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80 Small Garden and Flower Design Ideas 2018 – Amazing Small garden house decoration by TSK-24
Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Kindle Edition
by Christopher Brickell (Author)
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An updated edition of the best-selling highly illustrated garden plant reference, featuring more than 8,000 plants and 4,000 photographs.
Choose the right plants for your garden and find all the inspiration and guidance you need with the Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers. Drawing on expert advice from the RHS, this best-selling book features a photographic catalogue of more than 4,000 plants and flowers, all organized by color, size, and type, to help you select the right varieties for your outdoor space. Discover perennials, bulbs, shrubs, and trees, succulents, and ornamental shrubs, all showcased in beautiful, full-color photography. Browse this photographic catalogue to find at-a-glance plant choice inspiration. Or use the extensive plant dictionary to look up more than 8,000 plant varieties and the best growing conditions.
This new edition features the latest and most popular cultivars, with more than 1,380 new plants added, as well as updated photography, comprehensive hardiness ratings, and a brand-new introduction. Fully comprehensive yet easy to use, the Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers is the inspirational, informative guide every gardener needs on their bookshelf. +++++++++++++++++++++++
A unique guide to the extraordinary world of plants, from the smallest seeds to the tallest trees.
We couldn’t live without plants. We need them for food, shelter, and even the air we breathe, yet we know surprisingly little about them. Why do thistles bristle with spines? How do some plants trap and eat insects? Did you know there are trees that are 5,000 years old? Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds explores the mysterious world of plants to find the answers to these and many more questions.
Each type of plant–such as a flowering plant, tree, grass, or cactus–is examined close up, with an example shown from all angles and even in cross section, to highlight the key parts. Then picture-packed galleries show the wonderful variety of plants on different themes, perhaps the habitat they grow in, a flower family, or the plants that supply us with our staple foods. But the book also takes a fun look at some truly weird and wonderful plants, including trees with fruits like a giant’s fingers, orchids that look like monkey faces, seeds that spin like helicopters, and trees that drip poison.
So open this beautiful book and find out more about amazing Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds.
Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location: Featuring More Than 3,000 Plants Kindle EditionKindersley Dorling
Including more than 2,000 recommendations from gardening experts, Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location includes planting suggestions for over 30 types of sites, from notoriously dry ground by a hedge or fence to cracks in walls or paving, explains how to assess site and soil, and presents a stunning range of plant partners and planting schemes.
Produced in association with the Smithsonian Institution, whose Smithsonian’s Gardens creates and manages the Smithsonian’s outdoor gardens, interiorscapes, and horticulture-related collections and exhibits, Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location is the perfect book for gardeners looking to make the most out of their plot.
Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long, 2nd Edition
by Eliot Colman, Barbara Damrosch, et al. | Sold by: Amazon.com Services LLCKindle Edition$11.11
Top 25 Most Beautiful Flowers in the World TSK-24
Here are 25 most beautiful flowers in the world: 1. Rose 2. Tulips 3. Orchids 4. Sunflower 5. Lilies 6. Daffodils 7. Marigold 8. Lotus 9. Dahlia 10. Gladioli 11. Carnations 12. Chrysanthemums 13. Apple blossom 14. Camellia 15. Iris 16. Lilac 17. Peony 18. Sweet pea 19. Magnolia 20. Lavender 21. Ranunculus 22. Stock 23. Statice 24. Proteas 25. Poinsettia
Top 10 Most Expensive Flowers | Beautiful Flowers World OF Top 10
https://youtu.be/tnGvp4trCiY Flowers have been a part of all kinds of occasions – bouquets during Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day, decorations during a wedding, or the simple daily hobby of gardening. Flowers fill our lives in the most stunning ways. Even if most flowers are very affordable (maybe a few dollars for a bouquet), some people will go the extremes to lay hands on the rarest, most beautiful flowers the world has seen Flowers are one of the most natural beauties of the world. They are also one of the most preferred gifts for loved ones. For women, Flowers are the all-time favorite. Flowers have been a part of all kinds of occasions – bouquets during Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day, decorations during a wedding, or the simple daily hobby of gardening. Flowers fill our lives in the most stunning ways. That is why men gift flowers to their partners. To win the heart of your girl, it may not cost you much but some people will go the extremes to lay hands on the rarest, most beautiful flowers the world has seen if you are planning to gift her below mentioned flowers, then you must think twice before making a plan! From rare orchids to a flower that lives for just a few hours, here’s a list of the 10 most expensive flowers in the world. Top 10 Most Expensive Flowers. 10. Lisianthus 9. LILY of the Valley 8. Hydrangea 7. Gloriosa Lily 6. 17th century Tulip Bulb 5. Saffron Crocus 4. Gold of Kinabalu Orchid 3. Shenzhen Nongke Orchid 2. Juliet Rose 1. Kadupul flower
This is about as calming as you can get and still have some sound. Listen and Enjoy beautiful, relaxing ambient music full of nature serenity in various videos to relax, meditate, go to sleep or as a yoga background.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Flowers
Flowers in the Netherlands.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to affect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) resulting from cross pollination or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower) when self pollination occurs.
Pollination have two types which is self-pollination and cross-pollination. Self-pollination happened when the pollen from the anther is deposited on the stigma of the same flower, or another flower on the same plant. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different individual of the same species. Self-pollination happened in flowers where the stamen and carpel mature at the same time, and are positioned so that the pollen can land on the flower’s stigma. This pollination does not require an investment from the plant to provide nectar and pollen as food for pollinators.
Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds.
In addition to facilitating the reproduction of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans to bring beauty to their environment, and also as objects of romance, ritual, religion, medicine and as a source of food.
- 1 Morphology
- 2 Development
- 3 Floral function
- 4 Pollination
- 5 Seed dispersal
- 6 Evolution
- 7 Color
- 8 Symbolism
- 9 Human usage
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
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Main parts of a mature flower (Ranunculus glaberrimus).Diagram of flower parts.
The essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts: the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, and the reproductive or sexual parts. A stereotypical flower consists of four kinds of structures attached to the tip of a short stalk. Each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the receptacle. The four main whorls (starting from the base of the flower or lowest node and working upwards) are as follows:
Collectively the calyx and corolla form the perianth (see diagram).
- Calyx: the outermost whorl consisting of units called sepals; these are typically green and enclose the rest of the flower in the bud stage, however, they can be absent or prominent and petal-like in some species.
- Corolla: the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are typically thin, soft and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.
Reproductive parts of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum). 1. Stigma, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Filament, 5. Petal
- Androecium (from Greek andros oikia: man’s house): the next whorl (sometimes multiplied into several whorls), consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts: a stalk called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis and eventually dispersed.
- Gynoecium (from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman’s house): the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels. The carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes. These give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is also described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl (consisting of an ovary, style and stigma) is called a pistil. A pistil may consist of a single carpel or a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous (beneath a superior ovary), perigynous (surrounding a superior ovary), or epigynous (above inferior ovary).
Although the arrangement described above is considered “typical”, plant species show a wide variation in floral structure. These modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species.
The four main parts of a flower are generally defined by their positions on the receptacle and not by their function. Many flowers lack some parts or parts may be modified into other functions and/or look like what is typically another part. In some families, like Ranunculaceae, the petals are greatly reduced and in many species the sepals are colorful and petal-like. Other flowers have modified stamens that are petal-like; the double flowers of Peonies and Roses are mostly petaloid stamens. Flowers show great variation and plant scientists describe this variation in a systematic way to identify and distinguish species.
Specific terminology is used to describe flowers and their parts. Many flower parts are fused together; fused parts originating from the same whorl are connate, while fused parts originating from different whorls are adnate; parts that are not fused are free. When petals are fused into a tube or ring that falls away as a single unit, they are sympetalous (also called gamopetalous). Connate petals may have distinctive regions: the cylindrical base is the tube, the expanding region is the throat and the flaring outer region is the limb. A sympetalous flower, with bilateral symmetry with an upper and lower lip, is bilabiate. Flowers with connate petals or sepals may have various shaped corolla or calyx, including campanulate, funnelform, tubular, urceolate, salverform or rotate.
Referring to “fusion,” as it is commonly done, appears questionable because at least some of the processes involved may be non-fusion processes. For example, the addition of intercalary growth at or below the base of the primordia of floral appendages such as sepals, petals, stamens and carpels may lead to a common base that is not the result of fusion.
Left: A normal zygomorphic Streptocarpus flower. Right: An aberrant peloric Streptocarpus flower. Both of these flowers appeared on the Streptocarpus hybrid ‘Anderson’s Crows’ Wings’.
Many flowers have a symmetry. When the perianth is bisected through the central axis from any point and symmetrical halves are produced, the flower is said to be actinomorphic or regular, e.g. rose or trillium. This is an example of radial symmetry. When flowers are bisected and produce only one line that produces symmetrical halves, the flower is said to be irregular or zygomorphic, e.g. snapdragon or most orchids.
Flowers may be directly attached to the plant at their base (sessile—the supporting stalk or stem is highly reduced or absent). The stem or stalk subtending a flower is called a peduncle. If a peduncle supports more than one flower, the stems connecting each flower to the main axis are called pedicels. The apex of a flowering stem forms a terminal swelling which is called the torus or receptacle.
The familiar calla lily is not a single flower. It is actually an inflorescence of tiny flowers pressed together on a central stalk that is surrounded by a large petal-like bract.Main article: Inflorescence
In those species that have more than one flower on an axis, the collective cluster of flowers is termed an inflorescence. Some inflorescences are composed of many small flowers arranged in a formation that resembles a single flower. The common example of this is most members of the very large composite (Asteraceae) group. A single daisy or sunflower, for example, is not a flower but a flower head—an inflorescence composed of numerous flowers (or florets). An inflorescence may include specialized stems and modified leaves known as bracts.
Floral diagrams and floral formulae
A floral formula is a way to represent the structure of a flower using specific letters, numbers and symbols, presenting substantial information about the flower in a compact form. It can represent a taxon, usually giving ranges of the numbers of different organs, or particular species. Floral formulae have been developed in the early 19th century and their use has declined since. Prenner et al. (2010) devised an extension of the existing model to broaden the descriptive capability of the formula. The format of floral formulae differs in different parts of the world, yet they convey the same information.
