Water and Drinking Water

Best 100 Water and Drinking Water Books, eBooks, Information, Products and Services
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TSK-24 The World’s Most Beautiful Waterfalls. Can you name the waterfalls in this video?

Water mountain (HD1080p) MrBangthamai
NIAGARA FALLS – ONTARIO, CANADA 4K Jacek Zarzycki
Niagara Falls – Ontario , Canada. Best Things To Do/See When You Visiting Niagara Falls City: Horseshoe Falls 01:00 American Falls 05:00 Hornblower Niagara Cruise 11:55 Skylon Tower 05:55 Clifton Hill Street 16:45 Niagara Whirlpool 09:00 #niagarafalls

TSK-24 Top 70 Beautiful Autumn Waterfall in the World

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The Top Ten The Top Ten Most Beautiful Aquatic Plants In The World 10-Golden Club (Orontium aquaticum) 09-Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris) 08-Water Hawthorn (Aponogeton distachyos) 07-Waterpoppy (Hydrocleys nymphoides) 06-Pickerel Weed (Pontederia cordata) 05-Pygmy Water Lily (Nymphaea tetragona) 04-Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) 03-Water Snowflake (Nymphoides indica) 02-Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) 01-Blue Water Lily (Nymphaea capensis)

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Picturesque water (HD1080p) MrBangthamai

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Best Waterparks In The World Talltanic It’s summertime and that means you need to get your swimming and splashing in before it gets cold again. Here’s some of the wildest water parks in the world you can visit!

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Top 100 Longest Bridges in the World 

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This page is in development, more info coming soon?

Countries Are Building Economic Empires by Controlling the Worlds Water Supply

by Jack Chapple

What factor do you think contributes the most to the rise and fall of civilizations? Is it war? the economy? Maybe its disease? Well, those are all wrong. The largest contributing factor that has determined which countries are superpowers, and which countries fade into darkness, is the access to Water. And this is something that most people may not think about, as nowadays…you simply turn on a tap, and water comes out. But how it gets to your tap in the first place, is one of the best indicators in determining the success of a country. And in fact, we might be seeing the creation of some water empires, right before our very eyes. Why are cities located where they are? Some factors that determined where people settled in the past were things like access to trade routes, nearby valuable resources, and the fertility of the land. But by far the biggest factor was the proximity of the city to a freshwater source. That is why today roughly 90% of the worlds population lives within 10 kilometres of a freshwater source. Even if many of those water sources are running dry. But we will get to that in a second. Right now the 18 largest cities in Europe are located on or near a major water source. And this same pattern has been shown throughout most of history. For example, Uruk was a city located in present day Iraq. In 3500 BC, it was the largest city in the world with 40 000 inhabitants. And for thousands of years, it was an economic and cultural powerhouse of the world. That was until its key water source, the Euphrates river, began to shift. Around 100 AD the river began to flow away from Uruk, and by 700AD, the river had moved so far away… that the once massive city… was completely abandoned. Ironically, the remains of the city, are now located right next to the new Euphrates river, which supplies many cities in modern day Iraq with freshwater. And a similar story can be told for the once great Mayan empire. From the year 200AD to 900AD. The Mayans had built up a sprawling civilization that had 40 cities, and reached a population of about 2 million people. But then, the Yucatan penninsula, which is where the Mayans were located, went through a series of droughts. Many historians believe that these droughts were the largest reason why the Mayan empire collapsed, and left behind ancient cities, temples, and wonders. And lastly, it is theorized that a lack of water supply contributed to the downfall of other civilizations. like the Khmer empire in the 1400’s… the Ancient Egyptians around 30 BCE… Parts of europe in the 1500’s… and the megadrought that occurred nearly 100 000 years ago which forced humans to migrate out of africa, and settle in Europe and Asia. What I am trying to say is that a lack of freshwater supply tends to be correlated with the rise and fall of civilizations. But then a strange thing happened. Once the technology of human civilization advanced, we began creating new ways to access fresh water. The most important one today is ground water. You see, when you look at the earth, roughly 97% of the water is salt water which is undrinkable for humans. Roughly 2% of the earths water is frozen in ice. And only 1% of the water on earth is freshwater that humans find useful. But even that is a misleading number. Because only 30% of the freshwater on earth is located on the surface with things like lakes and rivers. 70% of the freshwater on earth is actually located underground, which is called ground water. But humans for millennia did not have the technology to extract large quantities of water from the ground. Even though small wells were used to extract groundwater, back in 8000 BC, the population was still largely reliant upon being close to a river or lake. But that was then, and this is now. In the world today, there are 34 countries and territories, without any rivers. The most notable on this list is Saudi Arabia. In fact, if you were to look at Saudia Arabia using satellite imagery, you will see that there are no major sources of freshwater at all, as most of the country seems to be covered in mountains, dunes, and deserts. And the same can be said for other countries like Yemen, Libya, The United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. End of Transcript. Too long for description.

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Water (classical element)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Water_(classical_element)
Classical elements
Stoicheion (στοιχεῖον)
Greek Air WaterAetherFire Earth 
Tattva / Panchikarana / Mahābhūta
Hinduism / Jainism / Buddhism Vayu ApAkashaAgni Prithvi 
Wuxing (五行)

Chinese Wood (木) Water (水) Fire (火)Metal (金)Earth (土)

Godai (五大)
Japanese Air (風) Water (水)Void (空)Fire (火) Earth (地) 

Bön
Tibetan Air WaterAetherFire Earth 

Alchemy
Medieval Air  Water AetherFire  Earth Sulphur MercurySalt 

Water is one of the el­e­ments in an­cient Greek phi­los­o­phy, in the Asian In­dian sys­tem Pan­chama­hab­huta, and in the Chi­nese cos­mo­log­i­cal and phys­i­o­log­i­cal sys­tem Wu Xing. In con­tem­po­rary es­o­teric tra­di­tions, it is com­monly as­so­ci­ated with the qual­i­ties of emo­tion and in­tu­ition.

Contents

Greek and Roman tradition

Water was one of many ar­chai pro­posed by the Pre-so­crat­ics, most of whom tried to re­duce all things to a sin­gle sub­stance. How­ever, Empe­do­cles of Acra­gas (c. 495 – c. 435 BC) se­lected four ar­chai for his four roots: airfire, water and earth. Empe­do­cles roots be­came the four clas­si­cal el­e­ments of Greek phi­los­o­phy. Plato (427–347 BC) took over the four el­e­ments of Empe­do­cles. In the Timaeus, his major cos­mo­log­i­cal di­a­logue, the Pla­tonic solid as­so­ci­ated with water is the icosa­he­dron which is formed from twenty equi­lat­eral tri­an­gles. This makes water the el­e­ment with the great­est num­ber of sides, which Plato re­garded as ap­pro­pri­ate be­cause water flows out of one’s hand when picked up, as if it is made of tiny lit­tle balls.

Plato’s stu­dent Aris­to­tle (384–322 BC) de­vel­oped a dif­fer­ent ex­pla­na­tion for the el­e­ments based on pairs of qual­i­ties. The four el­e­ments were arranged con­cen­tri­cally around the cen­ter of the Uni­verse to form the sub­lu­nary sphere. Ac­cord­ing to Aris­to­tle, water is both cold and wet and oc­cu­pies a place be­tween air and earth among the el­e­men­tal spheres.Alchemical symbol for water

In an­cient Greek med­i­cine, each of the four hu­mours be­came as­so­ci­ated with an el­e­ment. Phlegm was the humor iden­ti­fied with water, since both were cold and wet. Other things as­so­ci­ated with water and phlegm in an­cient and me­dieval med­i­cine in­cluded the sea­son of Win­ter, since it in­creased the qual­i­ties of cold and mois­ture, the phleg­matic tem­pera­ment, the fem­i­nine and the west­ern point of the com­pass.

In alchemy, the chem­i­cal el­e­ment of mer­cury was often as­so­ci­ated with water and its al­chem­i­cal sym­bol was a down­ward-point­ing tri­an­gle.

Indian tradition

Main article: Ap (water)

Ap (áp-) is the Vedic San­skrit term for water, in Clas­si­cal San­skrit oc­cur­ring only in the plural is not an el­e­ment.v, āpas (some­times re-analysed as a the­matic sin­gu­lar, āpa-), whence Hindi āp. The term is from PIE hxap water.

In Hindu phi­los­o­phy, the term refers to water as an el­e­ment, one of the Pan­chama­hab­huta, or “five great el­e­ments”. In Hin­duism, it is also the name of the deva, a per­son­i­fi­ca­tion of water, (one of the Vasus in most later Pu­ranic lists). The el­e­ment water is also as­so­ci­ated with Chan­dra or the moon and Shukra, who rep­re­sent feel­ings, in­tu­ition and imag­i­na­tion.

Ceremonial magic

Water and the other Greek clas­si­cal el­e­ments were in­cor­po­rated into the Golden Dawn system. The el­e­men­tal weapon of water is the cup. Each of the el­e­ments has sev­eral as­so­ci­ated spir­i­tual be­ings. The archangel of water is Gabriel, the angel is Tal­i­a­had, the ruler is Thar­sis, the king is Nichsa and the water el­e­men­tals are called Ondines. It is re­ferred to the upper right point of the pen­ta­gram in the Supreme In­vok­ing Rit­ual of the Pentagram. Many of these as­so­ci­a­tions have since spread through­out the oc­cult com­mu­nity.

