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80 Small Garden and Flower Design Ideas 2018 – Amazing Small garden house decoration by TSK-24
Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers by [Brickell, Christopher]
Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Kindle Edition

by Christopher Brickell  (Author)


An updated edition of the best-selling highly illustrated garden plant reference, featuring more than 8,000 plants and 4,000 photographs.

Choose the right plants for your garden and find all the inspiration and guidance you need with the Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers. Drawing on expert advice from the RHS, this best-selling book features a photographic catalogue of more than 4,000 plants and flowers, all organized by color, size, and type, to help you select the right varieties for your outdoor space. Discover perennials, bulbs, shrubs, and trees, succulents, and ornamental shrubs, all showcased in beautiful, full-color photography. Browse this photographic catalogue to find at-a-glance plant choice inspiration. Or use the extensive plant dictionary to look up more than 8,000 plant varieties and the best growing conditions.

This new edition features the latest and most popular cultivars, with more than 1,380 new plants added, as well as updated photography, comprehensive hardiness ratings, and a brand-new introduction. Fully comprehensive yet easy to use, the Encyclopedia of Plants & Flowers is the inspirational, informative guide every gardener needs on their bookshelf.  +++++++++++++++++++++++

 See all 3 formats and editions

A unique guide to the extraordinary world of plants, from the smallest seeds to the tallest trees.

We couldn’t live without plants. We need them for food, shelter, and even the air we breathe, yet we know surprisingly little about them. Why do thistles bristle with spines? How do some plants trap and eat insects? Did you know there are trees that are 5,000 years old? Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds explores the mysterious world of plants to find the answers to these and many more questions.

Each type of plant–such as a flowering plant, tree, grass, or cactus–is examined close up, with an example shown from all angles and even in cross section, to highlight the key parts. Then picture-packed galleries show the wonderful variety of plants on different themes, perhaps the habitat they grow in, a flower family, or the plants that supply us with our staple foods. But the book also takes a fun look at some truly weird and wonderful plants, including trees with fruits like a giant’s fingers, orchids that look like monkey faces, seeds that spin like helicopters, and trees that drip poison.

So open this beautiful book and find out more about amazing Trees, Leaves, Flowers & Seeds.

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Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location: Featuring More Than 3,000 Plants Kindle EditionKindersley Dorling

Including more than 2,000 recommendations from gardening experts, Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location includes planting suggestions for over 30 types of sites, from notoriously dry ground by a hedge or fence to cracks in walls or paving, explains how to assess site and soil, and presents a stunning range of plant partners and planting schemes.

Produced in association with the Smithsonian Institution, whose Smithsonian’s Gardens creates and manages the Smithsonian’s outdoor gardens, interiorscapes, and horticulture-related collections and exhibits, Encyclopedia of Garden Plants for Every Location is the perfect book for gardeners looking to make the most out of their plot.


Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long, 2nd Edition
Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long, 2nd Edition

by Eliot Colman, Barbara Damrosch, et al. | Sold by: Amazon.com Services LLCKindle Edition$11.11 


Top 25 Most Beautiful Flowers in the World TSK-24

Here are 25 most beautiful flowers in the world: 1. Rose 2. Tulips 3. Orchids 4. Sunflower 5. Lilies 6. Daffodils 7. Marigold 8. Lotus 9. Dahlia 10. Gladioli 11. Carnations 12. Chrysanthemums 13. Apple blossom 14. Camellia 15. Iris 16. Lilac 17. Peony 18. Sweet pea 19. Magnolia 20. Lavender 21. Ranunculus 22. Stock 23. Statice 24. Proteas 25. Poinsettia


Top 10 Most Expensive Flowers | Beautiful Flowers World OF Top 10

https://youtu.be/tnGvp4trCiY Flowers have been a part of all kinds of occasions – bouquets during Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day, decorations during a wedding, or the simple daily hobby of gardening. Flowers fill our lives in the most stunning ways. Even if most flowers are very affordable (maybe a few dollars for a bouquet), some people will go the extremes to lay hands on the rarest, most beautiful flowers the world has seen Flowers are one of the most natural beauties of the world. They are also one of the most preferred gifts for loved ones. For women, Flowers are the all-time favorite. Flowers have been a part of all kinds of occasions – bouquets during Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day, decorations during a wedding, or the simple daily hobby of gardening. Flowers fill our lives in the most stunning ways. That is why men gift flowers to their partners. To win the heart of your girl, it may not cost you much but some people will go the extremes to lay hands on the rarest, most beautiful flowers the world has seen if you are planning to gift her below mentioned flowers, then you must think twice before making a plan! From rare orchids to a flower that lives for just a few hours, here’s a list of the 10 most expensive flowers in the world. Top 10 Most Expensive Flowers. 10. Lisianthus 9. LILY of the Valley 8. Hydrangea 7. Gloriosa Lily 6. 17th century Tulip Bulb 5. Saffron Crocus 4. Gold of Kinabalu Orchid 3. Shenzhen Nongke Orchid 2. Juliet Rose 1. Kadupul flower


Relaxing Ambient Music & Beautiful Flower Blooming Timelapse – Chill out & Meditate Sounds
Healing Music

This is about as calming as you can get and still have some sound. Listen and Enjoy beautiful, relaxing ambient music full of nature serenity in various videos to relax, meditate, go to sleep or as a yoga background.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Flowers

For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation).”Floral” redirects here. For other uses, see Floral (disambiguation).