The structure of a flower can also be expressed by the means of floral diagrams. The use of schematic diagrams can replace long descriptions or complicated drawings as a tool for understanding both floral structure and evolution. Such diagrams may show important features of flowers, including the relative positions of the various organs, including the presence of fusion and symmetry, as well as structural details.
A flower develops on a modified shoot or axis from a determinate apical meristem (determinate meaning the axis grows to a set size). It has compressed internodes, bearing structures that in classical plant morphology are interpreted as highly modified leaves. Detailed developmental studies, however, have shown that stamens are often initiated more or less like modified stems (caulomes) that in some cases may even resemble branchlets. Taking into account the whole diversity in the development of the androecium of flowering plants, we find a continuum between modified leaves (phyllomes), modified stems (caulomes), and modified branchlets (shoots).
The transition to flowering is one of the major phase changes that a plant makes during its life cycle. The transition must take place at a time that is favorable for fertilization and the formation of seeds, hence ensuring maximal reproductive success. To meet these needs a plant is able to interpret important endogenous and environmental cues such as changes in levels of plant hormones and seasonable temperature and photoperiod changes. Many perennial and most biennial plants require vernalization to flower. The molecular interpretation of these signals is through the transmission of a complex signal known as florigen, which involves a variety of genes, including Constans, Flowering Locus C and Flowering Locus T. Florigen is produced in the leaves in reproductively favorable conditions and acts in buds and growing tips to induce a number of different physiological and morphological changes.
The first step of the transition is the transformation of the vegetative stem primordia into floral primordia. This occurs as biochemical changes take place to change cellular differentiation of leaf, bud and stem tissues into tissue that will grow into the reproductive organs. Growth of the central part of the stem tip stops or flattens out and the sides develop protuberances in a whorled or spiral fashion around the outside of the stem end. These protuberances develop into the sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Once this process begins, in most plants, it cannot be reversed and the stems develop flowers, even if the initial start of the flower formation event was dependent of some environmental cue. Once the process begins, even if that cue is removed the stem will continue to develop a flower.
Yvonne Aitken has shown that flowering transition depends on a number of factors, and that plants flowering earliest under given conditions had the least dependence on climate whereas later-flowering varieties reacted strongly to the climate setup.
Main article: ABC model of flower developmentThe ABC model of flower development
The molecular control of floral organ identity determination appears to be fairly well understood in some species. In a simple model, three gene activities interact in a combinatorial manner to determine the developmental identities of the organ primordia within the floral meristem. These gene functions are called A, B and C-gene functions. In the first floral whorl only A-genes are expressed, leading to the formation of sepals. In the second whorl both A- and B-genes are expressed, leading to the formation of petals. In the third whorl, B and C genes interact to form stamens and in the center of the flower C-genes alone give rise to carpels. The model is based upon studies of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana and snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus. For example, when there is a loss of B-gene function, mutant flowers are produced with sepals in the first whorl as usual, but also in the second whorl instead of the normal petal formation. In the third whorl the lack of B function but presence of C-function mimics the fourth whorl, leading to the formation of carpels also in the third whorl.
See also: Plant reproductive morphology
A “perfect flower”, this Crateva religiosa flower has both stamens (outer ring) and a pistil (center).
The principal purpose of a flower is the reproduction of the individual and the species. All flowering plants are heterosporous, that is, every individual plant produces two types of spores. Microspores are produced by meiosis inside anthers and megaspores are produced inside ovules that are within an ovary. Anthers typically consist of four microsporangia and an ovule is an integumented megasporangium. Both types of spores develop into gametophytes inside sporangia. As with all heterosporous plants, the gametophytes also develop inside the spores, i. e., they are endosporic.
In the majority of plant species, individual flowers have both functional carpels and stamens. Botanists describe these flowers as “perfect” or “bisexual”, and the species as “hermaphroditic“. In a minority of plant species, their flowers lack one or the other reproductive organ and are described as “imperfect” or “unisexual”. If the individual plants of a species each have unisexual flowers of both sexes then the species is “monoecious“. Alternatively, if each individual plant has only unisexual flowers of the same sex then the species is “dioecious“.
Floral specialization and pollination
Further information: Pollination syndrome
Flowering plants usually face selective pressure to optimize the transfer of their pollen, and this is typically reflected in the morphology of the flowers and the behaviour of the plants. Pollen may be transferred between plants via a number of ‘vectors’. Some plants make use of abiotic vectors — namely wind (anemophily) or, much less commonly, water (hydrophily). Others use biotic vectors including insects (entomophily), birds (ornithophily), bats (chiropterophily) or other animals. Some plants make use of multiple vectors, but many are highly specialised.
Cleistogamous flowers are self-pollinated, after which they may or may not open. Many Viola and some Salvia species are known to have these types of flowers.
The flowers of plants that make use of biotic pollen vectors commonly have glands called nectaries that act as an incentive for animals to visit the flower. Some flowers have patterns, called nectar guides, that show pollinators where to look for nectar. Flowers also attract pollinators by scent and color. Still other flowers use mimicry to attract pollinators. Some species of orchids, for example, produce flowers resembling female bees in color, shape, and scent. Flowers are also specialized in shape and have an arrangement of the stamens that ensures that pollen grains are transferred to the bodies of the pollinator when it lands in search of its attractant (such as nectar, pollen, or a mate). In pursuing this attractant from many flowers of the same species, the pollinator transfers pollen to the stigmas—arranged with equally pointed precision—of all of the flowers it visits.
Anemophilous flowers use the wind to move pollen from one flower to the next. Examples include grasses, birch trees, ragweed and maples. They have no need to attract pollinators and therefore tend not to be “showy” flowers. Male and female reproductive organs are generally found in separate flowers, the male flowers having a number of long filaments terminating in exposed stamens, and the female flowers having long, feather-like stigmas. Whereas the pollen of animal-pollinated flowers tends to be large-grained, sticky, and rich in protein (another “reward” for pollinators), anemophilous flower pollen is usually small-grained, very light, and of little nutritional value to animals.
Main article: Pollination
Grains of pollen sticking to this bee will be transferred to the next flower it visits
The primary purpose of a flower is reproduction. Since the flowers are the reproductive organs of plant, they mediate the joining of the sperm, contained within pollen, to the ovules — contained in the ovary. Pollination is the movement of pollen from the anthers to the stigma. The joining of the sperm to the ovules is called fertilization. Normally pollen is moved from one plant to another, but many plants are able to self pollinate. The fertilized ovules produce seeds that are the next generation. Sexual reproduction produces genetically unique offspring, allowing for adaptation. Flowers have specific designs which encourages the transfer of pollen from one plant to another of the same species. Many plants are dependent upon external factors for pollination, including: wind and animals, and especially insects. Even large animals such as birds, bats, and pygmy possums can be employed. The period of time during which this process can take place (the flower is fully expanded and functional) is called anthesis. The study of pollination by insects is called anthecology.
The pollination mechanism employed by a plant depends on what method of pollination is utilized.
Most flowers can be divided between two broad groups of pollination methods:
Entomophilous: flowers attract and use insects, bats, birds or other animals to transfer pollen from one flower to the next. Often they are specialized in shape and have an arrangement of the stamens that ensures that pollen grains are transferred to the bodies of the pollinator when it lands in search of its attractant (such as nectar, pollen, or a mate). In pursuing this attractant from many flowers of the same species, the pollinator transfers pollen to the stigmas—arranged with equally pointed precision—of all of the flowers it visits. Many flowers rely on simple proximity between flower parts to ensure pollination. Others, such as the Sarracenia or lady-slipper orchids, have elaborate designs to ensure pollination while preventing self-pollination.Grass flower with vestigial perianth or lodicules
Anemophilous: flowers use the wind to move pollen from one flower to the next, examples include the grasses, Birch trees, Ragweed and Maples. They have no need to attract pollinators and therefore tend not to grow large blossoms. Whereas the pollen of entomophilous flowers tends to be large-grained, sticky, and rich in protein (another “reward” for pollinators), anemophilous flower pollen is usually small-grained, very light, and of little nutritional value to insects, though it may still be gathered in times of dearth. Honeybees and bumblebees actively gather anemophilous corn (maize) pollen, though it is of little value to them.
Some flowers with both stamens and a pistil are capable of self-fertilization, which does increase the chance of producing seeds but limits genetic variation. The extreme case of self-fertilization occurs in flowers that always self-fertilize, such as many dandelions. Some flowers are self-pollinated and use flowers that never open or are self-pollinated before the flowers open, these flowers are called cleistogamous. Many Viola species and some Salvia have these types of flowers. Conversely, many species of plants have ways of preventing self-fertilization. Unisexual male and female flowers on the same plant may not appear or mature at the same time, or pollen from the same plant may be incapable of fertilizing its ovules. The latter flower types, which have chemical barriers to their own pollen, are referred to as self-sterile or self-incompatible.
A Bee orchid has evolved over many generations to better mimic a female bee to attract male bees as pollinators.
Plants cannot move from one location to another, thus many flowers have evolved to attract animals to transfer pollen between individuals in dispersed populations. Flowers that are insect-pollinated are called entomophilous; literally “insect-loving” in Greek. They can be highly modified along with the pollinating insects by co-evolution. Flowers commonly have glands called nectaries on various parts that attract animals looking for nutritious nectar. Birds and bees have color vision, enabling them to seek out “colorful” flowers.
Some flowers have patterns, called nectar guides, that show pollinators where to look for nectar; they may be visible only under ultraviolet light, which is visible to bees and some other insects. Flowers also attract pollinators by scent and some of those scents are pleasant to our sense of smell. Not all flower scents are appealing to humans; a number of flowers are pollinated by insects that are attracted to rotten flesh and have flowers that smell like dead animals, often called Carrion flowers, including Rafflesia, the titan arum, and the North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Flowers pollinated by night visitors, including bats and moths, are likely to concentrate on scent to attract pollinators and most such flowers are white.