Modern witchcraft

Water is one of the five el­e­ments that ap­pear in most Wic­can tra­di­tions. Wicca in par­tic­u­lar was in­flu­enced by the Golden Dawn sys­tem of magic and Aleis­ter Crow­ley‘s mys­ti­cism, which was in turn in­spired by the Golden Dawn.

YouTube Encyclopedic 

  • ✪ Spirit Science 18 ~ The Four Elements
  • ✪ Fire, Earth, Air And Water Which Element Rules Your Being
  • ✪ The Water Element in Your Personality – Part 1 – Rebbetzin Rochel Silber

See also

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The Mystical Secrets Of Water – Sadhguru

Sadhguru gives us insights into lesser known dimensions of water, in this in-depth look into this unique substance.

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Long-term mean precipitation by month

Earth rainfall climatology Is the study of rainfall, a sub-field of meteorology. Formally, a wider study includes water falling as ice crystals, i.e. hail, sleet, snow (parts of the hydrological cycle known as precipitation). The aim of rainfall climatology is to measure, understand and predict rain distribution across different regions of planet Earth, a factor of air pressurehumiditytopographycloud type and raindrop size, via direct measurement and remote sensing data acquisition. Current technologies accurately predict rainfall 3–4 days in advance using numerical weather predictionGeostationary orbiting satellites gather IR and visual wavelength data to measure realtime localised rainfall by estimating cloud albedo, water content, and the corresponding probability of rain. Geographic distribution of rain is largely governed by climate type, topography and habitat humidity. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Warming may also cause changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas.[1] Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres (121,000 cu mi) of water falls as precipitation each year; 398,000 cubic kilometres (95,000 cu mi) of it over the oceans.[2] Given the Earth‘s surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Reade more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Earth_rainfall_climatology

Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[4]      Af   Am   Aw       BWh   BWk   BSh   BSk       Csa   Csb       Cwa   Cwb       Cfa   Cfb   Cfc       Dsa   Dsb   Dsc   Dsd       Dwa   Dwb   Dwc   Dwd       Dfa   Dfb   Dfc   Dfd       ET   EF
A map of Africa showing the ecological break around the Sahara
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Tropospheric cloud classification by altitude of occurrence. Multi-level and vertical genus-types not limited to a single altitude level include nimbostratus, cumulonimbus, and some of the larger cumulus species.

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Top 10 largest Rivers of The World Top 10 Clipz Rivers have long contributed to the rise of great civilizations, even now they provide much needed shipping routes and irrigation of crops, not to mention they are great sources of fish and hydroelectric power. We count down a list of the top 10 largest rivers in the world. Number 10: The Lena River Number 9: The Amur-Argun River Number 8: The Congo River Number 7: The Paraná River Number 6: The Ob-Irtysh River Number 5: The Yellow River Number 4: The Yenisei River Number 3: The Yangtze River Number 2: The River Nile Number 1: The Amazon River

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Can Sea Water Desalination Save The World? 2019 CNBC Today, one out of three people don’t have access to safe drinking water. And that’s the result of many things, but one of them is that 96.5% of that water is found in our oceans. It’s saturated with salt, and undrinkable. Most of the freshwater is locked away in glaciers or deep underground. Less than one percent of it is available to us. So why can’t we just take all that seawater, filter out the salt, and have a nearly unlimited supply of clean, drinkable water?

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How Israel became a leader in water use in the Middle East PBS NewsHour Over the past few years in Israel, the country’s water shortage has become a surplus. Through a combination of conservation, reuse and desalination, the country now has more water than it needs. And that could translate to political progress for the country in the Middle East, one of the most water-stressed regions in the world. NewsHour’s Martin Fletcher reports.

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10 Most POWERFUL Dams In The World! World List Dams are spectacular feats of engineering that many of us take for granted. They are there to control mother nature and change the course of rivers and store water to produce energy. From dams in Russia, China, the United States and more, join me as I reveal to you 10 of the most powerful dams in the world!

Drinking water

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Drinking_water
Tap water is drinking water supplied through indoor plumbing for home use

Tap water is drinking water supplied through indoor plumbing for home use

Drink­ing water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food prepa­ra­tion. The amount of drink­ing water re­quired to main­tain good health varies, and de­pends on phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity level, age, health-re­lated is­sues, and en­vi­ron­men­tal conditions.[1] Amer­i­cans, on av­er­age, drink one litre of water per day and 95% drink less than three litres per day.[2] For those who work in a hot cli­mate, up to 16 litres a day may be required.[1]

Typ­i­cally in de­vel­oped coun­tries, tap water meets drink­ing water qual­ity stan­dards, even though only a small pro­por­tion is ac­tu­ally con­sumed or used in food prepa­ra­tion. Other typ­i­cal uses in­clude wash­ing, toi­lets, and ir­ri­ga­tionGrey­wa­ter may also be used for toi­lets or ir­ri­ga­tion. Its use for ir­ri­ga­tion how­ever may be as­so­ci­ated with risks.[3] Water may also be un­ac­cept­able due to lev­els of tox­ins or sus­pended solids. Read more : https://wiki2.org/en/Drinking_water

Drinking Water Contaminant Categories Paul Cochrane Water makes up approximately 60% of a typical adult male’s body. The percentage is slightly lower in adult females, but is even higher in babies and young children. Water serves a number of essential functions and is a vital component of every cell in the human body. Access to clean water is a crucial ingredient for a healthy life. Unfortunately, not everyone has access to drinking water that is free of contaminants that could cause health concerns. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines the term “contaminant” as meaning any physical, chemical, biological or radiological substance or matter in water. Therefore, the law defines “contaminant” very broadly as being anything other than water molecules.

body river surrounded by dress
Drinking Water: A History (Revised Edition)

Drinking Water: A History (Revised Edition) Paperpack $ 16.95

When we turn on the tap or twist open a tall plastic bottle, we probably don’t give a second thought about where our drinking water comes from. But how it gets from the ground to the glass is far more convoluted than we might think.In this revised edition of Drinking Water, Duke University professor and environmental policy expert James Salzman shows how drinking water highlights the most pressing issues of our time. He adds eye-opening, contemporary examples about our relationship to and consumption of water, and a new chapter about the atrocities that occurred in Flint, Michigan. Provocative, insightful, and engaging, Drinking Water shows just how complex a simple glass of water can be.

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Water: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization

Water: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization Paperback – Illustrated

Paperback $14.59

Far more than oil, the control of water wealth throughout history has been pivotal to the rise and fall of great powers, the achievements of civilization, the transformations of society’s vital habitats, and the quality of ordinary daily lives. Today, freshwater scarcity is one of the twenty-first century’s decisive, looming challenges, driving new political, economic, and environmental realities across the globe.

In Water, Steven Solomon offers the first-ever narrative portrait of the power struggles, personalities, and breakthroughs that have shaped humanity from antiquity’s earliest civilizations through the steam-powered Industrial Revolution and America’s century. Meticulously researched and masterfully written, Water is a groundbreaking account of man’s most critical resource in shaping human destinies, from ancient times to our dawning age of water scarcity.

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The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent Future of Water
The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent Future of Water Paperback

by Charles Fishman  (Author) Paperback $7.40

Praised as “an entertaining and torrential flow of a book” by Nature magazine, The Big Thirstis a startling examination of the passing of the golden age of water and the shocking facts about how water scarcity will soon be a major factor in our lives.

The water coming out of your kitchen tap is four billion years old and might well have been sipped by a Tyrannosaurus rex. Rather than only three states of water—liquid, ice, and vapor—there is a fourth, “molecular water,” fused into rock 400 miles deep in the Earth, and that’s where most of the planet’s water is found. Unlike most precious resources, water cannot be used up; it can always be made clean enough again to drink—indeed, water can be made so clean that it’s toxic. Water is the most vital substance in our lives but also more amazing and mysterious than we appreciate. As Charles Fishman brings vibrantly to life in this surprising and mind-changing narrative, water runs our world in a host of awe-inspiring ways, yet we take it completely for granted. But the era of easy water is over.

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A Field Guide to Clean Drinking Water: How to Find, Assess, Treat, and Store It
A Field Guide to Clean Drinking Water: How to Find, Assess, Treat, and Store It Paperback – August 20, 2019

Paperback $12.49 Kindle $9.45

How to find and prepare safe drinking water—anywhere, any time!

Clean drinking water may be the last thing we think about day to day—but it’s the first thing we need in an emergency. Now, survival expert and biologist Joe Vogel explains how to find, treat, and store safe drinking water—even in the most extreme conditions. A Field Guide to Clean Drinking Water includes information about:

  • The role of water in the body and how to calculate your water requirement
  • Plants, geographical features, and more indicators that signal the presence of water
  • How to collect dew and precipitation, and extract water from plants
  • How to screen “raw water” for bacteria, pesticides, and other contaminants
  • Every purifying method from boiling techniques to chemical disinfection
  • And storage options that meet every need.