A poster with flowers or clusters of flowers produced by twelve species of flowering plants from different families.

A poster with flowers or clusters of flowers produced by twelve species of flowering plants from different families.

Flowers in the Netherlands.

Flowers in the Netherlands.

flower, some­times known as a bloom or blos­som, is the re­pro­duc­tive struc­ture found in flow­er­ing plants (plants of the di­vi­sion Mag­no­lio­phyta, also called an­giosperms). The bi­o­log­i­cal func­tion of a flower is to af­fect re­pro­duc­tion, usu­ally by pro­vid­ing a mech­a­nism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flow­ers may fa­cil­i­tate out­cross­ing (fu­sion of sperm and eggs from dif­fer­ent in­di­vid­u­als in a pop­u­la­tion) re­sult­ing from cross pol­li­na­tion or allow self­ing (fu­sion of sperm and egg from the same flower) when self pol­li­na­tion oc­curs.

Pol­li­na­tion have two types which is self-pol­li­na­tion and cross-pol­li­na­tion. Self-pol­li­na­tion hap­pened when the pollen from the an­ther is de­posited on the stigma of the same flower, or an­other flower on the same plant. Cross-pol­li­na­tion is the trans­fer of pollen from the an­ther of one flower to the stigma of an­other flower on a dif­fer­ent in­di­vid­ual of the same species. Self-pol­li­na­tion hap­pened in flow­ers where the sta­men and carpel ma­ture at the same time, and are po­si­tioned so that the pollen can land on the flower’s stigma. This pol­li­na­tion does not re­quire an in­vest­ment from the plant to pro­vide nec­tar and pollen as food for pollinators.

Some flow­ers pro­duce di­as­pores with­out fer­til­iza­tion (partheno­carpy). Flow­ers con­tain spo­ran­gia and are the site where ga­me­to­phytes de­velop. Many flow­ers have evolved to be at­trac­tive to an­i­mals, so as to cause them to be vec­tors for the trans­fer of pollen. After fer­til­iza­tion, the ovary of the flower de­vel­ops into fruit con­tain­ing seeds.

In ad­di­tion to fa­cil­i­tat­ing the re­pro­duc­tion of flow­er­ing plants, flow­ers have long been ad­mired and used by hu­mans to bring beauty to their en­vi­ron­ment, and also as ob­jects of ro­mance, rit­ual, re­li­gionmed­i­cine and as a source of food.


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Main parts of a mature flower (Ranunculus glaberrimus).

Main parts of a mature flower (Ranunculus glaberrimus).Diagram of flower parts.

Floral parts

The es­sen­tial parts of a flower can be con­sid­ered in two parts: the veg­e­ta­tive part, con­sist­ing of petals and as­so­ci­ated struc­tures in the pe­ri­anth, and the re­pro­duc­tive or sex­ual parts. A stereo­typ­i­cal flower con­sists of four kinds of struc­tures at­tached to the tip of a short stalk. Each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the re­cep­ta­cle. The four main whorls (start­ing from the base of the flower or low­est node and work­ing up­wards) are as fol­lows:


Main articles: PerianthSepal, and Corolla (flower)

Col­lec­tively the calyx and corolla form the pe­ri­anth (see di­a­gram).

  • Calyx: the outermost whorl consisting of units called sepals; these are typically green and enclose the rest of the flower in the bud stage, however, they can be absent or prominent and petal-like in some species.
  • Corolla: the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are typically thin, soft and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.


Main articles: Plant reproductive morphologyAndroecium, and Gynoecium

Reproductive parts of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum). 1. Stigma, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Filament, 5. Petal

Reproductive parts of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum). 1. Stigma, 2. Style, 3. Stamens, 4. Filament, 5. Petal

  • Androecium (from Greek andros oikia: man’s house): the next whorl (sometimes multiplied into several whorls), consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts: a stalk called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis and eventually dispersed.
  • Gynoecium (from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman’s house): the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels. The carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes. These give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is also described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl (consisting of an ovary, style and stigma) is called a pistil. A pistil may consist of a single carpel or a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous (beneath a superior ovary), perigynous (surrounding a superior ovary), or epigynous (above inferior ovary).