Other flowers use mimicry to attract pollinators. Some species of orchids, for example, produce flowers resembling female bees in color, shape, and scent. Male bees move from one such flower to another in search of a mate.
Many flowers have close relationships with one or a few specific pollinating organisms. Many flowers, for example, attract only one specific species of insect, and therefore rely on that insect for successful reproduction. This close relationship is often given as an example of coevolution, as the flower and pollinator are thought to have developed together over a long period of time to match each other’s needs.
This close relationship compounds the negative effects of extinction. The extinction of either member in such a relationship would mean almost certain extinction of the other member as well. Some endangered plant species are so because of shrinking pollinator populations.
There is much confusion about the role of flowers in allergies. For example, the showy and entomophilous goldenrod (Solidago) is frequently blamed for respiratory allergies, of which it is innocent, since its pollen cannot be airborne. The types of pollen that most commonly cause allergic reactions are produced by the plain-looking plants (trees, grasses, and weeds) that do not have showy flowers. These plants make small, light, dry pollen grains that are custom-made for wind transport.
The type of allergens in the pollen is the main factor that determines whether the pollen is likely to cause hay fever. For example, pine tree pollen is produced in large amounts by a common tree, which would make it a good candidate for causing allergy. It is, however, a relatively rare cause of allergy because the types of allergens in pine pollen appear to make it less allergenic. Instead the allergen is usually the pollen of the contemporary bloom of anemophilous ragweed (Ambrosia), which can drift for many miles. Scientists have collected samples of ragweed pollen 400 miles out at sea and 2 miles high in the air. A single ragweed plant can generate a million grains of pollen per day.
Among North American plants, weeds are the most prolific producers of allergenic pollen. Ragweed is the major culprit, but other important sources are sagebrush, redroot pigweed, lamb’s quarters, Russian thistle (tumbleweed), and English plantain.
It is common to hear people say they are allergic to colorful or scented flowers like roses. In fact, only florists, gardeners, and others who have prolonged, close contact with flowers are likely to be sensitive to pollen from these plants. Most people have little contact with the large, heavy, waxy pollen grains of such flowering plants because this type of pollen is not carried by wind but by insects such as butterflies and bees.
Main article: Biological dispersal
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(See also: Human timeline, and Nature timeline.)Further information: Evolution of flowers and Floral biology
While land plants have existed for about 425 million years, the first ones reproduced by a simple adaptation of their aquatic counterparts: spores. In the sea, plants—and some animals—can simply scatter out genetic clones of themselves to float away and grow elsewhere. This is how early plants reproduced. But plants soon evolved methods of protecting these copies to deal with drying out and other damage which is even more likely on land than in the sea. The protection became the seed, though it had not yet evolved the flower. Early seed-bearing plants include the ginkgo and conifers.
Archaefructus liaoningensis, one of the earliest known flowering plants
Several groups of extinct gymnosperms, particularly seed ferns, have been proposed as the ancestors of flowering plants but there is no continuous fossil evidence showing exactly how flowers evolved. The apparently sudden appearance of relatively modern flowers in the fossil record posed such a problem for the theory of evolution that it was called an “abominable mystery” by Charles Darwin.
Recently discovered angiosperm fossils such as Archaefructus, along with further discoveries of fossil gymnosperms, suggest how angiosperm characteristics may have been acquired in a series of steps. An early fossil of a flowering plant, Archaefructus liaoningensis from China, is dated about 125 million years old. Even earlier from China is the 125–130 million years old Archaefructus sinensis. In 2015 a plant (130 million-year-old Montsechia vidalii, discovered in Spain) was claimed to be 130 million years old. In 2018, scientists reported that the earliest flowers began about 180 million years ago.
Amborella trichopoda may have characteristic features of the earliest flowering plants
Recent DNA analysis (molecular systematics) shows that Amborella trichopoda, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, is the only species in the sister group to the rest of the flowering plants, and morphological studies suggest that it has features which may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.
Besides the hard proof of flowers in or shortly before the Cretaceous, there is some circumstantial evidence of flowers as much as 250 million years ago. A chemical used by plants to defend their flowers, oleanane, has been detected in fossil plants that old, including gigantopterids, which evolved at that time and bear many of the traits of modern, flowering plants, though they are not known to be flowering plants themselves, because only their stems and prickles have been found preserved in detail; one of the earliest examples of petrification.
The similarity in leaf and stem structure can be very important, because flowers are genetically just an adaptation of normal leaf and stem components on plants, a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots. The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a variable number of flower parts, often separate from (but in contact with) each other. The flowers would have tended to grow in a spiral pattern, to be bisexual (in plants, this means both male and female parts on the same flower), and to be dominated by the ovary (female part). As flowers grew more advanced, some variations developed parts fused together, with a much more specific number and design, and with either specific sexes per flower or plant, or at least “ovary inferior”.
The general assumption is that the function of flowers, from the start, was to involve animals in the reproduction process. Pollen can be scattered without bright colors and obvious shapes, which would therefore be a liability, using the plant’s resources, unless they provide some other benefit. One proposed reason for the sudden, fully developed appearance of flowers is that they evolved in an isolated setting like an island, or chain of islands, where the plants bearing them were able to develop a highly specialized relationship with some specific animal (a wasp, for example), the way many island species develop today. This symbiotic relationship, with a hypothetical wasp bearing pollen from one plant to another much the way fig wasps do today, could have eventually resulted in both the plant(s) and their partners developing a high degree of specialization. Island genetics is believed to be a common source of speciation, especially when it comes to radical adaptations which seem to have required inferior transitional forms. Note that the wasp example is not incidental; bees, apparently evolved specifically for symbiotic plant relationships, are descended from wasps.
Likewise, most fruit used in plant reproduction comes from the enlargement of parts of the flower. This fruit is frequently a tool which depends upon animals wishing to eat it, and thus scattering the seeds it contains.
While many such symbiotic relationships remain too fragile to survive competition with mainland organisms, flowers proved to be an unusually effective means of production, spreading (whatever their actual origin) to become the dominant form of land plant life.
Flower evolution continues to the present day; modern flowers have been so profoundly influenced by humans that many of them cannot be pollinated in nature. Many modern, domesticated flowers used to be simple weeds, which only sprouted when the ground was disturbed. Some of them tended to grow with human crops, and the prettiest did not get plucked because of their beauty, developing a dependence upon and special adaptation to human affection.
See also: Color gardenReflectance spectra for the flowers of several varieties of rose. A red rose absorbs about 99.7% of light across a broad area below the red wavelengths of the spectrum, leading to an exceptionally pure red. A yellow rose will reflect about 5% of blue light, producing an unsaturated yellow (a yellow with a degree of white in it).
Many flowering plants reflect as much light as possible within the range of visible wavelengths of the pollinator the plant intends to attract. Flowers that reflect the full range of visible light are generally perceived as white by a human observer. An important feature of white flowers is that they reflect equally across the visible spectrum. While many flowering plants use white to attract pollinators, the use of color is also widespread (even within the same species). Color allows a flowering plant to be more specific about the pollinator it seeks to attract. The color model used by human color reproduction technology (CMYK) relies on the modulation of pigments that divide the spectrum into broad areas of absorption. Flowering plants by contrast are able to shift the transition point wavelength between absorption and reflection. If it is assumed that the visual systems of most pollinators view the visible spectrum as circular then it may be said that flowering plants produce color by absorbing the light in one region of the spectrum and reflecting the light in the other region. With CMYK, color is produced as a function of the amplitude of the broad regions of absorption. Flowering plants by contrast produce color by modifying the frequency (or rather wavelength) of the light reflected. Most flowers absorb light in the blue to yellow region of the spectrum and reflect light from the green to red region of the spectrum. For many species of flowering plant, it is the transition point that characterizes the color that they produce. Color may be modulated by shifting the transition point between absorption and reflection and in this way a flowering plant may specify which pollinator it seeks to attract. Some flowering plants also have a limited ability to modulate areas of absorption. This is typically not as precise as control over wavelength. Humans observers will perceive this as degrees of saturation (the amount of white in the color).
- Red roses are given as a symbol of love, beauty, and passion.
- Poppies are a symbol of consolation in time of death. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and Canada, red poppies are worn to commemorate soldiers who have died in times of war.
- Irises/Lily are used in burials as a symbol referring to “resurrection/life”. It is also associated with stars (sun) and its petals blooming/shining.
- Daisies are a symbol of innocence.
Because of their varied and colorful appearance, flowers have long been a favorite subject of visual artists as well. Some of the most celebrated paintings from well-known painters are of flowers, such as Van Gogh‘s sunflowers series or Monet‘s water lilies. Flowers are also dried, freeze dried and pressed in order to create permanent, three-dimensional pieces of flower art.
Flowers within art are also representative of the female genitalia, as seen in the works of artists such as Georgia O’Keeffe, Imogen Cunningham, Veronica Ruiz de Velasco, and Judy Chicago, and in fact in Asian and western classical art. Many cultures around the world have a marked tendency to associate flowers with femininity.
The great variety of delicate and beautiful flowers has inspired the works of numerous poets, especially from the 18th–19th century Romantic era. Famous examples include William Wordsworth‘s I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud and William Blake‘s Ah! Sun-Flower.
Their symbolism in dreams has also been discussed, with possible interpretations including “blossoming potential”.
In Hindu mythology, flowers have a significant status. Vishnu, one of the three major gods in the Hindu system, is often depicted standing straight on a lotus flower. Apart from the association with Vishnu, the Hindu tradition also considers the lotus to have spiritual significance. For example, it figures in the Hindu stories of creation.