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The Prepper's Water Survival Guide: Harvest, Treat, and Store Your Most Vital Resource

The Prepper’s Water Survival Guide: Harvest, Treat, and Store Your…Daisy Luther Paperback $10.06

NO SOURCE IS LEFT UNTAPPED IN THIS ALL-ENCOMPASSING GUIDE TO SUPPLYING LIFE-SAVING WATER AFTER A DISASTERYou can survive up to three weeks without food, but only three days without water! 

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Harvesting H2o: A prepper's guide to the collection, treatment, and storage of drinking water while living off the grid.
Harvesting H2o: A prepper’s guide to the collection, treatment, and storage of drinking water while living off the grid. Paperback

Kindle $3.73 Paperback $13.95

How to find, purify, filter, and store clean drinking water is of primary importance to preppers and off-grid homesteaders. Water is the element that sustains all life, but most of the earth’s surface water is unsafe for human consumption. Nicholas Hyde’s latest work may well become the most important reference book in your survival kit.

Learn how to drill your own well using hand tools, how to properly harvest rainwater, how to find water in the wild, and what to do with your infinitely renewable water supply once you have established it. Topics covered include:

• The Dangers of Drinking Wild Water

• Purifying Water at Home

• Building Your Own Water Filter

• Home Distillation

• Land-Based Marine Water Makers

• Drilling Your Own Well

• Collecting Rainwater

• Other Sources of Water in the Wild

• Practical Water Storage Solutions

• Other Interesting Water Gadgets

The information in this book is timeless and professionally edited. Order Harvesting H2o today and take the single most important step towards sustainable living.

body river surrounded by dress

4K Relaxing River – Ultra HD Nature Video – Water Stream & Birdsong Sounds – Sleep/Study/Meditate TheSilentWatcher

three person swimming on pool

Water filter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A large-scale flocculation water filter

A large-scale flocculation water filter

water filter re­moves im­pu­ri­ties by low­er­ing con­t­a­m­i­na­tion of water using a fine phys­i­cal bar­rier, a chem­i­cal process, or a bi­o­log­i­cal process. Fil­ters cleanse water to dif­fer­ent ex­tents for pur­poses such as pro­vid­ing agri­cul­tural ir­ri­ga­tion, ac­ces­si­ble drink­ing water, pub­lic and pri­vate aquar­i­ums, and the safe use of ponds and swim­ming pools. Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Water_filter

Water purifier

Water purifier

waterfalls surrounded by trees at daytime
man kneeling near flowing water time lapse photo during cloudy day

How long can you survive without water

Water is one of the vital ingredients for life on Earth, but what happens to us if you suddenly can’t get this precious liquid?

The first stage of dehydration is thirst, which kicks in when 2% of body weight is lost

Even mild dehydration can leave us feeling more tired and less able to perform physically

When we are dehydrated we fatigue more easily and our physical performance deteriorates (Credit: Alamy)

When we are dehydrated we fatigue more easily and our physical performance deteriorates (Credit: Alamy)

As dehydration worsens it can affect how our brains work, disrupting our mood and our ability to think clearly

Dehydration can also cause vital parts of the cardiovascular system, such as the blood vessels, to harden, increasing the risk of a heart attack

Read more: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20201016-why-we-cant-survive-without-water

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Does Alkaline Water Actually Improve Your Health?

Dr. Oz investigates the real benefits of alkaline water compared to regular water. Plus, family physician Dr. Jennifer Caudle shares the ingredients in alkaline water. Find out if it actually changes the pH in your blood.

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Here’s what’s in your bottled water (Marketplace)

CBC News Ever wonder what’s lurking in your bottled water? Marketplace asked a lab to test five of the top-selling brands of bottled water in Canada, and microplastics were found in all of them. To read more: http://cbc.ca/1.4575045

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6 Reasons You’ve Been Drinking Water Wrong BRIGHT SIDE How much water should you drink? All humans need water to survive. In fact, two-thirds of your body is comprised of the stuff. While drinking water is undoubtedly part of your daily diet, there are ways it can actually be harmful. You may be drinking it incorrectly all the time without even knowing it. Do you drink water while you’re on the go, standing, walking, and even running? This easy habit can wreak havoc on your body! Specifically on your body’s filtration system, aka your kidneys. Do you drink water immediately after a big meal? That’s not good for your body either! So, guys, we’re going to tell you about how to get the most from your water intake! TIMESTAMPS: Chugging water like there’s no tomorrow 0:41 Drinking water immediately after a big meal 2:33 Drinking ice-cold H20 3:54 Drinking water on the go 5:02 Drinking water at the end of your morning routine 6:10 Skipping a glass of water before bed 7:01#healthyhabits#unhealthyhabits#drinkingwater Music by Epidemic Sound https://www.epidemicsound.com/ SUMMARY: – According to Dr. Leonard Smith, a gastrointestinal, vascular, and general surgeon, slowly sipping 2 to 3 oz of water at a time throughout your day should do the trick. – If you’re really thirsty after a workout, for example, or spending time outside and feel the need to chug copious amounts of water, you can potentially die from something called hyponatremia. – When your body starts to digest food, gastric juices work hard to break down the foods. If you drink tons of water while this is all happening, it can dilute the gastric juices and cause insulin levels to rise. – Drinking chilled water can shrink your blood vessels and disrupt the digestion process? It can also cause you to hold on to unwanted fat since cold temperatures solidify fat in the food you eat. – If you’re standing or walking around while you drink, you’re likely to do it faster, which, as you learned earlier, is bad for your digestion and overall health. – Even though it might be challenging, try giving yourself a little time to sit down and sip on some water a few times a day. Even if it’s just 5 minutes, it can benefit your health. – By not drinking water first thing after waking up, even before brushing your teeth, you are depriving yourself of health benefits. – According to a study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology in 2002, water and other fluids can aid in the prevention of fatal coronary heart disease. – Drinking water just before bed can help improve circulation during the night. Since heart attacks are more likely to occur in the morning, this fluid intake at night is incredibly important.

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TOP 10 BEST WATER BOTTLES ON AMAZON 2020 Survival Gear TOP 10 BEST WATER BOTTLES ON AMAZON 2020 Are you looking for the best water bottles on Amazon of 2020? These are some of the best water bottles

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Nalgene Lid Wide Mouth Loop-Top Water Bottle
Nalgene Lid Wide Mouth Loop-Top Water Bottle
Price:$10.98
The original. The trailblazer. The Sir Edmund of water bottles. Nalgene’s BESTSELLING water bottle for more than 30 years.
For Your Everyday Adventures! Take your Nalgene bottle to the gym, office, camping, exploring and everywhere in between.
This Nalgene water bottle is completely leak proof, made of virtually indestructible BPA-free Tritan, easy to clean and dishwasher safe on the top rack.
Suitable for both warm and cold beverages (-40 to 212 degrees Fahrenheit); wide mouth makes cleaning and adding ice cubes easy.
Free of BPA, BPS and phthalates, opening accommodates most water filters; marked with milliliters and ounces for easy measurement.

scenery of waterfalls
Brita Metro Pitcher With 1 Filter, 5 Cup, Turquise Price:$19.99

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Santevia Water Systems Alkaline Pitcher – MINA Slim White

Price:
$49.99 + $26.06 Shipping & Import Fees Deposit to Canada Details

Color: White Black$49.99

  • Makes water alkaline
  • Adds healthy minerals Calcium and Magnesium
  • Reduces chlorine and lead by up to 99%
  • Helps burn fat
  • Boosts energy with electrolytes
  • Reduces acid reflux

Price $19.99

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Advanced Water Filter
Alkaline Water Filter Pitcher MINA

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Santevia Gravity Water System – Countertop Model (With Fluoride Filter)
Price:$188.76 + $59.64 Shipping & Import Fees

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bird drinking water

How much and When to Water the Plants in your Vegetable Garden
Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens

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5 Watering Mistakes You’re Probably Making Epic Gardening Watering. One of the most fundamental tasks in the vegetable garden, and also one of the the tasks that new gardeners have the most problems with. In this gardening for beginners guide, we’ll take a look at how to water your plants the right way, as well as cover 5 SUPER common mistakes

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Irrigation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Irrigation

Irrigation is the process of applying controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed.
Irrigation systems are also used for cooling livestockdust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation canal in Osmaniye, Turkey

Irrigation canal in OsmaniyeTurkey

Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States

Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.

