Health and Vitality
The Sprouting Book: How to Grow and Use Sprouts to Maximize Your Health and Vitality

by Ann Wigmore  | Jun 1, 1986Paperback$12.58++++++++ 

Growing Your Own Living Foods: Sprouting The Easy Way
Growing Your Own Living Foods: Sprouting The Easy Way

by Brian Hetrich | Dec 12, 2015Paperback$19.95+++ 

The Sprouting Book: How to Grow and Use Sprouts to Maximize Your Health and Vitality
The Sprouting Book: How to Grow and Use Sprouts to Maximize Your Health and Vitality

by Ann Wigmore  | Jun 1, 1986Paperback  $17.00Kindle $9.99


Gardman R687 4-Tier Mini Greenhouse, 27" Long x 18" Wide x 63" High
Gardman R687 4-Tier Mini Greenhouse, 27″ Long x 18″ Wide x 63″ High


  1.  Ufine Carbonized Wood Plant Stand 6 Tier Vertical Shelf Flower Display Rack Holder Planter Organizer for Indoor Outdoor Garden Patio Balcony Living Room and Office
  2. Between $75 and $200 AeroGarden Black Harvest, 2019 Model
  3. Above $200 AeroGarden, Black Bounty, garden$293.57
Gardening Under Lights: The Complete Guide for Indoor Growers
Gardening Under Lights: The Complete Guide for Indoor Growers

by Leslie F. Halleck  | $29.95 +++++++ 

Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-round Vegetable Garden - Microgreens - Sprouts - Herbs - Mushrooms - Tomatoes, Peppers & More
Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-round Vegetable Garden – Microgreens – Sprouts – Herbs – Mushrooms – Tomatoes, Peppers & More

by Elizabeth Millard  | Jun 15, 2014Paperback  $24.99

Year-Round Indoor Salad Gardening: How to Grow Nutrient-Dense, Soil-Sprouted Greens in Less Than 10 days
Year-Round Indoor Salad Gardening: How to Grow Nutrient-Dense, Soil-Sprouted Greens in Less Than 10 days

by Peter Burke  | Sep 18, 2015Paperback   $29.95   +++++++++++++ 

Remarkable Trees of the World
Remarkable Trees of the World

by Thomas Pakenham  | Sep 17, 2003Paperback   $35.00++++++++++++++++++  +++++++++++

Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st CenturyMar 4, 1999by Michio KakuKindle Edition$9.99Hardcover$18.97Paperback$13.74 +++++++++++  +++++++   Paperback$115.37$11537 ==================

The Flower Gardener's Bible: A Complete Guide to Colorful Blooms All Season Long: 400 Favorite Flowers, Time-Tested Techniques, Creative Garden Designs, and a Lifetime of Gardening Wisdom
The Flower Gardener’s Bible: A Complete Guide to Colorful Blooms All Season Long: 400 Favorite Flowers, Time-Tested Techniques, Creative Garden Designs, and a Lifetime of Gardening Wisdom

by Lewis Hill , Nancy Hill, et al. | Sold by: Amazon.com Kindle Edition $13.77 Create the flower garden of your dreams. This comprehensive guide includes expert advice on everything from choosing an appropriate growing site to maximizing the lifespan of your plants. Charming illustrations and photographs accompany helpful tips on how to improve soil, fight off pests, and make all your flowers bloom with radiant color. Whether you’re a beginning gardener or a seasoned florist, The Flower Gardener’s Bible is a useful resource that will help you keep your garden healthy and beautiful for years to come.++++++++++++

The Four Season Farm Gardener's Cookbook: From the Garden to the Table in 120 Recipes
The Four Season Farm Gardener’s Cookbook: From the Garden to the Table in 120 Recipes

by Barbara Damrosch and Eliot Coleman | Sold by: Amazon.com Services LLCKindle Edition  $9.99   +++++++++++++++


Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds: A visual encyclopedia of the plant kingdom Kindle Edition
Picturepedia: An Encyclopedia on Every Page Kindle Edition

 See all 5 formats and editions

Experience all the world’s wonders at once in the ultimate children’s encyclopedia.

Spilling over with history, science, space, nature, and much, much more, this visual reference guide comes complete with more than 10,000 stunning photographs, illustrations, and maps. Every page is a mini-encyclopedia at your fingertips, perfectly designed to educate, engage, and entertain.

From microscopic insects to the Big Bang theory, Picturepedia explains every subject under (and including) the Sun to satisfy the curious minds of young readers. Discover the secrets of prehistoric life, explore the inner workings of the human body, and lead an orchestra of musical instruments through breathtaking photographic galleries and detailed graphics that explain every topic in incredible depth and detail.

With more than 150 essential topics covered, Picturepedia is ideal for homework, projects, or just for fun. This absolute must-have book is the ideal gift for young people eager to know about everything and anything.


Better Homes and Gardens Four Seasons Gardening: A Month-By-Month Guide to Planning, Planting, and Caring for Your Garden

Better Homes and Gardens Four Seasons Gardening: A Month-By-Month Guide to Planning, Planting, and Caring for Your Garden

by Better Homes and Gardens,Ann Reilly DinesSaving time and effort, this beautiful, reliable, earth-friendly solution source book explains when as well as how to perform essential gardening tasks throughout the year so Gaia can flow along as the seasons intended. Gardeners will refer to this book time and time and time again.++++++++++++

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https://www.facebook.com/fourseasonsgardenerFacebook Four Seasons Garden Services – Garden Center – Carlisle, Cumbria .. ++++++++++ 


 Are you new to gardening and are curious how Seasons and the recent patch shakes things up? Or a total gardening savant who wants to know how to prep their established gardeners for introducing Seasons? Here’s a guide to everything that Seasons and the big gardening update patch adds to the in-game gardening experience!


Four Seasons Gardening Guide Paperback


Four Seasons of Roses: Monthly Guide to Rose Care Paperback – December 14, 2013
Susan Fox (Author)
b Paperback $12.95 y

Four Seasons of Roses Monthly Guide to Rose Care is a monthly outline of what-to-do to establish and maintain a beautiful rose garden. This planner is also a journal that has space for notes so you can record what is going on in your garden to establish your garden history, or just pause to reflect thoughts or roses you may want to buy next year. The graphics are original photography of roses planted, grown and photographed by Susan Fox. This garden planner is suitable as a keepsake for you to reflect back on what you have learned each year in your rose garden.