Al­though the arrange­ment de­scribed above is con­sid­ered “typ­i­cal”, plant species show a wide vari­a­tion in flo­ral structure. These mod­i­fi­ca­tions have sig­nif­i­cance in the evo­lu­tion of flow­er­ing plants and are used ex­ten­sively by botanists to es­tab­lish re­la­tion­ships among plant species.

The four main parts of a flower are gen­er­ally de­fined by their po­si­tions on the re­cep­ta­cle and not by their func­tion. Many flow­ers lack some parts or parts may be mod­i­fied into other func­tions and/or look like what is typ­i­cally an­other part. In some fam­i­lies, like Ra­nun­cu­laceae, the petals are greatly re­duced and in many species the sepals are col­or­ful and petal-like. Other flow­ers have mod­i­fied sta­mens that are petal-like; the dou­ble flow­ers of Pe­onies and Roses are mostly petaloid stamens. Flow­ers show great vari­a­tion and plant sci­en­tists de­scribe this vari­a­tion in a sys­tem­atic way to iden­tify and dis­tin­guish species.

Spe­cific ter­mi­nol­ogy is used to de­scribe flow­ers and their parts. Many flower parts are fused to­gether; fused parts orig­i­nat­ing from the same whorl are con­nate, while fused parts orig­i­nat­ing from dif­fer­ent whorls are ad­nate; parts that are not fused are free. When petals are fused into a tube or ring that falls away as a sin­gle unit, they are sym­petalous (also called gamopetalous). Con­nate petals may have dis­tinc­tive re­gions: the cylin­dri­cal base is the tube, the ex­pand­ing re­gion is the throat and the flar­ing outer re­gion is the limb. A sym­petalous flower, with bi­lat­eral sym­me­try with an upper and lower lip, is bi­l­abi­ate. Flow­ers with con­nate petals or sepals may have var­i­ous shaped corolla or calyx, in­clud­ing cam­pan­u­late, fun­nelform, tubu­lar, urce­o­late, salver­form or ro­tate.

Re­fer­ring to “fu­sion,” as it is com­monly done, ap­pears ques­tion­able be­cause at least some of the processes in­volved may be non-fu­sion processes. For ex­am­ple, the ad­di­tion of in­ter­calary growth at or below the base of the pri­mor­dia of flo­ral ap­pendages such as sepals, petals, sta­mens and carpels may lead to a com­mon base that is not the re­sult of fusion.

Left: A normal zygomorphic Streptocarpus flower. Right: An aberrant peloric Streptocarpus flower. Both of these flowers appeared on the Streptocarpus hybrid 'Anderson's Crows' Wings'.

Left: A normal zygomorphic Streptocarpus flower. Right: An aberrant peloric Streptocarpus flower. Both of these flowers appeared on the Streptocarpus hybrid ‘Anderson’s Crows’ Wings’.

Many flow­ers have a sym­me­try. When the pe­ri­anth is bi­sected through the cen­tral axis from any point and sym­met­ri­cal halves are pro­duced, the flower is said to be actin­omor­phic or reg­u­lar, e.g. rose or tril­lium. This is an ex­am­ple of ra­dial sym­me­try. When flow­ers are bi­sected and pro­duce only one line that pro­duces sym­met­ri­cal halves, the flower is said to be ir­reg­u­lar or zy­go­mor­phic, e.g. snap­dragon or most or­chids.

Flow­ers may be di­rectly at­tached to the plant at their base (ses­sile—the sup­port­ing stalk or stem is highly re­duced or ab­sent). The stem or stalk sub­tend­ing a flower is called a pe­dun­cle. If a pe­dun­cle sup­ports more than one flower, the stems con­nect­ing each flower to the main axis are called pedicels. The apex of a flow­er­ing stem forms a ter­mi­nal swelling which is called the torus or re­cep­ta­cle.


The familiar calla lily is not a single flower. It is actually an inflorescence of tiny flowers pressed together on a central stalk that is surrounded by a large petal-like bract.

The familiar calla lily is not a single flower. It is actually an inflorescence of tiny flowers pressed together on a central stalk that is surrounded by a large petal-like bract.Main article: Inflorescence

In those species that have more than one flower on an axis, the col­lec­tive clus­ter of flow­ers is termed an in­flo­res­cence. Some in­flo­res­cences are com­posed of many small flow­ers arranged in a for­ma­tion that re­sem­bles a sin­gle flower. The com­mon ex­am­ple of this is most mem­bers of the very large com­pos­ite (Aster­aceae) group. A sin­gle daisy or sun­flower, for ex­am­ple, is not a flower but a flower head—an in­flo­res­cence com­posed of nu­mer­ous flow­ers (or flo­rets). An in­flo­res­cence may in­clude spe­cial­ized stems and mod­i­fied leaves known as bracts.