10 Best Irrigation Controllers 2019 Ezvid Wiki

Water gardens in sigiriya

Water gardens in sigiriya

Micro-sprinkler
Drip irrigation layout and its parts
Irrigation in Tamil Nadu, India
Crop sprinklers near Rio Vista, California

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Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001

water bottle

Water park
(Cyprus)

Продажа питьевой воды.jpg


drinking water

water purification

Water drop symbol

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Access to a secure, safe and sufficient source of fresh water is a fundamental requirement for the survival, well-being and socio-economic development of all humanity. Yet, we continue to act as if fresh water were a perpetually abundant resource. It is not. ~ Kofi Annan

Stones are hollowed out by the constant dropping of water. ~ Ovid

Thousands have lived without love, not one without water. ~ W. H. Auden

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Map of the Earth with a six-metre sea level rise represented in red.
Waterworld Official Trailer #1 – Kevin Costner Movie (1995) HD

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Where Did Earth’s Water Come From? Insae Curiosity
The creation of our planet raises a lot of questions, but there’s one you might not be thinking of. Mainly, where did all the water come from? Join us as we explore where and how the water on Earth came to be.
Where Did Earth’s Water Come From? History of the Earth
Written & Researched by Leila Battison. Check out her channel:- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCXIk… Script & video edited & by Pete Kelly. Check out his channel:- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMq-… Narrated by David Kelly. Check out his channel:- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqoG…

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Facts About Global Water Usage and Supply Automation & Controls from GE
Global Water Futures – Working together to prepare for the future of our water University of Saskatchewan
Our water is at risk. In Canada and globally, we are facing unprecedented water-related challenges. Canada has some of the world’s highest rates of warming, which impacts infrastructure, institutions, ecosystems and human health. Global Water Futures is finding solutions to those water threats in an era of global change. The University of Saskatchewan-led Canada First Research Excellence Fund Global Water Futures network involves 388 Canadian researchers and 170 partners around the world, including major partners University of Waterloo, Wilfrid Laurier University, and McMaster University. Over the next three years, GWF will fund 33 projects and teams with more than $185 million, and train 84 undergrads and 330 graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. Map data: Google, Data LDEO-Columbia, IBCAO Landsat/Copernicus Data SIO, U.S. Geological Survey INEGI, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO

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Our Freshwater Future | Rosemary Knight | TEDxStanford TEDx Talks
What if we could see through the crust of the earth to locate and measure precious groundwater? It’s no longer necessary to do “exploratory surgery” on the earth, says Knight, whose team uses satellites to track fresh water. Relying on the most sophisticated new measurement tools, Knight predicts and explains our fresh water future.

The Future of Water: Mark Owen at TEDxOSU TEDx Talks
Mark Owen is an OSU Mechanical Engineering graduate and has a Masters of Technology in Advanced Manufacturing from the University of Limerick Ireland. He is an inventor and entrepreneur, and was the founder of both Phoseon Technology and Puralytics. Puralytics has developed a water purification technology and products which are sustainable and have applications in both here and in the developing world. Puralytics has won numerous global awards for their technology and products. Mark Owen will discuss the future of water and how new technology will be required sustain it.
Water Quality and Future Generations: Deb Swackhamer at TEDxUMN TEDx Talks
Dr. Deborah L. Swackhamer is Professor in Science, Technology, and Public Policy in the Hubert H, Humphrey School of Public Affairs, and Co-Director of the University’s Water Resources Center. She also is Professor in Environmental Health Sciences in the School of Public Health, and is trained as an environmental chemist. She joined the Minnesota faculty in 1987.
Water: Think Again | Kaveh Madani | TEDxKish TEDx Talks
WATER. It’s the most essential and pervasive element of life. Yet, nearly half of humanity will face water scarcity by 2030 due to climate change and population growth. What can be done about the looming crisis of a global drought? Could water scarcity spark war as world leaders have already predicted? In this bold and hopeful TEDx talk, Kaveh Madani shares a different approach to the water crisis, one that promotes thinking and possibilities as fresh as clean water. Dr. Kaveh Madani is a systems analyst, game theorist, and engineering and policy educator who investigates the dynamic complexities of coupled human-natural systems.

The Struggle To Keep Water Flowing To Your Cities | How Cities Work | Spark
This episode reveals a look at how cities across the world provide water to billions of people – a challenge that becomes more and more complex with every passing year. Over half of the world’s population live in cities, a figure that’s set to rise by two thirds by 2050. Each city’s infrastructure is under pressure to provide for an ever-increasing population. This series looks at the ingenious engineering that enables cities across the globe to function.
Water: The Shape Shifter | Richard Hammond’s: Wild Weather | Spark
Richard Hammond investigates the crucial role water plays. Without water, there would be almost no weather: no rain, no snow, no hail, no clouds. So Richard goes in pursuit of water in all its forms. He tries to weigh a cloud, finds out how rain could crush a car, and gets involved in starting an avalanche.
What Will Happen if Our Water Runs Out? | Avoiding Apocalypse | Spark
Can our planet provide water to an unlimited number of human beings? Signs of resource depletion are already numerous. Potable water is becoming increasingly scarce. The biggest culprit? Agriculture, which has to feed the seven billion people that inhabit the planet.

101 Facts About The Oceans
101Facts Today we’re taking a dip into the beautiful briny, and diving head first into one of the most fascinating parts of the planet that we call Earth. Grab your diving suits and your oxygen tanks, as we take a look at 101 Facts About The Ocean.

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Canadian Water

Virtual Workshop: Agriculture Considerations for the Canada Water Agency Global Water Futures
June 25, 2020 – The Government of Canada is creating a new Canada Water Agency to work together with the provinces, territories, Indigenous communities, local authorities, scientists and others to find the best ways to keep our water safe, clean and well managed. Agriculture is the largest consumer of water in Canada and agricultural lands serve as source waters of most rural and urban populations in Canada, including Indigenous communities. Global Water Futures (GWF) has been conducting research on many aspects of agriculture and water in Canada with the goal of informing the development of more sustainable water management of agricultural drainage basins. To contribute to these discussions, GWF hosted a 2-part mini virtual workshop that focused on Canadian agricultural water management issues, capabilities, advances and needs to help inform the federal government in its development of the Canada Water Agency.
National Water Policy Panel: How can a Canada Water Agency Deliver Water Security for Canadians? Global Water Futures
May 13, 2020 How can a Canada Water Agency Deliver Water Security for Canadians? was a virtual panel discussion chaired by Dr. Thomas Axworthy of Massey College, and featuring Terry Duguid, MP and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Environment and Climate Change and six experts in water science and governance. The discussion explored Canadian water issues and how a Canada Water Agency can contribute solutions, including leadership to mobilize knowledge needed to monitor, predict and solve water problems; strengthen transboundary water management; strengthen reconciliation with Indigenous peoples; and improve collaborative river basin planning between all governments.

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THE NEW REALITY – Addressing the Water Challenge USC Price
Join Governor Schwarzenegger, the USC Schwarzenegger Institute and the PPIC Water Policy Center, for an informative forum to explore how California is coping with the current drought and how we meet the challenge of managing this resource in the future.

Relaxing River Sounds – Gentle River, Nature Sounds, Singing Birds Ambience 24Relax

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10 Hrs Rainforest & Rain for Relaxing, Nature Sounds for Sleep, Meditation, Insomnia, SPA, Study Relax Night and Day – Beautiful Nature & Sounds

RAIN SOUNDS IN THE WOODS | Ambient Noise For Sleep, Relaxation and Studying Ultimate Ambient Noise Soundzzz

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World’s Most Amazing Waterfalls JustAmazingWorld Collection of world’s most amazing waterfalls. There are much more amazing waterfalls that I could not fit in to this video. I promise I’ll make part 2 in case you like this one.

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10 Most Beautiful Beaches in the World – Travel Video touropia Check out all the places seen in this video: https://www.touropia.com/awesome-beac… Whether they’re blessed with blindingly bright white sands or located in the most idyllic setting imaginable; the world is truly home to a great number of beautiful beaches, each more breathtaking than the last. While some of them are to be found at the heart of world-famous cities, others are nestled away on tropical islands or tucked away deep inside national parks. Whether they are backed by impressive rock formations, rugged cliffs, or gently swaying palm trees, these beautiful beaches really need to be seen to be believed.

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17 Most Beautiful Islands in the World – Travel Video touropia Check out all the places seen in this video: https://www.touropia.com/most-beautif… Who doesn’t love a taste of island life? Where you can kick off your shoes, leave work behind, and cocktails are provided at the snap of a finger. But island escapes aren’t just about lazy beach days. They can also be full of adventure, water sports, wildlife-watching, and age-old cultures you can trace back over thousands of years. So, whether you’re looking for that typical tropical beach escape or a trip to an exotic ecosystem untouched by tourism, there’s an island out there calling your name. Here’s a look at the most beautiful islands in the world:

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Nature Relaxation Films FLYING OVER KAUAI (4K) Hawaii’s Garden Island | Ambient Aerial Film + Music for Stress Relief 1.5HR

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4K HDR Tropical Beach – Gentle Ocean Wave Sounds – Peaceful Wild Island – Relaxing Nature Video TheSilentWatche

Top 10 Largest, Biggest & Best Aquariums In the World

The Indian Fishkeeper Here is the list of 10 Largest, Biggest & Best Aquariums In the World. ►S-U-B-S-C-R-I-B-E- THE INDIAN FISHKEEPER here http://bit.ly/CLICK_HERE_TO_SUBSCRIBE THESE VIDEOS ARE ALSO HELPFUL ►Learn how to make a 3d background fish tank here http://bit.ly/DIY_3D_BACKGROUND ►My other 3d background fish tanks http://bit.ly/3D_BACKGROUND_AQUARIUMS ►देखिये वीडियोस हिंदीमे http://bit.ly/HINDI_AQUARIUM_VIDEOS ►Low tech planted tank setup series http://bit.ly/LOW_TECH_PLANTED_TANK_S… ►Easy DIY aquarium projects http://bit.ly/DIY_AQUARIUM_PROJECTS ►Fishkeeping explained http://bit.ly/WHITEBOARD_AQUARIUM_VIDEOS ►Amazing Aquariums http://bit.ly/AMAZING_FISH_TANKS ►Make your own pond at home http://bit.ly/POND_SERIES ►Aquarium Filter & Meda http://bit.ly/AQUARIUM_FILTRATION ►Goldfish Care http://bit.ly/GOLDFISH_CARE ►Betta (Fighter Fish) Care http://bit.ly/BETTA_CARE ►Turtle Care http://bit.ly/TURTLE_CARE ►Planted Tanks http://bit.ly/PLANTED_TANKS

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The Best 4K Aquarium for Relaxation II ? Relaxing Oceanscapes – Sleep Meditation 4K UHD Screensaver
Balu – Relaxing Nature in 4K Relaxing Oceanscapes – Enjoy the peaceful aquariums & tanks views in beautiful 4K UHD. Helps Relax & Fall Asleep FAST! 2 hours long. Relax with beautiful fishes, Manta rays, Sea anemones,Jellyfishes, Sharks, and more!. Music for relaxation, sleep, meditation, yoga, study. sit back, relax and enjoy 🙂

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Alor diving film 2015 Indonesia Harry Juselius Join me to Alor Island´s world class dive sites in Indonesia. This is HD film….klick little ring right corner in the view box klick automatic and from the list take HD 720 or HD 1080 if you have fast connection and see the awesome dive sites and wonders of the sea with the Alor Divers. We start from the beach of the Alor Eco Resort and come back there..see what happens in between…yessss.