The Nonstop Garden: A Step-by-Step Guide to Smart Plant Choices and Four-Season Designs Paperback – May 19, 2010


With hectic lifestyles and busy schedules, people are finding it more and more appealing to enjoy their leisure time at home rather than packing their bags in search of peaceful retreats. But how can they confidently create a garden retreat? By following Cohen and Benner’s trusted advice and building a nonstop garden, they’ll have more cre


Heinerman New Encyclopedia of Fruits & Vegetables, Revised & Expanded Edition
by John Heinerman 

Paperback $17.59 +++++

Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Healing Juices Hardcover – May 1, 1994

by John Heinerman(Author) Paperback $16.58 Shows how to use vegetable and fruit juices to help alleviate allergies, constipation, hypoglycemia, skin problems, joint pain, colitis, ulcers, and other ailments +++++++++++ 

The Healing Power of Fruits Vegetables and Herbs Paperback – 2009

In this amazing book noted medical anthropologist Dr. John Heinerman brings you a complete collection of natural healing Fruits, Vegetables and Herbs from all over the world! From plant medicines of the American Indians… to time-tested herbal remedies from ancient China, the Middle East and the Bible… here, says Dr. Heinerman, are ways to relieve scores of ailments quickly and inexpensively using safe and easily obtained ingredients you’ve been using all your life in new and unusual ways – your house is full of them right now. Dr. Heinerman says “Anyone who understands nature need never be sick”by Dr. John Heinerman(Author)Paperback   from $3.95++++++++++++ 

Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Healing Juices: From a Medical Anthropologist’s Files, Here Are Nature’s Own Healing Juices for Hundreds of Today’s Most Common Health Problems



Heinerman's Encyclopedia of Healing Herbs & Spices
Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Healing Herbs & Spices

by John Heinerman and Juan Deguzman | Jan 1, 1996Hardcover   $14.99


The Family Encyclopedia of Natural Healing
The Family Encyclopedia of Natural Healing

by John Heinerman and Lendon Smith | Sep 1, 2000Paperback$19.95 +++++  

Heinerman’s Encyclopedia of Nuts, Berries, and Seeds Hardcover – June 1, 1995

$14.99by John Heinerman(Author)This new guide to using nutritional properties of nuts, berries and seeds to reverse illness and maximize health includes a listing for literally hundreds of nuts, berries and seeds. It has a complete Table of Symptoms readers can refer to easily and quickly to find remedies for their particular complaints, plus shopper’s tips for buying at the peak of ripeness and quality.+++++++++

John Heinerman


Square Roots indoor urban farming in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Elon is not the only Musk trying to change the world. So is his younger brother Kimbal.


Venture City

You’ll be seeing more and more high tech farms popping up in cities. As the population grows, and we run out of farming land, along with climate change, the future of farming is to bring them into our cities. Creating high tech vertical farms that use aeroponics or hydroponics. From an underground farm in London, to a Japanese office building with a rice paddy field. Across the world people and companies are investing in creating new ways and technology to provide a more sustainable future. Big name investors include Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Leonardo DiCaprio, and even the former McDonalds CEO Don Thompson. All pushing the technology of farming and agriculture forward. Companies highlighted in this video include: AeroFarms, Growing Underground, Square Roots (who have Kimbal Musk, brother of Elon Musk, as a co-founder), the Open Agriculture Initiative, Persona Group, Farm One, Bowery, Plenty, Impossible Foods, and Beyond Meat. CREDITS – Select AeroFarm Footage: (CC) by Futurism Originals (https://youtu.be/BrTuuepEYsQ) – Selected Farm One Photographs: Farm One and Sarah Blesener – Persona Group office images: By design firm Kon DesignsSHOW LESS


Four Seasons Gardening:
Real Food for Everyone | Kimbal Musk | TEDxChicago

Kimbal Musk is applying what he learned in Silicon Valley to how real food can be scaled beyond just to those who can afford it. A true “farm to table” advocate for everybody, his family of restaurant concepts source food exclusively from American farmers. Kimbal’s urban, indoor vertical farming accelerator empowers thousands of young entrepreneurs to become real food farmers. His non-profit organization builds permanent, outdoor Learning Garden classrooms in hundreds of underserved schools around the U.S. Kimbal is Co-Founder of The Kitchen, a growing family of businesses that pursue an America where everyone has access to real food. For his impactful, scalable work, Kimbal was named a 2017 Social Entrepreneur by the Schwab Foundation, a sister organization to the World Economic Forum. His family of restaurant concepts source food from American farmers, stimulating the local farm economy. His non-profit organization builds permanent, outdoor Learning Garden classrooms in hundreds of underserved schools around the U.S. His urban, indoor vertical farming accelerator, Square Roots, seeks to empower thousands of young entrepreneurs to become real food farmers. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx


Kimbal Musk: Can real food feed the world? – Couple Thinkers – EP 1

Couple Thinkers kicks off by thinking about how to feed the world. Craig and Megan want to know more about how to live a more sustainable life and they know just the person to ask. Kimbal Musk (yes, he’s Elon’s brother) is a man with a plan. He wants to transform food production from something big and industrial to being more local and organic. Step one, he believes, is to get kids interested – and he’s created a revolutionary way to do it because, as he says, “Food is the new internet!”. Want to discover more visit https://www.gant.com/


Eat for Life: The Breakthrough Nutrient-Rich Program for Longevity, Disease Reversal, and Sustained Weight LossMar 3, 2020by Joel Fuhrman  Kindle Edition $14.99Hardcover$28.99

I Love Nutritional Science: Dr. Joel Fuhrman at TEDxCharlottesville 2013

Growing Nutrient Dense Food with Dr. Joel Fuhrman – Tour His Garden

12 Reasons Why I Grow My Fresh Food – Fruits and Vegetables in my Front Yard560,076 views8 years ago John from http://www.growingyourgreens.com/ answers a viewers question about why grow food and the its benefits. This viewer is going to give a persuasive speech in their speech class to persuade his classmates to grow food! So John comes to the rescue and shares his 12 reasons for growing food ands why he thinks you should grow food too.