Floral diagrams and floral formulae

Main articles: Floral formula and Floral diagram

flo­ral formula is a way to rep­re­sent the struc­ture of a flower using spe­cific let­ters, num­bers and sym­bols, pre­sent­ing sub­stan­tial in­for­ma­tion about the flower in a com­pact form. It can rep­re­sent a taxon, usu­ally giv­ing ranges of the num­bers of dif­fer­ent or­gans, or par­tic­u­lar species. Flo­ral for­mu­lae have been de­vel­oped in the early 19th cen­tury and their use has de­clined since. Pren­ner et al. (2010) de­vised an ex­ten­sion of the ex­ist­ing model to broaden the de­scrip­tive ca­pa­bil­ity of the formula. The for­mat of flo­ral for­mu­lae dif­fers in dif­fer­ent parts of the world, yet they con­vey the same information.

The struc­ture of a flower can also be ex­pressed by the means of flo­ral di­a­grams. The use of schematic di­a­grams can re­place long de­scrip­tions or com­pli­cated draw­ings as a tool for un­der­stand­ing both flo­ral struc­ture and evo­lu­tion. Such di­a­grams may show im­por­tant fea­tures of flow­ers, in­clud­ing the rel­a­tive po­si­tions of the var­i­ous or­gans, in­clud­ing the pres­ence of fu­sion and sym­me­try, as well as struc­tural details.


A flower de­vel­ops on a mod­i­fied shoot or axis from a de­ter­mi­nate api­cal meris­tem (de­ter­mi­nate mean­ing the axis grows to a set size). It has com­pressed in­tern­odes, bear­ing struc­tures that in clas­si­cal plant mor­phol­ogy are in­ter­preted as highly mod­i­fied leaves. De­tailed de­vel­op­men­tal stud­ies, how­ever, have shown that sta­mens are often ini­ti­ated more or less like mod­i­fied stems (caulomes) that in some cases may even re­sem­ble branch­lets. Tak­ing into ac­count the whole di­ver­sity in the de­vel­op­ment of the an­droe­cium of flow­er­ing plants, we find a con­tin­uum be­tween mod­i­fied leaves (phyl­lomes), mod­i­fied stems (caulomes), and mod­i­fied branch­lets (shoots).

Flowering transition

The tran­si­tion to flow­er­ing is one of the major phase changes that a plant makes dur­ing its life cycle. The tran­si­tion must take place at a time that is fa­vor­able for fer­til­iza­tion and the for­ma­tion of seeds, hence en­sur­ing max­i­mal re­pro­duc­tive suc­cess. To meet these needs a plant is able to in­ter­pret im­por­tant en­doge­nous and en­vi­ron­men­tal cues such as changes in lev­els of plant hor­mones and sea­son­able tem­per­a­ture and pho­tope­riod changes. Many peren­nial and most bi­en­nial plants re­quire ver­nal­iza­tion to flower. The mol­e­c­u­lar in­ter­pre­ta­tion of these sig­nals is through the trans­mis­sion of a com­plex sig­nal known as flori­gen, which in­volves a va­ri­ety of genes, in­clud­ing Con­stans, Flow­er­ing Locus C and Flow­er­ing Locus T. Flori­gen is pro­duced in the leaves in re­pro­duc­tively fa­vor­able con­di­tions and acts in buds and grow­ing tips to in­duce a num­ber of dif­fer­ent phys­i­o­log­i­cal and mor­pho­log­i­cal changes.

The first step of the tran­si­tion is the trans­for­ma­tion of the veg­e­ta­tive stem pri­mor­dia into flo­ral pri­mor­dia. This oc­curs as bio­chem­i­cal changes take place to change cel­lu­lar dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of leaf, bud and stem tis­sues into tis­sue that will grow into the re­pro­duc­tive or­gans. Growth of the cen­tral part of the stem tip stops or flat­tens out and the sides de­velop pro­tu­ber­ances in a whorled or spi­ral fash­ion around the out­side of the stem end. These pro­tu­ber­ances de­velop into the sepals, petals, sta­mens, and carpels. Once this process be­gins, in most plants, it can­not be re­versed and the stems de­velop flow­ers, even if the ini­tial start of the flower for­ma­tion event was de­pen­dent of some en­vi­ron­men­tal cue. Once the process be­gins, even if that cue is re­moved the stem will con­tinue to de­velop a flower.

Yvonne Aitken has shown that flow­er­ing tran­si­tion de­pends on a num­ber of fac­tors, and that plants flow­er­ing ear­li­est under given con­di­tions had the least de­pen­dence on cli­mate whereas later-flow­er­ing va­ri­eties re­acted strongly to the cli­mate setup.