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Marine life, depths of the ocean (HD1080p)MrBangthamai

Marine life, depths of the ocean (HD1080p)MrBangthamaiColorful Lionfish (HD1080p)MrBangthamai

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Colorful Lionfish (HD1080p)MrBangthamai

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Ocean Surface: 10 Hours of Relaxing Oceanscapes | BBC Earth

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Deep Ocean: 10 Hours of Relaxing Oceanscapes BBC Earth Be wowed by incredible creatures in this journey through a mysterious part of our blue planet with this 10 hour loop

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This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is gbo5_cover_2-300x169.jpg
UN-Water From Wikipedia, https://wiki2.org/en/UN-Water or https://www.unwater.org/

United Nations Water (UN-Water) is an interagency mechanism that coordinates the efforts of United Nations entities and international organizations working on water and sanitation issues.″Over 30 UN organizations carry out water and sanitation programmes, reflecting the fact that water issues run through all of the UN’s main focus areas. UN-Water’s role is to coordinate so that the UN family ‘delivers as one’ in response to water related challenges.″[2]

The majority of the offices is located in Geneva, Switzerland.

Issues

Water is at the core of sus­tain­able de­vel­op­ment and is crit­i­cal for so­cio-eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment, healthy ecosys­tems and for human sur­vival it­self. Ecosys­tems across the world, par­tic­u­larly wet­lands, are in de­cline in terms of the ser­vices they pro­vide. Be­tween US$4.3 and US$20.2 tril­lion per year worth of ecosys­tem ser­vices were lost be­tween 1997 and 2011 due to land use change. Water is vital for re­duc­ing the global bur­den of dis­ease and im­prov­ing the health, wel­fare and pro­duc­tiv­ity of pop­u­la­tions. Today, 2.1 bil­lion peo­ple lack ac­cess to safely man­aged drink­ing water ser­vices and 4.5 bil­lion peo­ple lack safely man­aged san­i­ta­tion ser­vices.

Water is also at the heart of adap­ta­tion to cli­mate change, serv­ing as the cru­cial link be­tween the cli­mate sys­tem, human so­ci­ety and the en­vi­ron­ment. With­out proper water gov­er­nance, there is likely to be in­creased com­pe­ti­tion for water be­tween sec­tors and an es­ca­la­tion of water crises of var­i­ous kinds, trig­ger­ing emer­gen­cies in a range of wa­ter-de­pen­dent sec­tors. By 2025, 1.8 bil­lion peo­ple are ex­pected to be liv­ing in con­di­tions with ab­solute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world pop­u­la­tion could be under water stress conditions.

The phys­i­cal world of water is closely bound up with the so­cio-po­lit­i­cal world, with water often a key fac­tor in man­ag­ing risks such as famine, mi­gra­tion, epi­demics, in­equal­i­ties and po­lit­i­cal in­sta­bil­ity. Since 1900, more than 11 mil­lion peo­ple have died as a con­se­quence of drought and more than 2 bil­lion have been af­fected by drought, more than any other phys­i­cal hazard.

Activities

UN-Wa­ter mem­bers and part­ners in­form about water and san­i­ta­tion poli­cies, mon­i­tor and re­port on progress, and co­or­di­nate two an­nual global cam­paigns on World Water Day and World Toi­let Day.

Key policy processes

UN-Wa­ter mem­bers and part­ners have helped embed water and san­i­ta­tion in re­cent agree­ments such as the 2030 Agenda for Sus­tain­able De­vel­op­ment (which led to the Sus­tain­able De­vel­op­ment Goals (SDGs)), the 2015-2030 Sendai Frame­work for Dis­as­ter Risk Re­duc­tion, the 2015 Addis Ababa Ac­tion Agenda on Fi­nanc­ing for De­vel­op­ment, and the 2015 Paris Agree­ment within the UN Con­ven­tion Frame­work on Cli­mate Change.

Monitoring and reporting

To meet the needs of the 2030 Agenda, UN-Wa­ter launched the In­te­grated Mon­i­tor­ing Ini­tia­tive for SDG 6, build­ing on and ex­pand­ing the ex­pe­ri­ence and lessons learned dur­ing the MDG period.

All the cus­to­dian agen­cies of the SDG 6 global indicators have come to­gether under the ini­tia­tive, which in­cludes the work of WHO/UNICEF Joint Mon­i­tor­ing Pro­gramme for Water Sup­ply and San­i­ta­tion (JMP), the in­ter-agency ini­tia­tive GEMI and UN-Wa­ter Global Analy­sis and As­sess­ment of San­i­ta­tion and Drink­ing-Wa­ter (GLAAS).

Campaigns Main articles: World Water Day and World Toilet Day

Every year, UN-Wa­ter co­or­di­nates the United Na­tions in­ter­na­tional ob­ser­vances on fresh­wa­ter and san­i­ta­tion: World Water Day and World Toi­let Day. De­pend­ing on the of­fi­cial UN theme of the cam­paign, they are led by one or more UN-Wa­ter Mem­bers and Part­ners with a re­lated man­date. On World Water Day, UN-Wa­ter re­leases the World Water De­vel­op­ment Re­port fo­cus­ing on the same topic as the cam­paign.++ Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/UN-Water or https://www.unwater.org/

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Water News from : Wiki News https://en.wikinews.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Search&search=water&ns0=1&ns14=1

Water definition from : Wiktionary https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/water

Water Quotation from: Wiki Quote https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Water

Water media from: Wiki Media https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Water

Water Text from : Wiki Books https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Search&search=water&ns0=1&ns4=1&ns102=1&ns110=1&ns112=1

Water Resources from Wiki Versity https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Water

Water How to …from Wiki How https://www.wikihow.com/wikiHowTo?search=water

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Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red).

Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red).

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Water

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Water

Water is an inorganictransparenttastelessodorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth‘s hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds.

“Water” is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fogClouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporationtranspiration (evapotranspiration), condensationprecipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.

Water covers 71% of the Earth‘s surface, mostly in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vaporclouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%).

Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agricultureFishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of the long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil, natural gas, and manufactured products) is transported by boats through seasriverslakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of substances both mineral and organic; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water, ice and snow are also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimmingpleasure boatingboat racingsurfingsport fishingdivingice skating and skiing.

Etymology

The word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar (source also of Old Saxon watarOld Frisian wetirDutch waterOld High German wazzarGerman WasserOld Norse vatnGothic wato), from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed- (“water”; “wet”). Also cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ (ýdor), Russian вода́ (vodá), Irish uisceAlbanian ujë.

History

Main articles: Origin of water on Earth § History of water on Earth, and Properties of water § History

Chemical and physical properties

Main article: Properties of waterSee also: Water (data page) and Water model

Water (H
2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the “universal solvent” for its ability to dissolve many substances. This allows it to be the “solvent of life”: indeed, water as found in nature almost always includes various dissolved substances, and special steps are required to obtain chemically pure water. Water is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in normal terrestrial conditions.

States

The three common states of matter

The three common states of matter

Along with oxidanewater is one of the two official names for the chemical compound H
2O; it is also the liquid phase of H
2O. The other two common states of matter of water are the solid phase, ice, and the gaseous phase, water vapor or steam. The addition or removal of heat can cause phase transitionsfreezing (water to ice), melting (ice to water), vaporization (water to vapor), condensation (vapor to water), sublimation (ice to vapor) and deposition (vapor to ice).

Density

Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes. In 1 atm pressure, it reaches its maximum density of 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 lb/cu ft) at 3.98 °C (39.16 °F). The density of ice is 917 kg/m3 (57.25 lb/cu ft), an expansion of 9%. This expansion can exert enormous pressure, bursting pipes and cracking rocks (see Frost weathering).

In a lake or ocean, water at 4 °C sinks to the bottom and ice forms on the surface, floating on the liquid water. This ice insulates the water below, preventing it from freezing solid. Without this protection, most aquatic organisms would perish during the winter.