In modern times, people have sought ways to cultivate, buy, wear, or otherwise be around flowers and blooming plants, partly because of their agreeable appearance and smell. Around the world, people use flowers to mark important events in their lives:
- For new births or christenings
- As a corsage or boutonniere worn at social functions or for holidays
- As tokens of love or esteem
- For wedding flowers for the bridal party, and for decorations for the hall
- As brightening decorations within the home
- As a gift of remembrance for bon voyage parties, welcome-home parties, and “thinking of you” gifts
- For funeral flowers and expressions of sympathy for the grieving
- For worship. In Christianity, chancel flowers often adorn churches. In Hindu culture, adherents commonly bring flowers as a gift to temples
Flowers provide less food than other major plant parts (seeds, fruits, roots, stems and leaves), but still provide several important vegetables and spices. Flower vegetables include broccoli, cauliflower and artichoke. The most expensive spice, saffron, consists of dried stigmas of a crocus. Other flower spices are cloves and capers. Hops flowers are used to flavor beer. Marigold flowers are fed to chickens to give their egg yolks a golden yellow color, which consumers find more desirable; dried and ground marigold flowers are also used as a spice and colouring agent in Georgian cuisine. Flowers of the dandelion and elder are often made into wine. Bee pollen, pollen collected from bees, is considered a health food by some people. Honey consists of bee-processed flower nectar and is often named for the type of flower, e.g. orange blossom honey, clover honey and tupelo honey.
Hundreds of fresh flowers are edible, but only few are widely marketed as food. They are often added to salads as garnishes. Squash blossoms are dipped in breadcrumbs and fried. Some edible flowers include nasturtium, chrysanthemum, carnation, cattail, Japanese honeysuckle, chicory, cornflower, canna, and sunflower. Edible flowers such as daisy, rose, and violet are sometimes candied.
Flowers such as chrysanthemum, rose, jasmine, Japanese honeysuckle, and chamomile, chosen for their fragrance and medicinal properties, are used as tisanes, either mixed with tea or on their own.
Flowers have been used since prehistoric times in funeral rituals: traces of pollen have been found on a woman’s tomb in the El Miron Cave in Spain. Many cultures draw a connection between flowers and life and death, and because of their seasonal return flowers also suggest rebirth, which may explain why many people place flowers upon graves. The ancient Greeks, as recorded in Euripides‘s play The Phoenician Women, placed a crown of flowers on the head of the deceased; they also covered tombs with wreaths and flower petals. Flowers were widely used in ancient Egyptian burials, and the Mexicans to this day use flowers prominently in their Day of the Dead celebrations in the same way that their Aztec ancestors did.
The flower-giving tradition goes back to prehistoric times when flowers often had a medicinal and herbal attributes. Archaeologists found in several grave sites remnants of flower petals. Flowers were first used as sacrificial and burial objects. Ancient Egyptians and later Greeks and Romans used flowers. In Egypt, burial objects from the time around 1540 BC were found, which depicted red poppy, yellow Araun, cornflower and lilies. Records of flower giving appear in Chinese writings and Egyptian hieroglyphics, as well as in Greek and Roman mythology. The practice of giving a flower flourished in the Middle Ages when couples showed affection through flowers.
The tradition of flower-giving exists in many forms. It is an important part of Russian culture and folklore. It is common for students to give flowers to their teachers. To give yellow flowers in a romantic relationship means break-up in Russia. Nowadays, flowers are often given away in the form of a flower bouquet.
- Floral color change
- Flower preservation
- Horticulture and gardening
- List of garden plants
- Plant evolutionary developmental biology
- Plant reproductive morphology
Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Flowers
4K Blooming Flowers Time Lapse for Relaxation Soft Piano Music Go the Fork to Sleep
Watching a flower bloom is peaceful and calming. Relax while watching a stunning 4K time lapse of blooming flowers, while listening to soft, gentle piano music. Blooming flowers are mesmerizing to watch, especially in 4K. Piano music is wonderful for stress relief, meditation, relaxation, and sleep.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Petal
For other uses, see Petal (disambiguation).Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals)
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves like structures called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as “petaloid”, as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots.
Although petals are usually the most conspicuous parts of animal-pollinated flowers, wind-pollinated species, such as the grasses, either have very small petals or lack them entirely (apetalous).
- 1 Corolla
- 2 Variations
- 3 Genetics
- 4 Significance of pollination
- 5 Functions and purposes
- 6 Types of pollination
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
A corolla of separate petals, without fusion of individual segments, is apopetalous. If the petals are free from one another in the corolla, the plant is polypetalous or choripetalous; while if the petals are at least partially fused together, it is gamopetalous or sympetalous. In the case of fused tepals, the term is syntepalous. The corolla in some plants forms a tube.
Pelargonium peltatum , the Ivy-leaved Pelargonium : its floral structure is almost identical to that of geraniums, but it is conspicuously zygomorphic
The white flower of Pisum sativum , the Garden Pea : an example of a zygomorphic flower.
Petals can differ dramatically in different species. The number of petals in a flower may hold clues to a plant’s classification. For example, flowers on eudicots (the largest group of dicots) most frequently have four or five petals while flowers on monocots have three or six petals, although there are many exceptions to this rule.
The petal whorl or corolla may be either radially or bilaterally symmetrical (see Symmetry in biology and Floral symmetry). If all of the petals are essentially identical in size and shape, the flower is said to be regular or actinomorphic (meaning “ray-formed”). Many flowers are symmetrical in only one plane (i.e., symmetry is bilateral) and are termed irregular or zygomorphic (meaning “yoke-” or “pair-formed”). In irregular flowers, other floral parts may be modified from the regular form, but the petals show the greatest deviation from radial symmetry. Examples of zygomorphic flowers may be seen in orchids and members of the pea family.
In many plants of the aster family such as the sunflower, Helianthus annuus, the circumference of the flower head is composed of ray florets. Each ray floret is anatomically an individual flower with a single large petal. Florets in the centre of the disc typically have no or very reduced petals. In some plants such as Narcissus the lower part of the petals or tepals are fused to form a floral cup (hypanthium) above the ovary, and from which the petals proper extend.
Petal often consists of two parts: the upper, broad part, similar to leaf blade, also called the blade and the lower part, narrow, similar to leaf petiole, called the claw, separated from each other at the limb. Claws are developed in petals of some flowers of the family Brassicaceae, such as Erysimum cheiri.
The inception and further development of petals shows a great variety of patterns. Petals of different species of plants vary greatly in colour or colour pattern, both in visible light and in ultraviolet. Such patterns often function as guides to pollinators, and are variously known as nectar guides, pollen guides, and floral guides.
The genetics behind the formation of petals, in accordance with the ABC model of flower development, are that sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels are modified versions of each other. It appears that the mechanisms to form petals evolved very few times (perhaps only once), rather than evolving repeatedly from stamens.
Significance of pollination
Pollination is an important step in the sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is produced by the male flower or by the male organs of hermaphroditic flowers.
Pollen does not move on its own and thus requires wind or animal pollinators to disperse the pollen to the stigma (botany) of the same or nearby flowers. However, pollinators are rather selective in determining the flowers they choose to pollinate. This develops competition between flowers and as a result flowers must provide incentives to appeal to pollinators (unless the flower self-pollinates or is involved in wind pollination). Petals play a major role in competing to attract pollinators. Henceforth pollination dispersal could occur and the survival of many species of flowers could prolong.
Functions and purposes
Petals have various functions and purposes depending on the type of plant. In general, petals operate to protect some parts of the flower and attract/repel specific pollinators.
This is where the positioning of the flower petals are located on the flower is the corolla e.g. the buttercup having shiny yellow flower petals which contain guidelines amongst the petals in aiding the pollinator towards the nectar. Pollinators have the ability to determine specific flowers they wish to pollinate. Using incentives flowers draw pollinators and set up a mutual relation between each other in which case the pollinators will remember to always guard and pollinate these flowers (unless incentives are not consistently met and competition prevails).
The petals could produce different scents to allure desirable pollinators or repel undesirable pollinators. Some flowers will also mimic the scents produced by materials such as decaying meat, to attract pollinators to them.
Various colour traits are used by different petals that could attract pollinators that have poor smelling abilities, or that only come out at certain parts of the day. Some flowers are able to change the colour of their petals as a signal to mutual pollinators to approach or keep away.
Shape and size
Furthermore, the shape and size of the flower/petals is important in selecting the type of pollinators they need. For example, large petals and flowers will attract pollinators at a large distance or that are large themselves. Collectively the scent, colour and shape of petals all play a role in attracting/repelling specific pollinators and providing suitable conditions for pollinating. Some pollinators include insects, birds, bats and the wind. In some petals, a distinction can be made between a lower narrowed, stalk-like basal part referred to as the claw, and a wider distal part referred to as the blade (or limb). Often the claw and blade are at an angle with one another.
Types of pollination
Main article: Anemophily
Wind-pollinated flowers often have small, dull petals and produce little or no scent. Some of these flowers will often have no petals at all. Flowers that depend on wind pollination will produce large amounts of pollen because most of the pollen scattered by the wind tends to not reach other flowers.
Flowers have various regulatory mechanisms in order to attract insects. One such helpful mechanism is the use of colour guiding marks. Insects such as the bee or butterfly can see the ultraviolet marks which are contained on these flowers, acting as an attractive mechanism which is not visible towards the human eye. Many flowers contain a variety of shapes acting to aid with the landing of the visiting insect and also influence the insect to brush against anthers and stigmas (parts of the flower). One such example of a flower is the pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) which acts to regulate colour within a different way. The pohutukawa contains small petals also having bright large red clusters of stamens. Another attractive mechanism for flowers is the use of scents which are highly attractive to humans. One such example is the rose. On the other hand, some flowers produce the smell of rotting meat and are attractive to insects such as flies. Darkness is another factor which flowers have adapted to as nighttime conditions limit vision and color-perception. Fragrancy can be especially useful for flowers which are pollinated at night by moths and other flying insects.
Flowers are also pollinated by birds and must be large and colorful to be visible against natural scenery. In New Zealand, such bird–pollinated native plants include: kowhai (Sophora species), flax (Phormium tenax) and kaka beak (Clianthus puniceus). Flowers adapt the mechanism on their petals to change colour in acting as a communicative mechanism for the bird to visit. An example is the tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata) which are green when needing to be pollinated and turn red for the birds to stop coming and pollinating the flower.