Organ development

Main article: ABC model of flower developmentThe ABC model of flower development

The mol­e­c­u­lar con­trol of flo­ral organ iden­tity de­ter­mi­na­tion ap­pears to be fairly well un­der­stood in some species. In a sim­ple model, three gene ac­tiv­i­ties in­ter­act in a com­bi­na­to­r­ial man­ner to de­ter­mine the de­vel­op­men­tal iden­ti­ties of the organ pri­mor­dia within the flo­ral meris­tem. These gene func­tions are called A, B and C-gene func­tions. In the first flo­ral whorl only A-genes are ex­pressed, lead­ing to the for­ma­tion of sepals. In the sec­ond whorl both A- and B-genes are ex­pressed, lead­ing to the for­ma­tion of petals. In the third whorl, B and C genes in­ter­act to form sta­mens and in the cen­ter of the flower C-genes alone give rise to carpels. The model is based upon stud­ies of mu­tants in Ara­bidop­sis thaliana and snap­dragon, An­tir­rhinum majus. For ex­am­ple, when there is a loss of B-gene func­tion, mu­tant flow­ers are pro­duced with sepals in the first whorl as usual, but also in the sec­ond whorl in­stead of the nor­mal petal for­ma­tion. In the third whorl the lack of B func­tion but pres­ence of C-func­tion mim­ics the fourth whorl, lead­ing to the for­ma­tion of carpels also in the third whorl.

Most genes cen­tral in this model be­long to the MADS-box genes and are tran­scrip­tion fac­tors that reg­u­late the ex­pres­sion of the genes spe­cific for each flo­ral organ.

Floral function

See also: Plant reproductive morphology

A "perfect flower", this Crateva religiosa flower has both stamens (outer ring) and a pistil (center).

A “perfect flower”, this Crateva religiosa flower has both stamens (outer ring) and a pistil (center).

The prin­ci­pal pur­pose of a flower is the re­pro­duc­tion of the in­di­vid­ual and the species. All flow­er­ing plants are het­erosporous, that is, every in­di­vid­ual plant pro­duces two types of spores. Mi­crospores are pro­duced by meio­sis in­side an­thers and megas­pores are pro­duced in­side ovules that are within an ovary. An­thers typ­i­cally con­sist of four mi­crospo­ran­gia and an ovule is an in­tegu­mented megas­po­rangium. Both types of spores de­velop into ga­me­to­phytes in­side spo­ran­gia. As with all het­erosporous plants, the ga­me­to­phytes also de­velop in­side the spores, i. e., they are en­dosporic.

In the ma­jor­ity of plant species, in­di­vid­ual flow­ers have both func­tional carpels and sta­mens. Botanists de­scribe these flow­ers as “per­fect” or “bi­sex­ual”, and the species as “her­maph­ro­ditic“. In a mi­nor­ity of plant species, their flow­ers lack one or the other re­pro­duc­tive organ and are de­scribed as “im­per­fect” or “uni­sex­ual”. If the in­di­vid­ual plants of a species each have uni­sex­ual flow­ers of both sexes then the species is “mo­noe­cious“. Al­ter­na­tively, if each in­di­vid­ual plant has only uni­sex­ual flow­ers of the same sex then the species is “dioe­cious“.

Floral specialization and pollination

Further information: Pollination syndrome

Flow­er­ing plants usu­ally face se­lec­tive pres­sure to op­ti­mize the trans­fer of their pollen, and this is typ­i­cally re­flected in the mor­phol­ogy of the flow­ers and the be­hav­iour of the plants. Pollen may be trans­ferred be­tween plants via a num­ber of ‘vec­tors’. Some plants make use of abi­otic vec­tors — namely wind (anemophily) or, much less com­monly, water (hy­drophily). Oth­ers use bi­otic vec­tors in­clud­ing in­sects (en­to­mophily), birds (or­nithophily), bats (chi­ropterophily) or other an­i­mals. Some plants make use of mul­ti­ple vec­tors, but many are highly spe­cialised.

Cleis­tog­a­mous flow­ers are self-pol­li­nated, after which they may or may not open. Many Viola and some Salvia species are known to have these types of flow­ers.

The flow­ers of plants that make use of bi­otic pollen vec­tors com­monly have glands called nec­taries that act as an in­cen­tive for an­i­mals to visit the flower. Some flow­ers have pat­terns, called nec­tar guides, that show pol­li­na­tors where to look for nec­tar. Flow­ers also at­tract pol­li­na­tors by scent and color. Still other flow­ers use mim­icry to at­tract pol­li­na­tors. Some species of or­chids, for ex­am­ple, pro­duce flow­ers re­sem­bling fe­male bees in color, shape, and scent. Flow­ers are also spe­cial­ized in shape and have an arrange­ment of the sta­mens that en­sures that pollen grains are trans­ferred to the bod­ies of the pol­li­na­tor when it lands in search of its at­trac­tant (such as nec­tar, pollen, or a mate). In pur­su­ing this at­trac­tant from many flow­ers of the same species, the pol­li­na­tor trans­fers pollen to the stig­mas—arranged with equally pointed pre­ci­sion—of all of the flow­ers it vis­its.