Phase transitions

At a pressure of one atmosphere (atm), ice melts or water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F) and water boils or vapor condenses at 100 °C (212 °F). However, even below the boiling point, water can change to vapor at its surface by evaporation (vaporization throughout the liquid is known as boiling). Sublimation and deposition also occur on surfaces. For example, frost is deposited on cold surfaces while snowflakes form by deposition on an aerosol particle or ice nucleus. In the process of freeze-drying, a food is frozen and then stored at low pressure so the ice on its surface sublimates.

The melting and boiling points depend on pressure. A good approximation for the rate of change of the melting temperature with pressure is given by the Clausius–Clapeyron relation:{\displaystyle {\frac {dT}{dP}}={\frac {T\left(v_{\text{L}}-v_{\text{S}}\right)}{L_{\text{f}}}},}

where {\displaystyle v_{\text{L}}} and {\displaystyle v_{\text{G}}} are the molar volumes of the liquid and gas phases, and {\displaystyle L_{\text{f}}} is the molar latent heat of melting. In most substances, the volume increases when melting occurs, so the melting temperature increases with pressure. However, because ice is less dense than water, the melting temperature decreases. In glaciers, pressure melting can occur under sufficiently thick volumes of ice, resulting in subglacial lakes.

The Clausius-Clapeyron relation also applies to the boiling point, except now the vapor phase has a much lower density than the liquid phase, so the boiling point increases with pressure. Water can remain in a liquid state at high temperatures in the deep ocean or underground. For example, temperatures exceed 205 °C (401 °F) in Old Faithful, a geyser in Yellowstone National Park. In hydrothermal vents, the temperature can exceed 400 °C (752 °F).

At sea level, the boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F). As atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude, the boiling point decreases by 1 °C every 274 meters. High-altitude cooking takes longer than sea-level cooking. For example, at 1,524 metres (5,000 ft), cooking time must be increased by a fourth to achieve the desired result. (Conversely, a pressure cooker can be used to decrease cooking times by raising the boiling temperature.) In a vacuum, water will boil at room temperature.

Triple and critical points

Phase diagram of water simplified

On a pressure/temperature phase diagram (see figure), there are curves separating solid from vapor, vapor from liquid, and liquid from solid. These meet at a single point called the triple point, where all three phases can coexist. The triple point is at a temperature of 273.16 K (0.01 °C) and a pressure of 611.657 pascals (0.00604 atm); it is the lowest pressure at which liquid water can exist. Until 2019, the triple point was used to define the Kelvin temperature scale.

The water/vapor phase curve terminates at 647.096 K (373.946 °C; 705.103 °F) and 22.064 megapascals (3,200.1 psi; 217.75 atm). This is known as the critical point. At higher temperatures and pressures the liquid and vapor phases form a continuous phase called a supercritical fluid. It can be gradually compressed or expanded between gas-like and liquid-like densities, its properties (which are quite different from those of ambient water) are sensitive to density. For example, for suitable pressures and temperatures it can mix freely with nonpolar compounds, including most organic compounds. This makes it useful in a variety of applications including high-temperature electrochemistry and as an ecologically benign solvent or catalyst in chemical reactions involving organic compounds. In Earth’s mantle, it acts as a solvent during mineral formation, dissolution and deposition.

Phases of ice and water

The normal form of ice on the surface of Earth is Ice Ih, a phase that forms crystals with hexagonal symmetry. Another with cubic crystalline symmetryIce Ic, can occur in the upper atmosphere. As the pressure increases, ice forms other crystal structures. As of 2019, 17 have been experimentally confirmed and several more are predicted theoretically. When sandwiched between layers of graphene, ice forms a square lattice.

The details of the chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood; some theories suggest that its unusual behaviour is due to the existence of 2 liquid states.

Taste and odor

Pure water is usually described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths, and frogs are known to be able to smell it. However, water from ordinary sources (including bottled mineral water) usually has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid.

Color and appearance

Main article: color of waterSee also: electromagnetic absorption by water

Pure water is visibly blue due to absorption of light in the region ca. 600 nm – 800 nm. The color can be easily observed in a glass of tap-water placed against a pure white background, in daylight.The principal absorption bands responsible for the color are overtones of the O-H stretching vibrations. The apparent intensity of the color increases with the depth of the water column, following Beer’s law. This also applies, for example, with a swimming pool when the light source is sunlight reflected from the pool’s white tiles.

In nature, the color may also be modified from blue to green due to the presence of suspended solids or algae.

In industry, near-infrared spectroscopy is used with aqueous solutions as the greater intensity of the lower overtones of water means that glass cuvettes with short path-length may be employed. To observe the fundamental stretching absorption spectrum of water or of an aqueous solution in the region around 3500 cm−1 (2.85 μm) a path length of about 25 μm is needed. Also, the cuvette must be both transparent around 3500 cm−1 and insoluble in water; calcium fluoride is one material that is in common use for the cuvette windows with aqueous solutions.

The Raman-active fundamental vibrations may be observed with, for example, a 1 cm sample cell.

Aquatic plantsalgae, and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Practically no sunlight reaches the parts of the oceans below 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) of depth.

The refractive index of liquid water (1.333 at 20 °C (68 °F)) is much higher than that of air (1.0), similar to those of alkanes and ethanol, but lower than those of glycerol (1.473), benzene (1.501), carbon disulfide (1.627), and common types of glass (1.4 to 1.6). The refraction index of ice (1.31) is lower than that of liquid water.

Polar molecule

Tetrahedral structure of water

Tetrahedral structure of water

In a water molecule, the hydrogen atoms form a 104.5° angle with the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms are close to two corners of a tetrahedron centered on the oxygen. At the other two corners are lone pairs of valence electrons that do not participate in the bonding. In a perfect tetrahedron, the atoms would form a 109.5° angle, but the repulsion between the lone pairs is greater than the repulsion between the hydrogen atoms.

Other substances have a tetrahedral molecular structure, for example, methane (CH
4) and hydrogen sulfide (H
2S). However, oxygen is more electronegative (holds on to its electrons more tightly) than most other elements, so the oxygen atom retains a negative charge while the hydrogen atoms are positively charged. Along with the bent structure, this gives the molecule an electrical dipole moment and it is classified as a polar molecule.

Water is a good polar solvent, that dissolves many salts and hydrophilic organic molecules such as sugars and simple alcohols such as ethanol. Water also dissolves many gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide—the latter giving the fizz of carbonated beverages, sparkling wines and beers. In addition, many substances in living organisms, such as proteinsDNA and polysaccharides, are dissolved in water. The interactions between water and the subunits of these biomacromolecules shape protein foldingDNA base pairing, and other phenomena crucial to life (hydrophobic effect).

Many organic substances (such as fats and oils and alkanes) are hydrophobic, that is, insoluble in water. Many inorganic substances are insoluble too, including most metal oxidessulfides, and silicates.

Hydrogen bonding

See also: Chemical bonding of waterModel of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water.

Because of its polarity, a molecule of water in the liquid or solid state can form up to four hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. Hydrogen bonds are about ten times as strong as the Van der Waals force that attracts molecules to each other in most liquids. This is the reason why the melting and boiling points of water are much higher than those of other analogous compounds like hydrogen sulfide. They also explain its exceptionally high specific heat capacity (about 4.2 J/g/K), heat of fusion (about 333 J/g), heat of vaporization (2257 J/g), and thermal conductivity (between 0.561 and 0.679 W/m/K). These properties make water more effective at moderating Earth’s climate, by storing heat and transporting it between the oceans and the atmosphere. The hydrogen bonds of water are around 23 kJ/mol (compared to a covalent O-H bond at 492 kJ/mol). Of this, it is estimated that 90% is attributable to electrostatics, while the remaining 10% is partially covalent.

These bonds are the cause of water’s high surface tension and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees.

Self-ionisation

Main article: Self-ionisation of water

Water is a weak solution of hydronium hydroxide – there is an equilibrium 2H
2O ⇔ H
3O+
 + OH
, in combination with solvation of the resulting hydronium ions.

Electrical conductivity and electrolysis

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, which increases with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as common salt.

Liquid water can be split into the elements hydrogen and oxygen by passing an electric current through it—a process called electrolysis. The decomposition requires more energy input than the heat released by the inverse process (285.8 kJ/mol, or 15.9 MJ/kg).

Mechanical properties

Liquid water can be assumed to be incompressible for most purposes: its compressibility ranges from 4.4 to 5.1×10−10 Pa−1 in ordinary conditions. Even in oceans at 4 km depth, where the pressure is 400 atm, water suffers only a 1.8% decrease in volume.

The viscosity of water is about 10−3 Pa·s or 0.01 poise at 20 °C (68 °F), and the speed of sound in liquid water ranges between 1,400 and 1,540 meters per second (4,600 and 5,100 ft/s) depending on temperature. Sound travels long distances in water with little attenuation, especially at low frequencies (roughly 0.03 dB/km for 1 kHz), a property that is exploited by cetaceans and humans for communication and environment sensing (sonar).

Reactivity

Metallic elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen, particularly the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals such as lithiumsodiumcalciumpotassium and cesium displace hydrogen from water, forming hydroxides and releasing hydrogen. At high temperatures, carbon reacts with steam to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

On Earth

Main articles: Hydrology and Water distribution on Earth

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface; the oceans contain 96.5% of the Earth's water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earth's albedo.

Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface; the oceans contain 96.5% of the Earth’s water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earth’s albedo.

Water availability: fraction of population using improved water sources by country

Water availability: fraction of population using improved water sources by country

Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth. The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, of glaciers is glaciology, of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology.

The collective mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere. Earth’s approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1.386 × 109 cubic kilometers (3.33 × 108 cubic miles).

Liquid water is found in bodies of water, such as an ocean, sea, lake, river, stream, canal, pond, or puddle. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid, liquid, and vapor states. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers.

Water is important in many geological processes. Groundwater is present in most rocks, and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones. On the surface of the Earth, water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. Water, and to a lesser but still significant extent, ice, are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks, which make up the geologic record of Earth history.

Water cycle

Main article: Water cycle

Water cycle

Water cycle

The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere, between the atmospheresoil water, surface watergroundwater, and plants.

Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of the following transfer processes:

  • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into the air.
  • precipitation, from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to the earth or ocean.
  • runoff from the land usually reaching the sea.

Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans, but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea, about 47 Tt per year. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute another 72 Tt per year. Precipitation, at a rate of 119 Tt per year over land, has several forms: most commonly rain, snow, and hail, with some contribution from fog and dew. Dew is small drops of water that are condensed when a high density of water vapor meets a cool surface. Dew usually forms in the morning when the temperature is the lowest, just before sunrise and when the temperature of the earth’s surface starts to increase. Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows.

Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is a hydrological transport model. Some water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. Through erosion, runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. A flood occurs when an area of land, usually low-lying, is covered with water. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood comes from the sea. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation.

Fresh water storage

Main article: Water resources

Water occurs as both “stocks” and “flows.” Water can be stored as lakes, water vapor, groundwater or “aquifers,” and ice and snow. Of the total volume of global freshwater, an estimated 69 percent is stored in glaciers and permanent snow cover; 30 percent is in groundwater; and the remaining 1 percent in lakes, rivers, the atmosphere, and biota. The length of time water remains in storage is highly variable: some aquifers consist of water stored over thousands of years but lake volumes may fluctuate on a seasonal basis, decreasing during dry periods and increasing during wet ones. A substantial fraction of the water supply for some regions consists of water extracted from water stored in stocks, and when withdrawals exceed recharge, stocks decrease. By some estimates, as much as 30 percent of total water used for irrigation comes from unsustainable withdrawals of groundwater, causing groundwater depletion.

Sea water and tides

Main articles: Seawater and Tides

Sea water contains about 3.5% sodium chloride on average, plus smaller amounts of other substances. The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. It freezes at a lower temperature (about −1.9 °C (28.6 °F)) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the freezing point, instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4.0% in the Red Sea. (The Dead Sea, known for its ultra-high salinity levels of between 30–40%, is really a salt lake.)

Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides.The Bay of Fundy at high tide and low tide

Effects on life

Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red).

From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body’s solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g., starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g., glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Without water, these particular metabolic processes could not exist.

Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun’s energy to split off water’s hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun’s energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration).

Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as a hydroxide ion (OH) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7.

Aquatic life forms

Further information: HydrobiologyMarine life, and Aquatic plant

Earth surface waters are filled with life. The earliest life forms appeared in water; nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians, spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain.

Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways. Fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, otters, and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialization for respiration in water.

Effects on human civilization

Water fountain

Water fountain

Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the NileRome was also founded on the banks of the Italian river Tiber. Large metropolises like RotterdamLondonMontrealParisNew York CityBuenos AiresShanghaiTokyoChicago, and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development.

Health and pollution

An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water

An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water

Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation, or by a range of other methods.

Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful to humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water, or “safe for bathing”. Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water, and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.

In the US, non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as grey water, which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again, and blackwater, which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. Greywater composes 50–80% of residential wastewater generated by a household’s sanitation equipment (sinks, showers and kitchen runoff, but not toilets, which generate blackwater.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures.

This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places, and its availability is a major social and economic concern. Currently, about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. In 2000, the United Nations established the Millennium Development Goals for water to halve by 2015 the proportion of people worldwide without access to safe water and sanitation. Progress toward that goal was uneven, and in 2015 the UN committed to the following targets set by the Sustainable Development Goals of achieving universal access to safe and affordable water and sanitation by 2030. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some five million deaths a year are caused by water-related diseases. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1.4 million child deaths from diarrhoea each year.

Water is not an infinite resource (meaning the availability of water is limited), but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation.

In the developing world, 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams. Some 50 countries, with roughly a third of the world’s population, also suffer from medium or high water stress, and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles. The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes, but it also degrades groundwater resources.

Human uses

Further information: Water supplyTotal water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010.

Agriculture

The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation, which is a key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (in the United States, 42% of freshwater withdrawn for use is for irrigation).

Fifty years ago, the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. At the time, there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today, consumed fewer calories and ate less meat, so less water was needed to produce their food. They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. Today, the competition for the fixed amount of water resources is much more intense, giving rise to the concept of peak water. This is because there are now nearly eight billion people on the planet, their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising, and there is increasing competition for water from industry, urbanization and biofuel crops. In future, even more, water will be needed to produce food because the Earth’s population is forecast to rise to 9 billion by 2050.

An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population. It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity. It found that a fifth of the world’s people, more than 1.2 billion, live in areas of physical water scarcity, where there is not enough water to meet all demands. A further 1.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity, where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity make it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in future, but that continuation of today’s food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.

Water scarcity is also caused by production of cotton: 1 kg of cotton—equivalent of a pair of jeans—requires 10.9 cubic meters (380 cu ft) water to produce. While cotton accounts for 2.4% of world water use, the water is consumed in regions which are already at a risk of water shortage. Significant environmental damage has been caused, such as disappearance of the Aral Sea.

As a scientific standard

On 7 April 1795, the gram was defined in France to be equal to “the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice”. For practical purposes though, a metallic reference standard was required, one thousand times more massive, the kilogram. Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C (32 °F)—a highly reproducible temperature—the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density, which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F).

The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system was based on the triple point of water, defined as exactly 273.16 K (0.01 °C; 32.02 °F), but as of May 2019 is based on the Boltzmann constant instead. The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale, which was originally defined according to the boiling point (set to 100 °C (212 °F)) and melting point (set to 0 °C (32 °F)) of water.

Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16, but there is also a small quantity of heavier isotopes oxygen-18, oxygen-17, and hydrogen-2 (deuterium). The percentage of the heavier isotopes is very small, but it still affects the properties of water. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less heavy isotopes than seawater. Therefore, standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification.

For drinking

Main article: Drinking water

A young girl drinking bottled water

A young girl drinking bottled waterWater availability: fraction of population using improved water sources by country

The human body contains from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters (0.22 and 1.54 imp gal; 0.26 and 1.85 U.S. gal) of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though the British Dietetic Association advises that 2.5 liters of total water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration, including 1.8 liters (6 to 7 glasses) obtained directly from beverages. Medical literature favors a lower consumption, typically 1 liter of water for an average male, excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather.

Healthy kidneys can excrete 0.8 to 1 liter of water per hour, but stress such as exercise can reduce this amount. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration), which can be fatal. The popular claim that “a person should consume eight glasses of water per day” seems to have no real basis in science. Studies have shown that extra water intake, especially up to 500 milliliters (18 imp fl oz; 17 U.S. fl oz) at mealtime was conducive to weight loss. Adequate fluid intake is helpful in preventing constipation.Hazard symbol for non-potable water

An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Research Council read: “An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods.” The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended, based on the median total water intake from US survey data (including food sources): 3.7 liters (0.81 imp gal; 0.98 U.S. gal) for men and 2.7 liters (0.59 imp gal; 0.71 U.S. gal) of water total for women, noting that water contained in food provided approximately 19% of total water intake in the survey.

Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. The Institute of Medicine (US) recommends that, on average, men consume 3 liters (0.66 imp gal; 0.79 U.S. gal) and women 2.2 liters (0.48 imp gal; 0.58 U.S. gal); pregnant women should increase intake to 2.4 liters (0.53 imp gal; 0.63 U.S. gal) and breastfeeding women should get 3 liters (12 cups), since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing. Also noted is that normally, about 20% of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.

Humans require water with few impurities. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides, including copper, iron, calcium and lead, and/or harmful bacteria, such as Vibrio. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes.

The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia.

Washing

The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. Most of personal water use is due to showering, doing the laundry and dishwashing, reaching hundreds of liters per day per person in developed countries.

Transportation

Main article: Ship transport

The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy.

Chemical uses

Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water. In organic reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. Nevertheless, these properties are sometimes desirable. Also, acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. Water vapor is used for some processes in the chemical industry. An example is the production of acrylic acid from acrolein, propylene and propane. The possible effect of water in these reactions includes the physical-, chemical interaction of water with the catalyst and the chemical reaction of water with the reaction intermediates.

Heat exchange

Water and steam are a common fluid used for heat exchange, due to its availability and high heat capacity, both for cooling and heating. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. It’s especially effective to transport heat through vaporization and condensation of water because of its large latent heat of vaporization. A disadvantage is that metals commonly found in industries such as steel and copper are oxidized faster by untreated water and steam. In almost all thermal power stations, water is used as the working fluid (used in a closed loop between boiler, steam turbine and condenser), and the coolant (used to exchange the waste heat to a water body or carry it away by evaporation in a cooling tower). In the United States, cooling power plants is the largest use of water.