Flowers can be pollinated by short tailed bats. An example of this is the dactylanthus (Dactylanthus taylorii). This plant has its home under the ground acting the role of a parasite on the roots of forest trees. The dactylanthus has only its flowers pointing to the surface and the flowers lack colour but have the advantage of containing much nectar and a strong scent. These act as a useful mechanism in attracting the bat.
Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Petal
2019 Symphonie der Farben -Keukenhof- der Film
Magnificent Colors of Wisteria – Beautiful Flowers. Wisteria (also spelled Wistaria or Wysteria) is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae, that includes ten species of woody climbing vines native to the Eastern United States and to China, Korea, and Japan. Some species are popular ornamental plants, especially in China and Japan. An aquatic flowering plant with the common name wisteria or ‘water wisteria’ is in fact Hygrophila difformis, in the family Acanthaceae.
Shakespeare Flower Gardens
Shakespeare Flower Gardens plus Shakespeare Roses
An illustration from Walter Crane‘s 1906 book, Flowers from Shakespeare’s Garden: a Posy from the Plays
A Shakespeare garden is a themed garden that cultivates some or all of the 175 plants mentioned in the works of William Shakespeare. In English-speaking countries, particularly the United States, these are often public gardens associated with parks, universities, and Shakespeare festivals. Shakespeare gardens are sites of cultural, educational, and romantic interest and can be locations for outdoor weddings.
Signs near the plants usually provide relevant quotations. A Shakespeare garden usually includes several dozen species, either in herbaceous profusion or in a geometric layout with boxwood dividers. Typical amenities are walkways and benches and a weather-resistant bust of Shakespeare. Shakespeare gardens may accompany reproductions of Elizabethan architecture. Some Shakespeare gardens also grow species typical of the Elizabethan period but not mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays or poetry.
- 1 Shakespeare
- 2 New Place, Stratford-on-Avon
- 3 Recent developments
- 4 Shakespeare’s flora
- 5 Central Park
- 6 Cleveland
- 7 Colorado
- 8 List of Shakespeare gardens
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
- ✪ Wujigong in Shakespeare Garden, Golden Gate Park, S.F. CA
In January or February 1631 Sir Thomas Temple, 1st Baronet, of Stowe, was eager to send his man for cuttings from the grapevines at New Place, Stratford, the home of Shakespeare’s retirement. Temple’s surviving letter, however, makes no note of a Shakespeare connection: he knew the goodness of the vines from his sister-in-law, whose house was nearby. The revival of interest in the flowers mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays arose with the revival of flower gardening in the United Kingdom. An early document is Paul Jerrard, Flowers from Stratford-on-Avon (London 1852), in which Jerrard attempted to identify Shakespeare’s floral references, in a purely literary and botanical exercise, such as those by J. Harvey Bloom (Shakespeare’s Garden London:Methuen, 1903) or F.G. Savage, (The Flora and Folk Lore of Shakespeare Cheltenham:E.J. Burrow, 1923). This parallel industry continues today.
A small arboretum of some forty trees mentioned by Shakespeare was planted in 1988 to complement the garden of Anne Hathaway’s Cottage in Shottery, a mile from Stratford-on-Avon. “Visitors can sit on the specially designed bench, gaze at the cottage, press a button and listen to one of four Shakespearean sonnets read by famous actors,” the official website informs the prospective visitor. A live willow cabin made of growing willows, inspired by lines in Twelfth Night, is another feature, and a maze of yew.
The major Shakespeare garden is that imaginatively reconstructed by Ernest Law at New Place, Stratford-on-Avon, in the 1920s. He used a woodcut from Thomas Hill, The Gardiners Labyrinth (London 1586), noting in his press coverage when the garden was in the planning stage, that it was “a book Shakespeare must certainly have consulted when laying out his own Knott Garden“. The same engraving was used in laying out the Queen’s Garden behind Kew Palace in 1969. Ernest Law’s, Shakespeare’s Garden, Stratford-upon-Avon (1922), with photographic illustrations showing quartered plats in patterns outlined by green and grey clipped edgings, each centred by roses grown as standards, must have supplied impetus to many flower-filled revivalist Shakespeare’s gardens of the 20s and 30s. For Americans, Esther Singleton produced The Shakespeare Garden (New York, 1931). Singleton’s and Law’s plantings, as with most Shakespeare gardens, owed a great deal to the bountiful aesthetic of the partly revived but largely invented “English cottage garden” tradition dating from the 1870s. Few attempts were made in revived garden plans to keep strictly to historical plants, until the National Trust led the way in the 1970s with a knot garden at Little Moreton Hall, Cheshire, and the restored parterre at Hampton Court Palace (1977).
The conventions of Shakespeare Gardens were familiar enough in the 1920s that E.F. Benson sets the opening of Mapp and Lucia (1931) in the not-quite-recently widowed Lucia’s “Perdita‘s Garden” at Riseholme, in words that epitomise Benson’s dry touch:
Perdita’s garden requires a few words of explanation. It was a charming little square plot in front of the timbered façade of the Hurst, surrounded by yew-hedges and intersected with paths of crazy pavement, carefully smothered in stone-crop, which led to the Elizabethan sundial from Wardour Street in the centre. It was gay in spring with those flowers (and no others) on which Perdita doted. There were ‘violets dim’, and primroses and daffodils, which came before the swallow dared and took the winds (usually of April) with beauty.
But now in June the swallow had dared long ago, and when spring and the daffodils were over, Lucia always allowed Perdita’s garden a wider, though still strictly Shakespearian scope. There was eglantine (Penzance briar) in full flower now, and honeysuckle and gillyflowers and plenty of pansies for thoughts, and yards of rue (more than usual this year), and so Perdita’s garden was gay all the summer.
Here then, this morning, Lucia seated herself by the sundial, all in black, on a stone bench on which was carved the motto ‘Come thou north wind, and blow thou south, that my garden spices may flow forth.’ Sitting there with Pepino’s poems and The Times she obscured about one-third of this text, and fat little Daisy would obscure the rest…”
Shakespeare grew up in a small town with gardens, surrounded by meadow, river and woodlands. His references to trees, herbs, kitchen and flower garden plants are correct botanically, and are a source for plants’ names and uses in Elizabethan times. English ships exploring the New World brought back new plants to join the local ones being designed for estates or in the kitchen garden outside the tradeswoman’s door. The Elizabethans gave symbolic meaning to certain plants, as Ophelia’s speech (below) illustrates. Shakespeare uses individual plants, gardens, gardening knowledge and skills (e.g. pruning), forests and other landscapes to describe character and place, set or shift tone and mood, make allusions perhaps that in prose would prove politically dangerous.
The best known reference in Shakespeare of plants used for symbolic purposes, aside from passing mention, as in Romeo and Juliet, “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” is Ophelia‘s speech from Hamlet:
Ophelia: There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance. Pray you, love,
remember. And there is pansies, that’s for thoughts.
Laertes: A document in madness! Thoughts and remembrance fitted.
Ophelia: There’s fennel for you, and columbines. There’s rue for you,
and here’s some for me. We may call it herb of grace o’ Sundays.
O, you must wear your rue with a difference! There’s a daisy. I
would give you some violets, but they wither’d all when my father
died. They say he made a good end.
Shakespeare devotes five History plays Henry VI, Parts I, 2, 3; Richard III, Henry VIII to the Wars of the Roses which lasted from 1455 to 1485. This dynastic struggle between two houses (York and Lancaster) was resolved when Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, and founded the Tudor dynasty. Shakespeare uses the historic symbolism of the Red Rose of Lancaster, the White Rose of York, and ends this sequence of plays in Richard III (V,5,19) with the line “We will unite the white rose and the red.” That union is the Tudor Rose with its white and red petals.
All the plants Shakespeare names in his plays are mentioned in classical medical texts or medieval herbal manuals.
Shakespeare Garden in Central Park
An early Shakespeare garden was added in the anniversary year 1916 to Central Park, New York City. In honour of the Bard and the reading of literature, this area is one of eight designated Quiet Zones.
It included a graft from a mulberry tree said to have been grafted from one planted by Shakespeare in 1602; that tree was cut down by Rev. Francis Gastrell, owner of New Place, however The tree blew down in a summer storm in 2006 and was removed. This garden is located near the Delacorte Theater that houses the New York Shakespeare Festival. According to information available on the Central Park web pages, the Shakespeare Garden there does still contain some of the flowers and plants mentioned in his plays.
The rich weave of associations engendered by Shakespeare Gardens is exemplified in the Shakespeare Garden of Cleveland, Ohio, where herb-bordered paths, converge on a bust of Shakespeare. The requisite mulberry tree was from a cutting sent by the critic Sir Sidney Lee, a slip said to be from the mulberry at New Place. Elms were planted by E. H. Sothen and Julia Marlowe, oaks by William Butler Yeats, and a circular bed of roses sent by the mayor of Verona, from the traditional tomb of Juliet, planted by Phyllis Neilson Terry, niece of Ellen Terry. Birnam Wood was represented by sycamore maples from Scotland. The sundial was Byzantine, presented by the Shakespearean actor, Robert Mantell. Jars planted with ivy and flowers were sent by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, Rabindranath Tagore— as the “Shakespeare of India”— and Sarah Bernhardt.
The Shakespeare Garden inaugural exercises took place on April 14th, 1916, the tercentenary year… E. H. Sothen and Julia Marlowe were guests of honor. After speeches of welcome by city officials and Mayor Harry L. Davis, the orchestra played selections from Mendelssohn‘s “Midsummer Night’s Dream,” and the Normal School Glee Club sang choral setting of “Hark, Hark, the Lark” and “Who Is Sylvia?” A group of high school pupils in Elizabethan costume escorted the guests to the garden entrance and stood guard during the planting of the dedicatory elms…. Miss Marlowe climaxed the proceedings by her readings of Perdita’s flower scene from A Winter’s Tale, the 54th Sonnet of Shakespeare, and verses from the Star Spangled Banner. Her leading of all present in the singing of the National Anthem brought the impressive event to a close.”