Anemophilous flow­ers use the wind to move pollen from one flower to the next. Ex­am­ples in­clude grasses, birch trees, rag­weed and maples. They have no need to at­tract pol­li­na­tors and there­fore tend not to be “showy” flow­ers. Male and fe­male re­pro­duc­tive or­gans are gen­er­ally found in sep­a­rate flow­ers, the male flow­ers hav­ing a num­ber of long fil­a­ments ter­mi­nat­ing in ex­posed sta­mens, and the fe­male flow­ers hav­ing long, feather-like stig­mas. Whereas the pollen of an­i­mal-pol­li­nated flow­ers tends to be large-grained, sticky, and rich in pro­tein (an­other “re­ward” for pol­li­na­tors), anemophilous flower pollen is usu­ally small-grained, very light, and of lit­tle nu­tri­tional value to an­i­mals.


Main article: Pollination

Grains of pollen sticking to this bee will be transferred to the next flower it visits

Grains of pollen sticking to this bee will be transferred to the next flower it visits

The pri­mary pur­pose of a flower is re­pro­duc­tion. Since the flow­ers are the re­pro­duc­tive or­gans of plant, they me­di­ate the join­ing of the sperm, con­tained within pollen, to the ovules — con­tained in the ovary. Pol­li­na­tion is the move­ment of pollen from the an­thers to the stigma. The join­ing of the sperm to the ovules is called fer­til­iza­tion. Nor­mally pollen is moved from one plant to an­other, but many plants are able to self pol­li­nate. The fer­til­ized ovules pro­duce seeds that are the next gen­er­a­tion. Sex­ual re­pro­duc­tion pro­duces ge­net­i­cally unique off­spring, al­low­ing for adap­ta­tion. Flow­ers have spe­cific de­signs which en­cour­ages the trans­fer of pollen from one plant to an­other of the same species. Many plants are de­pen­dent upon ex­ter­nal fac­tors for pol­li­na­tion, in­clud­ing: wind and an­i­mals, and es­pe­cially in­sects. Even large an­i­mals such as birds, bats, and pygmy pos­sums can be em­ployed. The pe­riod of time dur­ing which this process can take place (the flower is fully ex­panded and func­tional) is called an­the­sis. The study of pol­li­na­tion by in­sects is called an­the­col­ogy.

Pollination mechanism

The pol­li­na­tion mech­a­nism em­ployed by a plant de­pends on what method of pol­li­na­tion is uti­lized.

Most flow­ers can be di­vided be­tween two broad groups of pol­li­na­tion meth­ods:

En­to­mophilous: flow­ers at­tract and use in­sects, bats, birds or other an­i­mals to trans­fer pollen from one flower to the next. Often they are spe­cial­ized in shape and have an arrange­ment of the sta­mens that en­sures that pollen grains are trans­ferred to the bod­ies of the pol­li­na­tor when it lands in search of its at­trac­tant (such as nec­tar, pollen, or a mate). In pur­su­ing this at­trac­tant from many flow­ers of the same species, the pol­li­na­tor trans­fers pollen to the stig­mas—arranged with equally pointed pre­ci­sion—of all of the flow­ers it vis­its. Many flow­ers rely on sim­ple prox­im­ity be­tween flower parts to en­sure pol­li­na­tion. Oth­ers, such as the Sar­race­nia or lady-slip­per or­chids, have elab­o­rate de­signs to en­sure pol­li­na­tion while pre­vent­ing self-pol­li­na­tion.Grass flower with vestigial perianth or lodicules

Anemophilous: flow­ers use the wind to move pollen from one flower to the next, ex­am­ples in­clude the grasses, Birch trees, Rag­weed and Maples. They have no need to at­tract pol­li­na­tors and there­fore tend not to grow large blos­soms. Whereas the pollen of en­to­mophilous flow­ers tends to be large-grained, sticky, and rich in pro­tein (an­other “re­ward” for pol­li­na­tors), anemophilous flower pollen is usu­ally small-grained, very light, and of lit­tle nu­tri­tional value to in­sects, though it may still be gath­ered in times of dearth. Hon­ey­bees and bum­ble­bees ac­tively gather anemophilous corn (maize) pollen, though it is of lit­tle value to them.

Some flow­ers with both sta­mens and a pis­til are ca­pa­ble of self-fer­til­iza­tion, which does in­crease the chance of pro­duc­ing seeds but lim­its ge­netic vari­a­tion. The ex­treme case of self-fer­til­iza­tion oc­curs in flow­ers that al­ways self-fer­til­ize, such as many dan­de­lions. Some flow­ers are self-pol­li­nated and use flow­ers that never open or are self-pol­li­nated be­fore the flow­ers open, these flow­ers are called cleis­tog­a­mous. Many Viola species and some Salvia have these types of flow­ers. Con­versely, many species of plants have ways of pre­vent­ing self-fer­til­iza­tion. Uni­sex­ual male and fe­male flow­ers on the same plant may not ap­pear or ma­ture at the same time, or pollen from the same plant may be in­ca­pable of fer­til­iz­ing its ovules. The lat­ter flower types, which have chem­i­cal bar­ri­ers to their own pollen, are re­ferred to as self-ster­ile or self-in­com­pat­i­ble.