Gardening and Plant Science | The Great Courses

Watch free courses on horticulture, gardening, landscaping, botany, agriculture, garden design, plant biology, how to classify plants, and more in this video playlist.



Official Trailer: The Science of Gardening | The Great Courses Plus

New from The Great Courses and now on The Great Courses Plus! An award-winning horticulturist guides you in developing a science-based, sustainable, vibrant home landscape. Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l…



The Great Courses Plus

Learn how to take advantage of small spaces to blend ornamental and edible plants, and come up with creative solutions for everyday gardening challenges, including color balance, climate restrictions and more. Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l…



How To Grow Anything: Refresh Your Summer Garden | The Great Courses

The Great Courses Plus

Summer is the perfect time to reassess your garden and find out what you need to do to keep your plants healthy and looking their best. First, learn the tricks to effective garden maintenance throughout the season: growing more abundant harvests of fruits and vegetables, controlling pests in the most eco-friendly ways, locating the cause of discolored leaves, and more. Then, Ms. Myers takes you back to a small-space garden to gauge solutions to function, beauty, and accessibility challenges first tackled in the spring. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…



The Great Courses Plus

Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l… Explore some of the many ways you can extend your garden through fall and take advantage of the cool air and warm soil (which is great for planting a variety of trees, shrubs, and perennials). You’ll learn how to add bulbs for a splash of spring beauty, prune and protect your plants (and your lawn) from a potentially harsh winter, install a lovely cool-season garden, harvest and store herbs, and learn from your experience to plan for an even better garden in the spring. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…



The Great Courses Plus

Learn more about this course and start your FREE trial of The Great Courses Plus here: https://www.TheGreatCoursesPlus.com/l… A dream garden starts with two things: an awareness of what you have to do and a solid plan for getting there. Ms. Myers gives you an overview of the step-by-step process for creating a garden, guiding you through the process of weeding old garden spaces; testing your soil; evaluating growing conditions; picking the best topsoil; using annuals, perennials, and biennials to best effect; and mapping out your garden with the space available. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel – we are adding new videos all the time! https://www.youtube.com/subscription_…


Four Seasons Gardening- Hydroponics for the Home Gardener

University of Illinois Extension Horticulture

Four Seasons gardening presentation presented by Jeff Kindhart, Senior Research Specialist in Agriculture, on October 7, 2014. This session provides a brief overview of some of the hydroponic systems that are suitable for small scale production. In addition, it will provide an outline to success for those interested in starting a small scale hobby hydroponic project. It will cover aspects such as fertilizer selection, timing, and most suitable crops for use in a home hydroponic system.


Growing Plants inhttps://www.nasa.gov/content/growing-plants-in-space Space

NASA's Matt Romeyn works in the Veggie Lab of the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center.

NASA’s Matt Romeyn works in the Crop Food Production Research Area of the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.Credits: NASA/Cory Huston

Scott Kelly photographed a bouquet of zinnias in the space station cupola against the backdrop of Earth

Astronaut Scott Kelly nursed dying space zinnias back to health on the International Space Station. He photographed a bouquet of the flowers in the space station’s cupola against the backdrop of Earth and shared the photo to his Instagram for Valentine’s Day 2016.Credits: NASA/Scott Kelly

Zinnia plants from the Veggie ground control system are being harvested in Kennedy's Flight Equipment Development Laboratory

Zinnia plants from the Veggie ground control system are being harvested in the Flight Equipment Development Laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy. A similar zinnia harvest was conducted by astronaut Scott Kelly on the International Space Station.Credits: NASA/Bill White

Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor harvests red Russian kale and dragoon lettuce from Veggie on Nov. 28, 2018.

Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor harvests red Russian kale and dragoon lettuce from Veggie on Nov. 28, 2018, just in time for Thanksgiving. The crew got to enjoy a mid-afternoon snack with balsamic vinegar, and Auñón-Chancellor reported the lettuce was “delicious!”Credits: ESA/Alexander Gerst

John "JC" Carver, a payload integration engineer with Kennedy's Test and Operations Support Contract, opens APH Flight Unit No.1

John “JC” Carver, a payload integration engineer with Kennedy’s Test and Operations Support Contract, opens the door to the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit No. 1 for a test harvest of half of the Arabidopsis thaliana plants growing within.Credits: NASA/Leif Heimbold

The first growth test of crops in the Advanced Plant Habitat aboard the International Space Station.

The first growth test of crops in the Advanced Plant Habitat aboard the International Space Station yielded great results. Arabidopsis seeds – small flowering plants related to cabbage and mustard – grew for about six weeks, and dwarf wheat for five weeks.Credits: NASA

As humans explore space, we will want to bring plants for both aesthetic and practical reasons. We already know from our pioneering astronauts that fresh flowers and gardens on the International Space Station create a beautiful atmosphere and let us take a little piece of Earth with us on our journeys. They’re good for our psychological well-being on Earth and in space. They also will be critical for keeping astronauts healthy on long-duration missions.

A lack of vitamin C was all it took to give sailors scurvy, and vitamin deficiencies can cause a number of other health problems. Simply packing some multi-vitamins will not be enough to keep astronauts healthy as they explore deep space. They will need fresh produce.

Right now on the space station, astronauts receive regular shipments of a wide variety of freeze-dried and prepackaged meals to cover their dietary needs – resupply missions keep them freshly stocked. When crews venture further into space, traveling for months or years without resupply shipments, the vitamins in prepackaged form break down over time, which presents a problem for astronaut health.  

NASA is looking at ways to provide astronauts with nutrients in a long-lasting, easily absorbed form—freshly grown fresh fruits and vegetables. The challenge is how to do that in a closed environment without sunlight or Earth’s gravity.