In later years the Cleveland Shakespeare Garden continued to be enriched at every Shakespearean occasion. Willows flanking the fountain were planted by William Faversham and Daniel Frohman. Vachel Lindsay planted a poplar and recited his own Shakespeare tribute. Novelist Hugh Walpole also planted a tree. Aline Kilmer, widow of the soldier poet, Joyce Kilmer, made a visit in 1919, and the actor, Otis Skinner and the humorist, Stephen Leacock. David Belasco came to plant two junipers.
The Colorado Shakespeare Garden is a Public Garden founded in 1991 by herbalist Marlene Cowdrey. Eight gardens line a courtyard on the University of Colorado campus in Boulder, Colorado. The gardens are placed near to the WPA built Mary Rippon Theatre, which is the major performance space for the Colorado Shakespeare Festival. The gardens are: Founder’s, Kitchen, War of the Roses, Midsummer Night’s Dream, Knot, Canon, Elizabethan, and a Highlight garden featuring each performance season’s plants. Members of the Colorado Shakespeare Gardens are volunteers interested in gardens or Shakespeare or both. They research, design, plant, and maintain the gardens with oversight from CU. The various gardens are designed to display Elizabethan gardening techniques as well as feature plants. An extensive audio-visual tour features Will Shakespeare as narrator, and gives some history of the period as well as information about the plants from Shakespeare’s viewpoint.
|Bethel Public Library, Bethel, Connecticut||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Brookfield Shakespeare’s Garden, Brookfield, Connecticut||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Brooklyn Botanical Gardens, Brooklyn, New York||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Misericordia University||University or college campus|||
|Evanston, Illinois||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Cleveland, Ohio||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Johannesburg Botanical Garden, South Africa||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Central Park, New York City||Public park, Shakespeare festival|||
|International Rose Test Garden, Portland, Oregon||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California||Public park or botanical garden|||
|The Huntington, San Marino, California||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Vienna, Austria||Public park or botanical garden|||
|Herzogspark, Regensburg, Germany||Public park or botanical garden|
|Hilltop Garden and Nature Center at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN||University or college campus|||
|Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, IL||University or College Campus|||
|Illinois State University||University or college campus|||
|Kilgore College||University or college campus|||
|Naugatuck Valley Community College, Waterbury||University or college campus|||
|Northwestern University||University or college campus|||
|St. Norbert College||University or college campus|||
|University College of the Fraser Valley||University or college campus|||
|University of Massachusetts||University or college campus|||
|The University of the South||University or college campus|||
|University of South Dakota||University campus|||
|Vassar College||University or college campus|||
|Blount Cultural Park of the Alabama Shakespeare Festival||Shakespeare festival|||
|Colorado Shakespeare Festival||Shakespeare festival|||
|Illinois Shakespeare Festival||Shakespeare festival|||
|Elizabethan Garden, Folger Shakespeare Library||Public park or botanical garden|||
|The Elizabethan Herb Garden, Mellon Park, Pittsburgh, PA||Public park or botanical garden|||
|The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga||University campus|||
|Shakespeare Garden in Cedar Brook Park, Plainfield, New Jersey, USA||Public park or botanical garden. Operated by the Union County Park system, it was established in 1927. The Garden appears on the National Register of Historic Places.|||
|Dunedin Botanic Garden, New Zealand||Public park or botanical garden.|||
|Shakespeare Garden in Stanley Park, Vancouver, BC, Canada||Public park or botanical garden|
Discover hundreds of plants mentioned in William Shakespeare’s poems and plays, bronze plaques that feature Shakespearean quotes, and rustic benches and railings throughout Shakespeare Garden (West Side between 79th and 80th Streets).
Shakespeare Garden features tulips, crocuses, daffodils, fritillaries, anemones, hellebores, roses, and several other flower varieties each spring.
GARDEN OF SHAKESPEARE’S FLOWERS
EXPLORING THE GARDEN OF SHAKESPEARE’S FLOWERS Golden Gate Park
SHAKESPEARE GARDEN Vancouver B.C. Canada Heritage Foundation
“I like to think of Shakespeare as someone who lived and worked with flowers. He made his gardens beautiful and you have followed his pattern in true spirit. Nothing has amazed me more than the beauty and luxuriousness of the gardens. Shakespeare, I am sure would have loved to live here. I have great pleasure in opening and dedicating these gardens.” – Lord Tweedsmuir at the opening of the Shakespeare Garden in Stanley Park, 1936.
Gardens for Shakespeare
There are over 180 plants referenced in Shakespeare’s work and many believe the Bard was not only an avid gardener, but had an advanced knowledge of horticulture. Gardens paying homage to Shakespeare became a trend in landscape architecture (particularly in Europe), and many ‘Shakespeare gardens’ were built around 1916, on the three-hundred year anniversary of his death.
Stanley Park Shakespeare Garden
In 1916, Mrs. Jonathan Rogers planted an oak tree near the site of the Rose Garden in Stanley Park, on behalf of the Vancouver Shakespeare Society, to honour the tercentenary of Shakespeare’s death. Other trees were planted in 1921 by the actress Eva Moore and Sir John Martin Harvey. In 1932, the Kilbe Shakespeare Circle and the Vancouver Shakespeare Society proposed constructing a proper Shakespeare Garden. Concept plans were drawn up by E.C. Thrupp and by 1935, the architect J. F. Watson had sculpted a Shakespeare monument with a quote from Ben Johnson’s poem ‘Memorial to Shakespeare,” “He was not of an age, but for all time.”
Golden Jubilee Opening
The Shakespeare garden was officially opened on August 28, 1936, for Vancouver’s Golden Jubilee celebration. Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir opened the garden by saying, “I like to think of Shakespeare as someone who lived and worked with flowers. He made his gardens beautiful and you have followed his pattern in true spirit. Nothing has amazed me more than the beauty and luxuriousness of the gardens. Shakespeare, I am sure would have loved to live here. I have great pleasure in opening and dedicating these gardens.” The Shakespearean Society of Vancouver and the Sheakespearean Club planted the trees mentioned in Shakespeare’s works including red oak, fir, beech, catalpa, fern leaf beech, tree of heaven, flowering ash, pacific dogwood, and laval hawthorn. Trees designated from the works of Shakespeare have been affixed with plaques that display their appropriate quotes.
Flowers and plants played an important tool of imagery throughout Shakespeare’s literary masterpieces. While some of the blooms are rather recognizable, others are not too familiar. Below are a few quotes from some of Shakespeare’s works that detail his affinity for the use of blooms throughout his plays and sonnets:
Folger Shakespeare Library is the world’s largest Shakespeare collection, the ultimate resource for exploring Shakespeare and his world. Folger Shakespeare Library 201 East Capitol Street, SE Washington, DC 20003
In his collected works Shakespeare refers to over two hundred species of plants, with twenty-nine scenes taking place in gardens or in orchards. Shakespeare’s references to flowers and plants not only gave his plays a sense of place, like the Arden forest in As You Like It, the fairy forest of A MidsummerNight’s Dream or the rugged Scottish landscape of Macbeth. They also served as extended metaphors for human emotions and the human condition.
To honour the talents of the Bard why not create a Shakespeare inspired garden. Here are a few ideas on the how to do so
“Of all flowersMethinks a rose is best.”
– Two Noble Kinsmen, Act II, Scene II
“What’s in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet.”
– Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene II
“O rose of May
Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia.”
– Hamlet, Act IV, Scene V
“With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine:
There sleeps Titania sometime of the night,
Lull’d in these flowers with dances and delight.”
– A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act II, Scene I
“Come, sit thee down upon this flowery bed,Why I thy amiable cheeks do coyAnd stick musk roses in thy sleek smooth headAnd kiss thy fair large ears, my gentle joy.”
– A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act IV, Scene I
“The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem
For that sweet odour which doth in it live.”
Shakespeare refers to the Rose over 70 times; it is the most mentioned flower throughout his work. The varieties of Rose he mentions include the Musk Rose (Rosa moschata), the Damask Rose (Rosa damascena), the Eglantine or Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa), the Provence or Cabbage Rose (Rosa centifolia) and the Wild Dog Rose (Rosa canina).
|Musk Rose (Rosa moschata)|
|Damask Rose (Rosa damascena)|
|Eglantine or Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa)|
|Wild Dog Rose (Rosa canina)|
John Gerard wrote “the rose doth deserve the cheefest and most principle place among all flowers whatsoever, being not only esteemed for his beauties, vertues and his fragrant and odorous smell, but also because it is the honore and ornament of our English sceptre.”
The Rose has been the national emblem of England since The War of the Roses (1455-1485,) when the royal houses of York and Lancaster fought for the crown. The Red Rose was the emblem of the House of Lancaster and the White Rose was the emblem of the House of York. Shakespeare creates an imaginary scene in Henry VI Part I where the opposing parties chose sides.
Let him that is a true born gentleman
And stands upon the honour of his birth
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth
From off this briar pluck a white rose.
Let him that is no coward and no flatterer,
But dare maintain the party of the truth,
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.
– Henry VI Part I, Act II, Scene IV
The White Rose of York is thought to be either the Rosa alba or the Rosa canina and the Red Rose of Lancaster is thought to be the Rosa gallica. The two houses were finally united with the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York and the two flowers were joined to form the Tudor Rose.
|The Tudor Rose|
The Rose was considered to be the queen of all flowers and was used to represent beauty and love. However Shakespeare also used the Rose to convey the contrary nature of life, to say that like the Rose with its thorns, in life there is pleasure mixed with pain.
“Is love a tender thing? It is too rough,
Too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks like Thorn.”
– Romeo and Juliet, Act I, Scene IV
“Roses have thorns and silver fountain mudAnd loathsome canker lives in sweetest bud.”
“For women are as Roses, whose fair flowerBeing once display’d doth fall that very hour.”
– Twelfth Night, Act II, Scene IV
A number of varieties of Rose have been cultivated that are inspired by Shakespeare, they include the Glamis Castle Rose (Macbeth), the Scepter’d Isle Rose (Richard II), the Fair Bianca Rose (The Taming of the Shrew) the Othello Rose (Othello), the Prospero Rose (The Tempest), the Gentle Hermione (The Winter’s Tale) and the William Shakespeare Rose.