Attraction methods
A Bee orchid has evolved over many generations to better mimic a female bee to attract male bees as pollinators.

Bee orchid has evolved over many generations to better mimic a female bee to attract male bees as pollinators.

Plants can­not move from one lo­ca­tion to an­other, thus many flow­ers have evolved to at­tract an­i­mals to trans­fer pollen be­tween in­di­vid­u­als in dis­persed pop­u­la­tions. Flow­ers that are in­sect-pol­li­nated are called en­to­mophilous; lit­er­ally “in­sect-lov­ing” in Greek. They can be highly mod­i­fied along with the pol­li­nat­ing in­sects by co-evo­lu­tion. Flow­ers com­monly have glands called nec­taries on var­i­ous parts that at­tract an­i­mals look­ing for nu­tri­tious nec­tarBirds and bees have color vi­sion, en­abling them to seek out “col­or­ful” flow­ers.

Some flow­ers have pat­terns, called nec­tar guides, that show pol­li­na­tors where to look for nec­tar; they may be vis­i­ble only under ul­tra­vi­o­let light, which is vis­i­ble to bees and some other in­sects. Flow­ers also at­tract pol­li­na­tors by scent and some of those scents are pleas­ant to our sense of smell. Not all flower scents are ap­peal­ing to hu­mans; a num­ber of flow­ers are pol­li­nated by in­sects that are at­tracted to rot­ten flesh and have flow­ers that smell like dead an­i­mals, often called Car­rion flow­ers, in­clud­ing Raf­fle­sia, the titan arum, and the North Amer­i­can paw­paw (Asim­ina triloba). Flow­ers pol­li­nated by night vis­i­tors, in­clud­ing bats and moths, are likely to con­cen­trate on scent to at­tract pol­li­na­tors and most such flow­ers are white.

Other flow­ers use mim­icry to at­tract pol­li­na­tors. Some species of or­chids, for ex­am­ple, pro­duce flow­ers re­sem­bling fe­male bees in color, shape, and scent. Male bees move from one such flower to an­other in search of a mate.

Flower-pollinator relationships

Many flow­ers have close re­la­tion­ships with one or a few spe­cific pol­li­nat­ing or­gan­isms. Many flow­ers, for ex­am­ple, at­tract only one spe­cific species of in­sect, and there­fore rely on that in­sect for suc­cess­ful re­pro­duc­tion. This close re­la­tion­ship is often given as an ex­am­ple of co­evo­lu­tion, as the flower and pol­li­na­tor are thought to have de­vel­oped to­gether over a long pe­riod of time to match each other’s needs.

This close re­la­tion­ship com­pounds the neg­a­tive ef­fects of ex­tinc­tion. The ex­tinc­tion of ei­ther mem­ber in such a re­la­tion­ship would mean al­most cer­tain ex­tinc­tion of the other mem­ber as well. Some en­dan­gered plant species are so be­cause of shrink­ing pol­li­na­tor pop­u­la­tions.

Pollen allergy

There is much con­fu­sion about the role of flow­ers in al­ler­gies. For ex­am­ple, the showy and en­to­mophilous gold­en­rod (Sol­idago) is fre­quently blamed for res­pi­ra­tory al­ler­gies, of which it is in­no­cent, since its pollen can­not be air­borne. The types of pollen that most com­monly cause al­ler­gic re­ac­tions are pro­duced by the plain-look­ing plants (trees, grasses, and weeds) that do not have showy flow­ers. These plants make small, light, dry pollen grains that are cus­tom-made for wind trans­port.

The type of al­ler­gens in the pollen is the main fac­tor that de­ter­mines whether the pollen is likely to cause hay fever. For ex­am­ple, pine tree pollen is pro­duced in large amounts by a com­mon tree, which would make it a good can­di­date for caus­ing al­lergy. It is, how­ever, a rel­a­tively rare cause of al­lergy be­cause the types of al­ler­gens in pine pollen ap­pear to make it less al­ler­genic. In­stead the al­ler­gen is usu­ally the pollen of the con­tem­po­rary bloom of anemophilous rag­weed (Am­brosia), which can drift for many miles. Sci­en­tists have col­lected sam­ples of rag­weed pollen 400 miles out at sea and 2 miles high in the air. A sin­gle rag­weed plant can gen­er­ate a mil­lion grains of pollen per day.

Among North Amer­i­can plants, weeds are the most pro­lific pro­duc­ers of al­ler­genic pollen. Rag­weed is the major cul­prit, but other im­por­tant sources are sage­brush, re­d­root pig­weed, lamb’s quar­ters, Russ­ian this­tle (tum­ble­weed), and Eng­lish plan­tain.