The Vegetable Production System, known as Veggie, is a space garden residing on the space station. Veggie’s purpose is to help NASA study plant growth in microgravity, while adding fresh food to the astronauts’ diet and enhancing happiness and well-being on the orbiting laboratory. The Veggie garden is about the size of a carry-on piece of luggage and typically holds six plants. Each plant grows in a “pillow” filled with a clay-based growth media and fertilizer. The pillows are important to help distribute water, nutrients and air in a healthy balance around the roots. Otherwise, the roots would either drown in water or be engulfed by air because of the way fluids in space tend to form bubbles.

In the absence of gravity, plants use other environmental factors, such as light, to orient and guide growth. A bank of light emitting diodes (LEDs) above the plants produces a spectrum of light suited for the plants’ growth. Since plants reflect a lot of green light and use more red and blue wavelengths, the Veggie chamber typically glows magenta pink.To date, Veggie has successfully grown a variety of plants, including three types of lettuce, Chinese cabbage, mizuna mustard, red Russian kale and zinnia flowers. The flowers were especially popular with astronaut Scott Kelly, who picked a bouquet and photographed it floating in the cupola against the backdrop of Earth. Some of the plants were harvested and eaten by the crew members, with remaining samples returned to Earth to be analyzed. One concern was harmful microbes growing on the produce. So far, no harmful contamination has been detected, and the food has been safe (and enjoyable) for the crew to eat.

Our team at Kennedy Space Center envisions planting more produce in the future, such as tomatoes and peppers. Foods like berries, certain beans and other antioxidant-rich foods would have the added benefit of providing some space radiation protection for crew members who eat them.

356 Best Four Season Garden Inspiration images | Garden …

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Food Is Medicine: The Scientific Evidence – Volume OneJan 21, 2014Brian Clement Hardcover $26.72byKindle Edition  $9.99 +++++++++++

Eat for Life: The Breakthrough Nutrient-Rich Program for Longevity, Disease Reversal, and Sustained Weight LossMar 3, 2020by Joel Fuhrman  Kindle Edition $14.99Hardcover$28.99

I Love Nutritional Science: Dr. Joel Fuhrman at TEDxCharlottesville 2013

Growing Nutrient Dense Food with Dr. Joel Fuhrman – Tour His Garden

12 Reasons Why I Grow My Fresh Food – Fruits and Vegetables in my Front Yard560,076 views8 years ago John from http://www.growingyourgreens.com/ answers a viewers question about why grow food and the its benefits. This viewer is going to give a persuasive speech in their speech class to persuade his classmates to grow food! So John comes to the rescue and shares his 12 reasons for growing food ands why he thinks you should grow food too.

Eat to Live Quick and Easy Cookbook: 131 Delicious Recipes for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss, Reversing Disease, and Lifelong HealthMay 2, 2017by Joel FuhrmanKindle Edition$12.99  Paperback$25.99

The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse DiabetesDec 26, 2012by Joel Fuhrman    $24.99

Eat to Live Cookbook: 200 Delicious Nutrient-Rich Recipes for Fast and Sustained Weight Loss, Reversing Disease, and Lifelong HealthOct 8, 2013by Joel FuhrmanKindle Edition  $14.99 paperback $20.08

The End of Heart Disease: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Heart DiseaseApr 5, 2016by Joel FuhrmanKindle Edition  $10.99   Hardcover $28.99  +++++++++++++++



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Gardening
A gardener maintaining topiary in Tulcán, Ecuador

A gardener maintaining topiary in Tulcán, Ecuador

Gar­den­ing is the prac­tice of grow­ing and cul­ti­vat­ing plants as part of hor­ti­cul­ture. In gar­dens, or­na­men­tal plants are often grown for their flow­ersfo­liage, or over­all ap­pear­ance; use­ful plants, such as root veg­eta­blesleaf veg­eta­blesfruits, and herbs, are grown for con­sump­tion, for use as dyes, or for med­i­c­i­nal or cos­metic use. Gar­den­ing is con­sid­ered by many peo­ple to be a re­lax­ing ac­tiv­ity.

Gar­den­ing ranges in scale from fruit or­chards, to long boule­vard plant­i­ngs with one or more dif­fer­ent types of shrubstrees, and herba­ceous plants, to res­i­den­tial back gar­dens in­clud­ing lawns and foun­da­tion plant­i­ngs, and to con­tainer gar­dens grown in­side or out­side. Gar­den­ing may be very spe­cial­ized, with only one type of plant grown, or in­volve a va­ri­ety of plants in mixed plant­i­ngs. It in­volves an ac­tive par­tic­i­pa­tion in the grow­ing of plants, and tends to be la­bor-in­ten­sive, which dif­fer­en­ti­ates it from farm­ing or forestry.


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History of gardening

Main article: History of gardening

Robert Hart's forest garden in Shropshire, England

Robert Hart‘s forest garden in Shropshire, England

Ancient times

For­est gar­den­ing, a for­est-based food pro­duc­tion sys­tem, is the world’s old­est form of gardening.[1] For­est gar­dens orig­i­nated in pre­his­toric times along jun­gle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of mon­soon re­gions. In the grad­ual process of fam­i­lies im­prov­ing their im­me­di­ate en­vi­ron­ment, use­ful tree and vine species were iden­ti­fied, pro­tected and im­proved while un­de­sir­able species were elim­i­nated. Even­tu­ally for­eign species were also se­lected and in­cor­po­rated into the gardens.[2]

After the emer­gence of the first civ­i­liza­tions, wealthy in­di­vid­u­als began to cre­ate gar­dens for aes­thetic pur­poses. An­cient Egypt­ian tomb paint­ings from the New King­dom (around 1500 BC) pro­vide some of the ear­li­est phys­i­cal ev­i­dence of or­na­men­tal hor­ti­cul­ture and land­scape de­sign; they de­pict lotus ponds sur­rounded by sym­met­ri­cal rows of aca­cias and palms. A no­table ex­am­ple of an­cient or­na­men­tal gar­dens were the Hang­ing Gar­dens of Baby­lon—one of the Seven Won­ders of the An­cient World —while an­cient Rome had dozens of gar­dens.