Labels: Cabbage Rose, Damask Rose, Eglantine, Flowers, Musk Rose, Ophelia, Roses, Sweet Briar, Wild Dog Rose
Rosa x centifolia ( plus many more )
a) Poppy and Mandrake: The poppy has been seen as both a symbol for death (for its blood red color) and sleep (in reference to the opium it contains) in literature. The plant genus, Mandragora, belongs to the nightshades family and possesses a long history in connection with the Hebrew Bible, magic, spells, and witchcraft. In Cleopatra and Antony, Shakespeare makes mention of the plant as an ingredient in a drink that puts people to sleep for long periods of time.
“Not poppy, nor mandragora,
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou owedst yesterday.”
b) Daisies and Violets:
“When daisies pied and violets blue
And lady-smocks all silver-white
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue
Do paint the meadows with delight, ”
Love’s Labours Lost (5.2.900-4)
“I have seen roses damask’d, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks…”
“Like the lily,
That once was mistress of the field and flourish’d,
I’ll hang my head and perish.”
Henry VIII (3.1.168-70)
A list of Shakespeare and Elizabethan gardens in the UK and United States.
Shakespeare Quotes About Flowers by https://www.nosweatshakespeare.com/quotes/categories/shakespeare-quotes-flowers/
This page details 40 Shakespeare Quotes about flowers. One of the many arguments against the Shakespeare conspiracy theory is the knowledge of rural life displayed by the author in his plays and poems. Moreover, the author had a particularly detailed, closely observed, knowledge of the flower, flora and fauna of Warwickshire, the rural area where Shakespeare grew up.
Warwickshire is well-known for the proliferation of violets in the Spring. Shakespeare loved this humble little flower and his texts are strewn with violets. The first 11 quotes are specific to violets, with the remaining quotes covering all types of plants.
1. ‘The Forward Violet Thus I Did Chide-
Sweet Thief, Whence Didst Thou Steal Thy Sweet That Smells
If Not From My Love’s Breath?’
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
4. ‘I Think The King Is But A Man, As I
Am: The Violet Smells To Him As It Doth To Me: The
Element Shows To Him As It Doth To Me.
Love’s Labours Lost
8. ‘To Gild Refined Gold, To Paint The Lily,
To Throw A Perfume On The Violet,…
Is Wasteful And Ridiculous Excess.’
11. ‘The Tempter Or The Tempted, Who Sins Most?
Not She: Nor Doth She Tempt: But It Is I
That, Lying By The Violet In The Sun,
Do As The Carrion Does, Not As The Flower,
Corrupt With Virtuous Season.’
Measure for Measure
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
13. ‘Yet Mark’d I Where The Bolt Of Cupid Fell:
It Fell Upon A Little Western Flower,
Before Milk-White, Now Purple With Love’s Wound,
And Maidens Call It Love-In-Idleness.’
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
14. ‘…Luscious Woodbine,
With Sweet Musk-Roses And With Eglantine:
There Sleeps Titania Sometime Of The Night,
Lull’d In These Flowers With Dances And Delight.
A Midsummer Night’s Dream
15. ‘When Daffodils Begin To Peer,
With Heigh! The Doxy Over The Dale,
Why, Then Comes In The Sweet O’ The Year;
For The Red Blood Reigns In The Winter’s Pale.’
The Winter’s Tale
16. ‘Now, My Fair’st Friend,
I Would I Had Some Flowers O’ The Spring That Might
Become Your Time Of Day; And Yours, And Yours,
That Wear Upon Your Virgin Branches Yet
Your Maidenheads Growing: O Proserpina,
For The Flowers Now, That Frighted Thou Let’st Fall
From Dis’s Waggon! Daffodils,
That Come Before The Swallow Dares, And Take
The Winds Of March With Beauty; Violets Dim,
But Sweeter Than The Lids Of Juno’s Eyes
Or Cytherea’s Breath; Pale Primroses
That Die Unmarried, Ere They Can Behold
Bight Phoebus In His Strength–A Malady
Most Incident To Maids; Bold Oxlips And
The Crown Imperial; Lilies Of All Kinds,
The Flower-De-Luce Being One! O, These I Lack,
To Make You Garlands Of, And My Sweet Friend,
To Strew Him O’er And O’er!’
The Winter’s Tale
The Winter’s Tale
18. ‘Here’s Flowers For You;
Hot Lavender, Mints, Savoury, Marjoram;
The Marigold, That Goes To Bed Wi’ The Sun
And With Him Rises Weeping: These Are Flowers
Of Middle Summer, And I Think They Are Given
To Men Of Middle Age.’
The Winter’s Tale
19. ‘Sir, The Year Growing Ancient,
Not Yet On Summer’s Death, Nor On The Birth
Of Trembling Winter, The Fairest
Flowers O’ The Season
Are Our Carnations And Streak’d Gillyvors,
Which Some Call Nature’s Bastards: Of That Kind
Our Rustic Garden’s Barren; And I Care Not
To Get Slips Of Them.’
The Winter’s Tale
21. ‘Like The Lily,
That Once Was Mistress Of The Field And Flourish’d,
I’ll Hang My Head And Perish.’
22. ‘What’s In A Name? That Which We Call A Rose
By Any Other Name Would Smell As Sweet.’
Romeo and Juliet
23. ‘What, No More Ceremony? See, My Women!
Against The Blown Rose May They Stop Their Nose
That Kneel’d Unto The Buds.’
Antony and Cleopatra
26. ‘No More Be Grieved At That Which Thou Hast Done:
Roses Have Thorns, And Silver Fountains Mud;
Clouds And Eclipses Stain Both Moon And Sun,
And Loathsome Canker Lives In Sweetest Bud.’
27. ‘Yet Nor The Lays Of Birds Nor The Sweet Smell
Of Different Flowers In Odour And In Hue
Could Make Me Any Summer’s Story Tell,
Or From Their Proud Lap Pluck Them Where They Grew;
Nor Did I Wonder At The Lily’s White,
Nor Praise The Deep Vermilion In The Rose;
They Were But Sweet, But Figures Of Delight,
Drawn After You, You Pattern Of All Those.’
28. ‘The Lily I Condemned For Thy Hand,
And Buds Of Marjoram Had Stol’n Thy Hair:
The Roses Fearfully On Thorns Did Stand,
One Blushing Shame, Another White Despair;
A Third, Nor Red Nor White, Had Stol’n Of Both
And To His Robbery Had Annex’d Thy Breath;
But, For His Theft, In Pride Of All His Growth
A Vengeful Canker Eat Him Up To Death.
More Flowers I Noted, Yet I None Could See
But Sweet Or Colour It Had Stol’n From Thee.’
29. ‘At Christmas I No More Desire A Rose
Than Wish A Snow In May’s New-Fangled Mirth;
But Like Of Each Thing That In Season Grows.’
Love’s Labours Lost
30. ‘When Daisies Pied And Violets Blue
And Lady-Smocks All Silver-White
And Cuckoo-Buds Of Yellow Hue
Do Paint The Meadows With Delight’
Love’s Labours Lost
31. ‘Not Poppy, Nor Mandragora,
Nor All The Drowsy Syrups Of The World,
Shall Ever Medicine Thee To That Sweet Sleep
Which Thou Owedst Yesterday.’
32. ‘His Steeds To Water At Those Springs
On Chaliced Flowers That Lies;
And Winking Mary-Buds Begin
To Ope Their Golden Eyes:
With Every Thing That Pretty Is,
My Lady Sweet, Arise.’
33. ‘There’s Rosemary, That’s For Remembrance; Pray,
Love, Remember: And There Is Pansies. That’s For Thoughts.’
34. ‘There’s Fennel For You, And Columbines: There’s Rue
For You; And Here’s Some For Me: We May Call It
Herb-Grace O’ Sundays: O You Must Wear Your Rue With
A Difference. There’s A Daisy’
35. ‘There Is A Willow Grows Aslant A Brook,
That Shows His Hoar Leaves In The Glassy Stream;
There With Fantastic Garlands Did She Come
Of Crow-Flowers, Nettles, Daisies, And Long Purples
That Liberal Shepherds Give A Grosser Name,
But Our Cold Maids Do Dead Men’s Fingers Call Them:
There, On The Pendent Boughs Her Coronet Weeds
Clambering To Hang, An Envious Sliver Broke;
When Down Her Weedy Trophies And Herself
Fell In The Weeping Brook.’
36. ”Tis Dangerous To Take A Cold, To Sleep, To
Drink; But I Tell You, My Lord Fool, Out Of This
Nettle, Danger, We Pluck This Flower, Safety.’
Henry IV Part 1
37. ‘He Was Met Even Now
As Mad As The Vex’d Sea; Singing Aloud;
Crown’d With Rank Fumiter And Furrow-Weeds,
With Bur-Docks, Hemlock, Nettles, Cuckoo-Flowers,
Darnel, And All The Idle Weeds That Grow
In Our Sustaining Corn.’
38. ‘…The Fairest Flowers O’ Th’ Season
Are Our Carnations And Streaked Gillyvors
Which Some Call Nature’s Bastards’
The Winter’s Tale
The Winter’s Tale
The Two Noble Kinsmen
The growth of this rose is on the short side and not very robust, but with suitable feeding and spraying it will make an excellent little garden rose. Othello (title …
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust – Flowers From Shakespeare’s Garden Wall Calendar 2020 (Art Calendar) Calendar – Wall Calendar, March 11, 2019
by Flame Tree Studio (Creator )
This beautiful Shakespeare Birthplace Trust wall calendar showcases the beautiful illustrations of Walter Crane, an artist and illustrator who is now considered to be one of the most influential of his generation. His illustrations in this calendar were published in Flowers from Shakespeare’s Garden and were inspired by Shakespeare’s most poetic words on flowers. Informative text accompanies each work and the datepad features previous and next month’s views.