In the nuclear power industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator. In most nuclear reactors, water is both a coolant and a moderator. This provides something of a passive safety measure, as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down. However other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling.

Fire considerations

Water is used for fighting wildfires.

Water is used for fightingwildfires.

Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. It is dangerous to use water on fires involving oils and organic solvents, because many organic materials float on water and the water tends to spread the burning liquid.

Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion, which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces, and of a hydrogen explosion, when substances which react with water, such as certain metals or hot carbon such as coal, charcoal, or coke graphite, decompose the water, producing water gas.

The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster, although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor’s own water cooling system. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme overheating of the core caused water to flash into steam. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium.

Some metallic oxides, most notably those of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, produce so much heat on reaction with water that a fire hazard can develop. The alkaline earth oxide quicklime is a mass-produced substance which is often transported in paper bags. If these are soaked through, they may ignite as their contents react with water.

Recreation

Main article: Water sport (recreation)

San Andrés island, Colombia.

San Andrés islandColombia.

Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports. Some of these include swimming, waterskiingboatingsurfing and diving. In addition, some sports, like ice hockey and ice skating, are played on ice. Lakesides, beaches and water parks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Many find the sound and appearance of flowing water to be calming, and fountains and other water features are popular decorations. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans also use water for snow sports i.e. skiingsleddingsnowmobiling or snowboarding, which require the water to be frozen.

Water industry

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry. Water supply facilities include water wellscisterns for rainwater harvestingwater supply networks, and water purification facilities, water tankswater towerswater pipes including old aqueductsAtmospheric water generators are in development.

Drinking water is often collected at springs, extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground, or pumped from lakes and rivers. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water, assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Water may require purification for human consumption. This may involve removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material, while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosisDesalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates.

The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems, tanker delivery or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge.

Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. In some cities such as Hong Kong, sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources.

Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the polluter. Like other types of pollution, this does not enter standard accounting of market costs, being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution, while the private firms’ profits are not redistributed to the local population, victims of this pollution. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable.

Municipal and industrial wastewater are typically treated at wastewater treatment plants. Mitigation of polluted surface runoff is addressed through a variety of prevention and treatment techniques. (See Surface runoff#Mitigation and treatment.)

Industrial applications

Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances, or to wash products or process equipment. Processes such as miningchemical pulping, pulp bleaching, paper manufacturing, textile production, dyeing, printing, and cooling of power plants use large amounts of water, requiring a dedicated water source, and often cause significant water pollution.

Water is used in power generationHydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source. The energy is supplied by the motion of water. Typically a dam is constructed on a river, creating an artificial lake behind it. Water flowing out of the lake is forced through turbines that turn generators.

 Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydro-electric power station.

Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydro-electric power station.

Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Also, very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. It works very well, is relatively safe, and is not harmful to the environment. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent overheating, or prevent saw blades from overheating.

Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines, such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger, in addition to its use as a chemical solvent. Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge.

Food processing

Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles

Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles

Sterile water for injection

Sterile water for injection

Boilingsteaming, and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state, steam. Water is also used for dishwashing. Water also plays many critical roles within the field of food science.

Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes, as well as air pressure, which is in turn affected by altitude. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure that occurs at higher elevations. One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0.51 °C (0.918 °F), and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1.02 °C (1.836 °F); similarly, increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water’s freezing point.

Solutes in water also affect water activity that affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food. Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water. Solutes in water lower water activity—this is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity. Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food, but also the preservation and shelf life of food.

Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing and may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product, as well as playing a role in sanitation. Water hardness is classified based on concentration of calcium carbonate the water contains. Water is classified as soft if it contains less than 100 mg/l (UK) or less than 60 mg/l (US).

Hazard symbol for non-potable water

Hazard symbol for non-potable water

According to a report published by the Water Footprint organization in 2010, a single kilogram of beef requires 15 thousand liters (3.3×103 imp gal; 4.0×103 U.S. gal) of water; however, the authors also make clear that this is a global average and circumstantial factors determine the amount of water used in beef production.

Medical use

Water for injection is on the World Health Organization’s list of essential medicines.

Distribution in nature

In the universe

Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.[107]

Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.

Much of the universe’s water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. The formation of stars is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas.

On 22 July 2011, a report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing “140 trillion times more water than all of Earth’s oceans combined” around a quasar located 12 billion light years from Earth. According to the researchers, the “discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence”.

Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy, the Milky Way. Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies, too, because its components, hydrogen and oxygen, are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Based on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System and that of other star systems, most other planetary systems are likely to have similar ingredients.

Water vapor

Water is present as vapor in:

Liquid water

Liquid water is present on Earth, covering 71% of its surface. Liquid water is also occasionally present in small amounts on Mars. Scientists believe liquid water is present in the Saturnian moons of Enceladus, as a 10-kilometre thick ocean approximately 30–40 kilometres below Enceladus’ south polar surface, and Titan, as a subsurface layer, possibly mixed with ammonia. Jupiter’s moon Europa has surface characteristics which suggest a subsurface liquid water ocean. Liquid water may also exist on Jupiter’s moon Ganymede as a layer sandwiched between high pressure ice and rock.

Water ice

Water is present as ice on:

South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000

South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000

And is also likely present on:

Exotic forms

Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and deeper still as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float about freely within the oxygen lattice.

Water and habitable zone

Further information: Water distribution on Earth

The existence of liquid water, and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms, on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the Solar System; if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%, or about 8 million kilometers), the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.

Earth’s gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were smaller, a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes, thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars).

The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation), indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth’s temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis.

The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure, which is determined by the planet’s gravity. If a planet is sufficiently massive, the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures, because of the high pressure caused by gravity, as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b and GJ 1214 b.

Law, politics, and crisis

Main articles: Water lawWater right, and Water crisisAn estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000

Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. For this reason, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity.

Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability. A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.

1.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990. The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970 to 71% in 1990, 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004.

A 2006 United Nations report stated that “there is enough water for everyone”, but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption. In addition, global initiatives to improve the efficiency of aid delivery, such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health, potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act.

The authors of the 2007 Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture cited poor governance as one reason for some forms of water scarcity. Water governance is the set of formal and informal processes through which decisions related to water management are made. Good water governance is primarily about knowing what processes work best in a particular physical and socioeconomic context. Mistakes have sometimes been made by trying to apply ‘blueprints’ that work in the developed world to developing world locations and contexts. The Mekong river is one example; a review by the International Water Management Institute of policies in six countries that rely on the Mekong river for water found that thorough and transparent cost-benefit analyses and environmental impact assessments were rarely undertaken. They also discovered that Cambodia’s draft water law was much more complex than it needed to be.

The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that, in the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world’s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. More than 2.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought. In 2004, the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases; often this means lack of sewage disposal.

Organizations concerned with water protection include the International Water Association (IWA), WaterAidWater 1st, and the American Water Resources Association. The International Water Management Institute undertakes projects with the aim of using effective water management to reduce poverty. Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ShipsUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar ConventionWorld Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Oceans Day on 8 June.

In culture

Religion

Main article: Water and religion

People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water

People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda SillasieEthiopia) to wash in holy water

Water is considered a purifier in most religions. Faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include ChristianityHinduismIslamJudaism, the Rastafari movementShintoTaoism, and Wicca. Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism); it is also a part of the practice of other religions, including Islam (Ghusl), Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). In addition, a ritual bath in pure water is performed for the dead in many religions including Islam and Judaism. In Islam, the five daily prayers can be done in most cases after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu), unless water is unavailable (see Tayammum). In Shinto, water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e.g., in the ritual of misogi).

In Christianity, holy water is water that has been sanctified by a priest for the purpose of baptism, the blessing of persons, places, and objects, or as a means of repelling evil.

In Zoroastrianism, water (āb) is respected as the source of life.

Philosophy

The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire, earth and air, and was regarded as the ylem, or basic substance of the universe. Thales, who was portrayed by Aristotle as an astronomer and an engineer, theorized that the earth, which is denser than water, emerged from the water. Thales, a monist, believed further that all things are made from water. Plato believed the shape of water is an icosahedron which accounts for why it is able to flow easily compared to the cube-shaped earth.

In the theory of the four bodily humors, water was associated with phlegm, as being cold and moist. The classical element of water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy, along with earthfirewood, and metal.

Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophyJames Legge‘s 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states, “The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying, without striving (to the contrary), the low place which all men dislike. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao” and “There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water, and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed.” Guanzi in the “Shui di” 水地 chapter further elaborates on the symbolism of water, proclaiming that “man is water” and attributing natural qualities of the people of different Chinese regions to the character of local water resources.

Dihydrogen monoxide parody

Main article: Dihydrogen monoxide parody

Water’s technically correct but rarely used chemical name, “dihydrogen monoxide”, has been used in a series of hoaxes and pranks that mock scientific illiteracy. This began in 1983, when an April Fools’ Day article appeared in a newspaper in Durand, Michigan. The false story consisted of safety concerns about the substance.

See also

Main article: Outline of water

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Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Barcelona, Spain
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Irrigation of field crops

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