Wealthy an­cient Egyp­tians used gar­dens for pro­vid­ing shade. Egyp­tians as­so­ci­ated trees and gar­dens with gods, be­liev­ing that their deities were pleased by gar­dens. Gar­dens in an­cient Egypt were often sur­rounded by walls with trees planted in rows. Among the most pop­u­lar species planted were date palms, sycamores, fir trees, nut trees, and wil­lows. These gar­dens were a sign of higher so­cioe­co­nomic sta­tus. In ad­di­tion, wealthy an­cient Egyp­tians grew vine­yards, as wine was a sign of the higher so­cial classes. Roses, pop­pies, daisies and irises could all also be found in the gar­dens of the Egyp­tians.

As­syria was also renowned for its beau­ti­ful gar­dens. These tended to be wide and large, some of them used for hunt­ing game—rather like a game re­serve today—and oth­ers as leisure gar­dens. Cy­presses and palms were some of the most fre­quently planted types of trees.

An­cient Roman gar­dens were laid out with hedges and vines and con­tained a wide va­ri­ety of flowers—acan­thuscorn­flow­erscro­cuscy­cla­men, hy­acinth, iris, ivy, laven­der, lilies, myr­tle, nar­cis­sus, poppy, rose­mary and violets[3]—as well as stat­ues and sculp­tures. Flower beds were pop­u­lar in the court­yards of rich Ro­mans.

The Middle Ages

A gardener at work, 1607

A gardener at work, 1607

The Mid­dle Ages rep­re­sent a pe­riod of de­cline in gar­dens for aes­thetic pur­poses. After the fall of Rome, gar­den­ing was done for the pur­pose of grow­ing med­i­c­i­nal herbs and/or dec­o­rat­ing church al­tars. Monas­ter­ies car­ried on a tra­di­tion of gar­den de­sign and in­tense hor­ti­cul­tural tech­niques dur­ing the me­dieval pe­riod in Eu­rope. Gen­er­ally, monas­tic gar­den types con­sisted of kitchen gar­dens, in­fir­mary gar­dens, ceme­tery or­chards, clois­ter garths and vine­yards. In­di­vid­ual monas­ter­ies might also have had a “green court”, a plot of grass and trees where horses could graze, as well as a cel­larer’s gar­den or pri­vate gar­dens for obe­di­en­tiaries, monks who held spe­cific posts within the monastery.

Is­lamic gar­dens were built after the model of Per­sian gar­dens and they were usu­ally en­closed by walls and di­vided in four by wa­ter­courses. Com­monly, the cen­tre of the gar­den would have a re­flect­ing pool or pavil­ion. Spe­cific to the Is­lamic gar­dens are the mo­saics and glazed tiles used to dec­o­rate the rills and foun­tains that were built in these gar­dens.

By the late 13th cen­tury, rich Eu­ro­peans began to grow gar­dens for leisure and for med­i­c­i­nal herbs and vegetables.[3] They sur­rounded the gar­dens by walls to pro­tect them from an­i­mals and to pro­vide seclu­sion. Dur­ing the next two cen­turies, Eu­ro­peans started plant­ing lawns and rais­ing flowerbeds and trel­lises of roses. Fruit trees were com­mon in these gar­dens and also in some, there were turf seats. At the same time, the gar­dens in the monas­ter­ies were a place to grow flow­ers and med­i­c­i­nal herbs but they were also a space where the monks could enjoy na­ture and relax.

The gar­dens in the 16th and 17th cen­tury were sym­met­ric, pro­por­tioned and bal­anced with a more clas­si­cal ap­pear­ance. Most of these gar­dens were built around a cen­tral axis and they were di­vided into dif­fer­ent parts by hedges. Com­monly, gar­dens had flowerbeds laid out in squares and sep­a­rated by gravel paths.

Gar­dens in Re­nais­sance were adorned with sculp­tures, top­i­ary and foun­tains. In the 17th cen­tury, knot gar­dens be­came pop­u­lar along with the hedge mazes. By this time, Eu­ro­peans started plant­ing new flow­ers such as tulips, marigolds and sun­flow­ers.

Cottage gardens

A cottage garden in Brittany

A cottage garden in Brittany

Cot­tage gar­dens, which emerged in Eliz­a­bethan times, ap­pear to have orig­i­nated as a local source for herbs and fruits.[4] One the­ory is that they arose out of the Black Death of the 1340s, when the death of so many la­bor­ers made land avail­able for small cot­tages with per­sonal gardens.[5] Ac­cord­ing to the late 19th-cen­tury leg­end of origin,[6] these gar­dens were orig­i­nally cre­ated by the work­ers that lived in the cot­tages of the vil­lages, to pro­vide them with food and herbs, with flow­ers planted among them for dec­o­ra­tion. Farm work­ers were pro­vided with cot­tages that had ar­chi­tec­tural qual­ity set in a small gar­den—about 1 acre (0.40 ha)—where they could grow food and keep pigs and chickens.[7]

Au­then­tic gar­dens of the yeo­man cot­tager would have in­cluded a bee­hive and live­stock, and fre­quently a pig and sty, along with a well. The peas­ant cot­tager of me­dieval times was more in­ter­ested in meat than flow­ers, with herbs grown for med­i­c­i­nal use rather than for their beauty. By Eliz­a­bethan times there was more pros­per­ity, and thus more room to grow flow­ers. Even the early cot­tage gar­den flow­ers typ­i­cally had their prac­ti­cal use—vi­o­lets were spread on the floor (for their pleas­ant scent and keep­ing out ver­min); cal­en­du­las and prim­roses were both at­trac­tive and used in cook­ing. Oth­ers, such as sweet William and hol­ly­hocks, were grown en­tirely for their beauty.[8]

18th century

Sheffield Park Garden, a landscape garden originally laid out in the 18th century by Capability Brown

Sheffield Park Garden, a landscape garden originally laid out in the 18th century by Capability Brown