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust – Flowers From Shakespeare’s Garden Wall Calendar 2020 (Art Calendar) Calendar – Wall Calendar, March 11, 2019
by Flame Tree Studio (Creator)
This beautiful Shakespeare Birthplace Trust wall calendar showcases the beautiful illustrations of Walter Crane, an artist and illustrator who is now considered to be one of the most influential of his generation. His illustrations in this calendar were published in Flowers from Shakespeare’s Garden and were
by Walter Crane (Author) Format: Kindle Edition
A posy from Shakespeare’s plays. Features beautiful illustrated artwork showcasing some concepts and scenes from Shakespeare’s plays.
“There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance.
Pray you, love, remember.
And there is pansies, that’s for thoughts …
There’s fennel for you, and columbines.There’s rue for you, and here’s some for me.
We may call it “herb of grace” o’ Sundays.
– Oh, you must wear your rue with a difference.
There’s a daisy. I would give you some violets,
But they withered all when my father died.”
– Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5
Botanical Shakespeare: An Illustrated Compendium Of All The Flowers, Fruits, Herbs, Trees, Seeds, And Grasses Cited By The World’s Greatest Playwright Hardcover – April 4, 2017
A captivating, beautifully illustrated, one-of-a-kind color compendium of the flowers, fruits, herbs, trees, seeds, and grasses cited in the works of the world’s greatest playwright, William Shakespeare, accompanied by their companion quotes from all of his plays and poems. With a foreword by Dame Helen Mirren—the first foreword she has ever contributed.
In this striking compilation, Shakespeare historian Gerit Quealy and respected Japanese artist Sumié Hasegawa combine their knowledge and skill in this first and only book that examines every plant that appears in the works of Shakespeare.
Botanical Shakespeare opens with a brief look at the Bard’s relationship to the plants mentioned in his works—a diversity that illuminates his knowledge of the science of botany, as well as the colloquy, revealing his unmatched skill for creating metaphorical connections and interweaving substantive philosophy. At the heart of the book are “portraits” of the over 170 flowers, fruits, grains, grasses, trees, herbs, seeds and vegetables that Shakespeare mentions in his plays and poems. Botanical Shakespeare features a gorgeous color illustration of each, giving a “face” to the name, alongside the specific text in which it appears and the character(s) who utter the lines in which it is mentioned.
This fascinating visual compendium also includes a dictionary describing each plant—such as Eglantine, a wild rose with a slight prickle, cherished for its singular scent, superior to any other rose; and the difference between apples and apple-john—along with indices listing the botanical by play/poem, by character, and genus for easy reference, ideal for gardeners and thoughtful birthday gift-giving.
This breathtaking, incomparable collection of exquisite artwork and companion quotes offers unique depth and insight into Shakespeare and his timeless work through the unusual perspective of the plants themselves.
by Shakespeare Birthplace Trust (Author),
Shakespeare’s Gardens is a highly illustrated, informative book about the gardens that William Shakespeare knew as a boy and tended as a man, published to coincide with the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death in April 2016. This anniversary will be the focus of literary celebration of the man’s life and work throughout the English speaking world and beyond. The book will focus on the gardens that Shakespeare knew, including the five gardens in Stratford upon Avon in which he gardened and explored. From his birthplace in Henley Street, to his childhood playground at Mary Arden’s Farm, to his courting days at Anne Hathaway’s Cottage and his final home at New Place – where he created a garden to reflect his fame and wealth. Cared for by the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, these gardens are continually evolving to reflect our ongoing knowledge of his life. The book will also explore the plants that Shakespeare knew and wrote about in 17th century England: their use in his work and the meanings that his audiences would have picked up on – including mulberries, roses, daffodils, pansies, herbs and a host of other flowers. More than four centuries after the playwright lived, whenever we think of thyme, violets or roses, we more often than not still remember a quote from the 39 plays and 154 sonnets written by him.
Glorious images of gardens and the words of the immortal Bard of Avon make an enchanting combination in Shakespeare in the Garden. Mick Hales, one of the worlds preeminent landscape photographers, captures unforgettable images of 14 gardens in England, the United States, and Canada, including Shakespeares own gardens as well as the three great restorations of major Elizabethan properties by the Dowager Countess of Salisbury. Hales accompanying text sets the scene, with notes on the provenance of each exquisite site. There is also an Illustrated Alphabet of Plants, a unique visual document of 80 flowers, herbs, shrubs, and trees that Shakespeare mentions in his plays, each accompanied by a corresponding quotation.
Rare is the illustrated book that can enhance the power of Shakespeares poetry, but this one succeeds masterfully.
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.
This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.
As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
A lavishly illustrated history of gardens drawing from Shakespeare’s works and garden writing―published to commemorate the 400th anniversary year of his death
Published in association with the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, The Quest for Shakespeare’s Garden traces the origins of garden history and the Elizabethan garden, as well as telling the story of the Bard’s own garden in Stratford-upon-Avon. Beautifully presented, the text is accompanied by quotations from Shakespeare’s works and lush illustrations of his gardens, past and present, plucked from a multitude of sources including embroidered Elizabethan clothing and Victorian gardening books, as well as various gardens around the world.
Roy Strong’s detailed account is inspired by Shakespeare’s works and supplemented by Francis Bacon’s 1625 essay “Of Gardens” which provides Elizabethan-era advice to garden enthusiasts on such topics as topiary, seasonal gardens, scents, aviaries, and more.126 illustrations
A Fully Illustrated Compendium Of Meaning, Literature, And Lore For The Modern Romantic Kindle Edition
by Odessa Begay (Author) Format: Kindle Edition
With gorgeous full-color illustrations, ornate decorative elements, lettering in metallic ink, and engaging text, The Language of Flowers: A Fully Illustrated Compendium of Meaning, Literature, and Lore for the Modern Romantic is a treasure for flower lovers. A sumptuous, contemporary anthology of 50 of the world’s most storied and popular flowers, each of its entries offers insight to the meaning associated with the flower, and is a fascinating mix of foklore, classic mythology, literature, botanical information and popular culture.
Following an introduction that provides a short history of the language of flowers, a fad which reached its peak during the reign of Queen Victoria, each uniquely illustrated and designed entry is an enjoyable read full of history and little-known facts. Here is the story of Tulipmania; how the pansy got its “face,” and why the most particular pollination process of a certain orchid has made the vanilla bean a very dear commodity. You’ll also dicover how Christian Dior’s passion for lily of the valley inspired his classic perfume Diorissimo and its extraordinary bottle; why Oscar Wilde had a penchant for wearing green carnations in his lapel; and how Greeks and Romans believed snapdragons could ward off witchcraft, so they planted them at entryways to their homes.
With more than a dozen two-page paintings evoking the romance of noteworthy Victorian gardens and symbolic bouquets, a cross-referenced index of flowers and meanings, and suggestions for further reading, this book is a must for lovers of floriology and Victoriana.
Daffodils signal new beginnings, daisies innocence. Lilacs mean the first emotions of love, periwinkles tender recollection. Early Victorians used flowers as a way to express their feelings—love or grief, jealousy or devotion. Now, modern-day romantics are enjoying a resurgence of this bygone custom, and this book will share the historical, literary, and cultural significance of flowers with a whole new generation. With lavish illustrations, a dual dictionary of flora and meanings, and suggestions for creating expressive arrangements, this keepsake is the perfect compendium for everyone who has ever given or received a bouquet.
Flowerpaedia: 1000 Flowers And Their Meanings Kindle Edition
Follow The Author Cheralyn Darcey+ Follow
Flowerpaedia is an A–Z reference guide of over 1000 flowers, researched and compiled by botanical explorer Cheralyn Darcey.This comprehensive dictionary includes each flower’s correct botanical name for easy and exact identification.You will delight in understanding what each flower means – emotionally, spiritually and symbolically – and are also able to search by the feeling or emotion you wish to convey or change.Expertly written with easy-to-understand insights, Cheralyn shares how we can work with a myriad of flowers to achieve balance, calm or healing in our lives, homes and gardens.For both the enthusiastic gardener and anyone charmed by the beauty and energy of flowers, this guide to understanding and selecting the right flower for every occasion and meaning will be felt and enjoyed by all.
by Nicolae Tanase (Author)
This book will make you bloom! It contains a list of 800 flowers and their beautiful and timeless meanings. Easy to look through.
This pocket book will accompany you all the time in your phone, tablet, or in your Kindle. You can access the meaning of a flower anytime and everywhere, day or night, at a dating or a wedding, and early in the morning in the fragrant garden.
Bejewel your heart with the language of a flower. Give someone a flower imbued with fragrance and a word from the soul. Adorn your garden of flowers with values and virtues. Let your garden become the garden of love. Let your heart radiate like the fragrance of a flower…
Agrimony (Agrimonia) – Gratitude
Allspice (Pimenta) – Compassion
Baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata) – Everlasting love
Betony (Stachys); also: heal-all, self-heal, woundwort, betony, lamb’s ears – Surprise
The Best Relaxing Garden in 4K – Butterflies, Birds and Flowers?? 2 hours – 4K UHD Screensaver
House and Flower – The Most Beautiful House in the world by TSK-24
Stunning Butterflies & The Best Relaxing Music – Meditation Relaxing Music – 2 Hours – HD 1080P
4K HDR Video – Beautiful Flower Garden in Canada, The Butchart Gardens
The Butchart Gardens is a group of floral display gardens in Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, Canada, located near Victoria on Vancouver Island and the gardens have been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. As you see in this video clip, it is the compilation of beautiful flowers garden to be displayed along with roses flowers from other gardens that have been remixed in this video.
Keukenhof 2018 – The most beautiful flower park in the world HL – Holiday Life
Keukenhof is located in Lisse town, South Holland province, The Netherlands. The garden is open annually from mid-March to mid-May. Also known as one of the largest gardens in the world, Keukenhof garden covers an area of 32 hectares and 7 million flower bulbs are planted every year in the park. Keukenhof is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Netherlands. Every year Keukenhof welcomes over a million visitors and 75% of visitors to the park come from more than 100 countries all over the world.