In the 18th cen­tury gar­dens were laid out more nat­u­rally, with­out any walls. This style of smooth un­du­lat­ing grass, which would run straight to the house, clumps, belts and scat­ter­ing of trees and his ser­pen­tine lakes formed by in­vis­i­bly damming small rivers, were a new style within the Eng­lish land­scape, a “gar­den­less” form of land­scape gar­den­ing, which swept away al­most all the rem­nants of pre­vi­ous for­mally pat­terned styles. The Eng­lish land­scape gar­den usu­ally in­cluded a lake, lawns set against groves of trees, and often con­tained shrub­beries, grot­toes, pavil­ions, bridges and fol­lies such as mock tem­ples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other pic­turesque ar­chi­tec­ture, de­signed to recre­ate an idyl­lic pas­toral land­scape. This new style emerged in Eng­land in the early 18th cen­tury, and spread across Eu­rope, re­plac­ing the more for­mal, sym­met­ri­cal gar­den à la française of the 17th cen­tury as the prin­ci­pal gar­den­ing style of Europe.[9] The Eng­lish gar­den pre­sented an ide­al­ized view of na­ture. They were often in­spired by paint­ings of land­scapes by Claude Lor­raine and Nico­las Poussin, and some were In­flu­enced by the clas­sic Chi­nese gar­dens of the East,[10] which had re­cently been de­scribed by Eu­ro­pean travelers.[10] The work of Lancelot ’Ca­pa­bil­ity’ Brown was par­tic­u­larly in­flu­en­tial. Also, in 1804 the Hor­ti­cul­tural So­ci­ety was formed.

Gar­dens of the 19th cen­tury con­tained plants such as the mon­key puz­zle or Chile pine. This is also the time when the so-called “gar­de­nesque” style of gar­dens evolved. These gar­dens dis­played a wide va­ri­ety of flow­ers in a rather small space. Rock gar­dens in­creased in pop­u­lar­ity in the 19th cen­tury.


Main article: List of garden types

Conservatory of Flowers in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

Conservatory of Flowers in Golden Gate ParkSan Francisco

Hanging baskets in Thornbury, South Gloucestershire

Hanging baskets in Thornbury, South Gloucestershire

An organic garden on a school campus

An organic garden on a school campus

Res­i­den­tial gar­den­ing takes place near the home, in a space re­ferred to as the gar­den. Al­though a gar­den typ­i­cally is lo­cated on the land near a res­i­dence, it may also be lo­cated on a roof, in an atrium, on a bal­cony, in a win­dow­boxon a patio or vi­var­ium.

Gar­den­ing also takes place in non-res­i­den­tial green areas, such as parks, pub­lic or semi-pub­lic gar­dens (botan­i­cal gar­dens or zo­o­log­i­cal gar­dens), amuse­ment parks, along trans­porta­tion cor­ri­dors, and around tourist at­trac­tions and gar­den ho­tels. In these sit­u­a­tions, a staff of gar­den­ers or groundskeep­ers main­tains the gar­dens.

  • Indoor gardening is concerned with the growing of houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory, or in a greenhouse. Indoor gardens are sometimes incorporated as part of air conditioning or heating systems. Indoor gardening extends the growing season in the fall and spring and can be used for winter gardening.
  • Native plant gardening is concerned with the use of native plants with or without the intent of creating wildlife habitat. The goal is to create a garden in harmony with, and adapted to a given area. This type of gardening typically reduces water usage, maintenance, and fertilization costs, while increasing native faunal interest.
  • Water gardening is concerned with growing plants adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. These all require special conditions and considerations. A simple water garden may consist solely of a tub containing the water and plant(s). In aquascaping, a garden is created within an aquarium tank.
  • Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in any type of container either indoors or outdoors. Common containers are pots, hanging baskets, and planters. Container gardening is usually used in atriums and on balconies, patios, and roof tops.
  • Hügelkultur is concerned with growing plants on piles of rotting wood, as a form of raised bed gardening and composting in situ.[11] An English loanword from German, it means “mound garden.” Toby Hemenway, noted permaculture author and teacher, considers wood buried in trenches to also be a form of hugelkultur referred to as a dead wood swale.[12] Hugelkultur is practiced by Sepp Holzer as a method of forest gardening and agroforestry, and by Geoff Lawton as a method of dryland farming and desert greening.[13] When used as a method of disposing of large volumes of waste wood and woody debris, hugelkultur accomplishes carbon sequestration.[11] It is also a form of xeriscaping.
  • Community gardening is a social activity in which an area of land is gardened by a group of people, providing access to fresh produce and plants as well as access to satisfying labor, neighborhood improvement, sense of community and connection to the environment.[14][15] Community gardens are typically owned in trust by local governments or nonprofits.[16]
  • Garden sharing partners landowners with gardeners in need of land. These shared gardens, typically front or back yards, are usually used to produce food that is divided between the two parties.
  • Organic gardening uses natural, sustainable methods, fertilizers and pesticides to grow non-genetically modified crops.
  • Commercial gardening is a more intensive type of gardening that involves the production of vegetables, nontropical fruits, and flowers from local farmers. Commercial gardening began because farmers would sell locally to stop food from spoiling faster because of the transportation of goods from a far distance. Mediterranean agriculture is also a common practice that commercial gardeners use. Mediterranean agriculture is the practice of cultivating animals such as sheep to help weed and provide manure for vine crops, grains, or citrus. Gardeners can easily train these animals to not eat the actual plant.[17]

Social aspects

Peo­ple can ex­press their po­lit­i­cal or so­cial views in gar­dens, in­ten­tion­ally or not. The lawn vs. gar­den issue is played out in urban plan­ning as the de­bate over the “land ethic” that is to de­ter­mine urban land use and whether hyper hy­gien­ist by­laws (e.g. weed con­trol) should apply, or whether land should gen­er­ally be al­lowed to exist in its nat­ural wild state. In a fa­mous Cana­dian Char­ter of Rights case, “San­dra Bell vs. City of Toronto”, 1997, the right to cul­ti­vate all na­tive species, even most va­ri­eties deemed nox­ious or al­ler­genic, was up­held as part of the right of free ex­pres­sion.

Com­mu­nity gar­den­ing com­prises a wide va­ri­ety of ap­proaches to shar­ing land and gar­dens.

Garden at the Schultenhof in Mettingen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Garden at the Schultenhof in MettingenNorth Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Peo­ple often sur­round their house and gar­den with a hedge. Com­mon hedge plants are privethawthornbeechyewley­land cy­presshem­lockar­borvi­taebar­berryboxhollyole­an­derfor­sythia and laven­der. The idea of open gar­dens with­out hedges may be dis­taste­ful to those who enjoy pri­vacy. The Slow Food move­ment has sought in some coun­tries to add an ed­i­ble school yard and gar­den class­rooms to schools, e.g. in Fer­gus, On­tario, where these were added to a pub­lic school to aug­ment the kitchen class­room. Gar­den shar­ing, where urban landown­ers allow gar­den­ers to grow on their prop­erty in ex­change for a share of the har­vest, is as­so­ci­ated with the de­sire to con­trol the qual­ity of one’s food, and re­con­nect with soil and community.[18]

In US and British usage, the pro­duc­tion of or­na­men­tal plant­i­ngs around build­ings is called land­scap­ingland­scape main­te­nance or grounds keeping, while in­ter­na­tional usage uses the term gar­den­ing for these same ac­tiv­i­ties.

Also gain­ing pop­u­lar­ity is the con­cept of “Green Gar­den­ing” which in­volves grow­ing plants using or­ganic fer­til­iz­ers and pes­ti­cides so that the gar­den­ing process – or the flow­ers and fruits pro­duced thereby – doesn’t ad­versely af­fect the en­vi­ron­ment or peo­ple’s health in any man­ner.

Comparison with farming

Berms of fava beans have been planted at Hayes Valley Farm, a community-built farm on the former Central freeway ramps of San Francisco

Berms of fava beans have been planted at Hayes Valley Farm, a community-built farm on the former Central freeway ramps of San Francisco

Gar­den­ing for beauty is likely nearly as old as farm­ing for food, how­ever for most of his­tory for the ma­jor­ity of peo­ple there was no real dis­tinc­tion since the need for food and other use­ful prod­ucts trumped other con­cerns. Small-scale, sub­sis­tence agri­cul­ture (called hoe-farm­ing) is largely in­dis­tin­guish­able from gar­den­ing. A patch of pota­toes grown by a Pe­ru­vian peas­ant or an Irish small­holder for per­sonal use could be de­scribed as ei­ther a gar­den or a farm. Gar­den­ing for av­er­age peo­ple evolved as a sep­a­rate dis­ci­pline, more con­cerned with aes­thet­ics, recre­ation and leisure,[19] under the in­flu­ence of the plea­sure gar­dens of the wealthy. Mean­while, farm­ing has evolved (in de­vel­oped coun­tries) in the di­rec­tion of com­mer­cial­iza­tioneco­nom­ics of scale, and monocrop­ping.

In re­spect to its food-pro­duc­ing pur­pose, gar­den­ing is distinguished from farm­ing chiefly by scale and in­tent. Farm­ing oc­curs on a larger scale, and with the pro­duc­tion of sal­able goods as a major mo­ti­va­tion. Gar­den­ing hap­pens on a smaller scale, pri­mar­ily for plea­sure and to pro­duce goods for the gar­dener’s own fam­ily or com­mu­nity. There is some over­lap be­tween the terms, par­tic­u­larly in that some mod­er­ate-sized veg­etable grow­ing con­cerns, often called mar­ket gar­den­ing, can fit in ei­ther cat­e­gory.

The key dis­tinc­tion be­tween gar­den­ing and farm­ing is es­sen­tially one of scale; gar­den­ing can be a hobby or an in­come sup­ple­ment, but farm­ing is gen­er­ally understood as a full-time or com­mer­cial ac­tiv­ity, usu­ally in­volv­ing more land and quite dif­fer­ent prac­tices. One dis­tinc­tion is that gar­den­ing is la­bor-in­ten­sive and em­ploys very lit­tle in­fra­struc­tural cap­i­tal, some­times no more than a few tools, e.g. a spadehoebas­ket and wa­ter­ing can. By con­trast, larger-scale farm­ing often in­volves ir­ri­ga­tion sys­tems, chem­i­cal fer­til­iz­ers and har­vesters or at least lad­ders, e.g. to reach up into fruit trees. How­ever, this dis­tinc­tion is be­com­ing blurred with the in­creas­ing use of power tools in even small gar­dens.

Monty Don has spec­u­lated on an atavis­tic con­nec­tion be­tween pre­sent-day gar­den­ers and pre-mod­ern peas­antry.[20]

The term pre­ci­sion agri­cul­ture is some­times used to de­scribe gar­den­ing using in­ter­me­di­ate tech­nol­ogy (more than tools, less than har­vesters), es­pe­cially of or­ganic va­ri­eties. Gar­den­ing is ef­fec­tively scaled up to feed en­tire vil­lages of over 100 peo­ple from spe­cial­ized plots. A vari­ant is the com­mu­nity gar­den which of­fers plots to urban dwellers; see fur­ther in al­lot­ment (gar­den­ing).

Garden ornaments and accessories

Main article: Garden ornament

A classical urn at Palm House, the Belfast Botanic Gardens, Northern Ireland, as garden ornament

A classical urn at Palm House, the Belfast Botanic GardensNorthern Ireland, as garden ornament

There is a wide range of gar­den or­na­ments and ac­ces­sories avail­able in the mar­ket for both the pro­fes­sional gar­dener and the am­a­teur to ex­er­cise their cre­ativ­ity. These are used to add dec­o­ra­tion or func­tion­al­ity, and may be made from a wide range of ma­te­ri­als such as cop­per, stone, wood, bam­boo, stain­less steelclaystained glass, con­crete, or iron. Ex­am­ples in­clude trel­lisgar­den fur­ni­turestat­uesout­door fire­placesfoun­tainsrain chainsurnsbird baths and feed­erswind chimes, and gar­den light­ing such as can­dle lanterns and oil lamps. The use of these items can be part of the ex­pres­sion of a gar­dener’s gar­den­ing per­son­al­ity.

Gardens as art

See also: Landscape architecture

Gar­den de­sign is con­sid­ered to be an art in most cul­tures, dis­tin­guished from gar­den­ing, which gen­er­ally means gar­den maintenance. Gar­den de­sign can in­clude dif­fer­ent themes such as peren­nial, but­ter­flywildlifeJapan­esewatertrop­i­cal, or shade gar­dens.

In Japan, Samu­rai and Zen monks were often re­quired to build dec­o­ra­tive gar­dens or prac­tice re­lated skills like flower arrange­ment known as ike­bana. In 18th-cen­tury Eu­rope, coun­try es­tates were re­fash­ioned by land­scape gar­den­ers into for­mal gar­dens or land­scaped park lands, such as at Ver­sailles, France, or Stowe, Eng­land. Today, land­scape ar­chi­tects and gar­den de­sign­ers con­tinue to pro­duce ar­tis­ti­cally cre­ative de­signs for pri­vate gar­den spaces. In the US, pro­fes­sional land­scape de­sign­ers are cer­ti­fied by the As­so­ci­a­tion of Pro­fes­sional Land­scape Designers.[21]

Garden pests

Gar­den pests are gen­er­ally plantsfungi, or an­i­mals (fre­quently in­sects) that en­gage in ac­tiv­ity that the gar­dener con­sid­ers un­de­sir­able. A pest may crowd out de­sir­able plants, dis­turb soil, stunt the growth of young seedlings, steal or dam­age fruit, or oth­er­wise kill plants, ham­per their growth, dam­age their ap­pear­ance, or re­duce the qual­ity of the ed­i­ble or or­na­men­tal por­tions of the plant. Aphidsspi­der mitesslugssnailsantsbirds, and even cats are com­monly con­sid­ered to be gar­den pests.

The flame flower (Tropaeolum speciosum), climbs  over other plants to a sunlit position

The flame flower (Tropaeolum speciosum), climbs over other plants to a sunlit position

Be­cause gar­den­ers may have dif­fer­ent goals, or­gan­isms con­sid­ered “gar­den pests” vary from gar­dener to gar­dener. Tropae­olum spe­cio­sum, for ex­am­ple, may be con­sid­ered a de­sir­able and or­na­men­tal gar­den plant, or it may be con­sid­ered a pest if it seeds and starts to grow where it is not wanted. As an­other ex­am­ple, in lawns, moss can be­come dom­i­nant and be im­pos­si­ble to erad­i­cate. In some lawns, lichens, es­pe­cially very damp lawn lichens such as Peltig­era lac­tuc­fo­lia and P. membranacea, can be­come dif­fi­cult to con­trol and are con­sid­ered pests.

Garden pest control

There are many ways by which un­wanted pests are re­moved from a gar­den. The tech­niques vary de­pend­ing on the pest, the gar­dener’s goals, and the gar­dener’s phi­los­o­phy. For ex­am­ple, snails may be dealt with through the use of a chem­i­cal pes­ti­cide, an or­ganic pes­ti­cide, hand-pick­ing, bar­ri­ers, or sim­ply grow­ing snail-re­sis­tant plants.

Pest con­trol is often done through the use of pes­ti­cides, which may be ei­ther or­ganic or ar­ti­fi­cially syn­the­sized. Pes­ti­cides may af­fect the ecol­ogy of a gar­den due to their ef­fects on the pop­u­la­tions of both tar­get and non-tar­get species. For ex­am­ple, un­in­tended ex­po­sure to some neon­i­coti­noid pes­ti­cides has been pro­posed as a fac­tor in the re­cent de­cline in honey bee pop­u­la­tions.[22] A mole vi­bra­tor can deter mole ac­tiv­ity in a garden.[23]

Other means of con­trol in­clude the re­moval of in­fected plants, using fer­til­iz­ers and bios­tim­u­lants to im­prove the health and vigour of plants so they bet­ter re­sist at­tack, prac­tis­ing crop ro­ta­tion to pre­vent pest build-up, using com­pan­ion plant­ing,[24] and prac­tis­ing good gar­den hy­giene, such as dis­in­fect­ing tools and clear­ing de­bris and weeds which may har­bour pests.

Garden guns

Main article: Garden guns

CCI .22LR snake shot loaded with #12 shot

CCI .22LR snake shot loaded with #12 shot

Gar­den guns are smooth bore shot­guns specif­i­cally made to fire .22 cal­iber snake shot, and are com­monly used by gar­den­ers and farm­ers for pest con­trol. Gar­den guns are short range weapons that can do lit­tle harm past 15 yards (14 m) to 20 yards (18 m), and they’re rel­a­tively quiet when fired with snake shot, com­pared to a stan­dard am­mu­ni­tion. These guns are es­pe­cially ef­fec­tive in­side of barns and sheds, as the snake shot will not shoot holes in the roof or walls, or more im­por­tantly in­jure live­stock with a ric­o­chet. They are also used for pest con­trol at air­portsware­housesstock­yards, etc.[25]

See also


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good things in life. We have all of your gardening and home brewing needs. Start your search below.

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The Winter Harvest with Eliot Coleman Living Web Farms
This is Eliot Coleman’s presentation at the Asheville Mother Earth News Fair in April of 2016. Eliot is a celebrated farming expert encouraging people and communities to choose locally grown organic food. He helped pioneer the movement with his first book “The New Organic Grower” published over 20 years ago. He continues leading the way, expanding the limits of the harvest season deep into and through winter at his world-renowned farm in Harborside, Maine. His latest book, “The Winter Harvest Handbook” which is featured in this talk, shares his hard-won experience for gardeners and farmers alike. Reap the benefits of his wisdom and grow abundant cold season harvests even through the depths of winter. Grow quality produce in unheated or minimally heated, movable greenhouses by adopting his innovative practices and adapting them to your own climate.


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I’ve had a hoop house at Dancing Rabbit for over 5 years. In that time I’ve grown thousands of pounds of salad greens, tomatoes, eggplant, and peppers. In this video, I take you on a little tour of my hoop house and its irrigation system. It uses entirely caught rainwater, solar power, and gravity for irrigation. This hoop house has allowed me to extend the growing season and provide the community fresh local produce year round.


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