It is com­mon to hear peo­ple say they are al­ler­gic to col­or­ful or scented flow­ers like roses. In fact, only florists, gar­den­ers, and oth­ers who have pro­longed, close con­tact with flow­ers are likely to be sen­si­tive to pollen from these plants. Most peo­ple have lit­tle con­tact with the large, heavy, waxy pollen grains of such flow­er­ing plants be­cause this type of pollen is not car­ried by wind but by in­sects such as but­ter­flies and bees.

Seed dispersal

Main article: Biological dispersal


Life timeline

This box:-4500 —–-4000 —–-3500 —–-3000 —–-2500 —–-2000 —–-1500 —–-1000 —–-500 —–0 —waterSingle-celled
Arthropods       MolluscsPlantsDinosaurs    MammalsFlowersBirdsPrimates           ← Earth (−4540)←Earliest waterEarliest lifeEarliest oxygenAtmospheric oxygenOxygen crisisSexual reproductionEarliest plantsEarliest animalsEdiacara biotaCambrian explosionTetrapodaEarliest apesP


PongolaHuronianCryogenianAndeanKarooQuaternaryIce AgesClickable(million years ago)
The image above contains clickable links(See also: Human timeline, and Nature timeline.)Further information: Evolution of flowers and Floral biology

While land plants have ex­isted for about 425 mil­lion years, the first ones re­pro­duced by a sim­ple adap­ta­tion of their aquatic coun­ter­parts: spores. In the sea, plants—and some an­i­mals—can sim­ply scat­ter out ge­netic clones of them­selves to float away and grow else­where. This is how early plants re­pro­duced. But plants soon evolved meth­ods of pro­tect­ing these copies to deal with dry­ing out and other dam­age which is even more likely on land than in the sea. The pro­tec­tion be­came the seed, though it had not yet evolved the flower. Early seed-bear­ing plants in­clude the ginkgo and conifers.

Archaefructus liaoningensis, one of the earliest known flowering plants

Archaefructus liaoningensis, one of the earliest known flowering plants

Sev­eral groups of ex­tinct gym­nosperms, par­tic­u­larly seed ferns, have been pro­posed as the an­ces­tors of flow­er­ing plants but there is no con­tin­u­ous fos­sil ev­i­dence show­ing ex­actly how flow­ers evolved. The ap­par­ently sud­den ap­pear­ance of rel­a­tively mod­ern flow­ers in the fos­sil record posed such a prob­lem for the the­ory of evo­lu­tion that it was called an “abom­inable mys­tery” by Charles Dar­win.

Re­cently dis­cov­ered an­giosperm fos­sils such as Ar­chae­fruc­tus, along with fur­ther dis­cov­er­ies of fos­sil gym­nosperms, sug­gest how an­giosperm char­ac­ter­is­tics may have been ac­quired in a se­ries of steps. An early fos­sil of a flow­er­ing plant, Ar­chae­fruc­tus liaonin­gen­sis from China, is dated about 125 mil­lion years old. Even ear­lier from China is the 125–130 mil­lion years old Ar­chae­fruc­tus sinen­sis. In 2015 a plant (130 mil­lion-year-old Montsechia vi­dalii, dis­cov­ered in Spain) was claimed to be 130 mil­lion years old. In 2018, sci­en­tists re­ported that the ear­li­est flow­ers began about 180 mil­lion years ago.

Amborella trichopoda may have characteristic features of the earliest flowering plants

Amborella trichopoda may have characteristic features of the earliest flowering plants

Re­cent DNA analy­sis (mol­e­c­u­lar sys­tem­at­ics) shows that Am­borella tri­chopoda, found on the Pa­cific is­land of New Cale­do­nia, is the only species in the sis­ter group to the rest of the flow­er­ing plants, and mor­pho­log­i­cal stud­ies sug­gest that it has fea­tures which may have been char­ac­ter­is­tic of the ear­li­est flow­er­ing plants.

Be­sides the hard proof of flow­ers in or shortly be­fore the Cre­ta­ceous, there is some cir­cum­stan­tial ev­i­dence of flow­ers as much as 250 mil­lion years ago. A chem­i­cal used by plants to de­fend their flow­ers, oleanane, has been de­tected in fos­sil plants that old, in­clud­ing gi­gan­topterids, which evolved at that time and bear many of the traits of mod­ern, flow­er­ing plants, though they are not known to be flow­er­ing plants them­selves, be­cause only their stems and prick­les have been found pre­served in de­tail; one of the ear­li­est ex­am­ples of pet­ri­fi­ca­tion.

The sim­i­lar­ity in leaf and stem struc­ture can be very im­por­tant, be­cause flow­ers are ge­net­i­cally just an adap­ta­tion of nor­mal leaf and stem com­po­nents on plants, a com­bi­na­tion of genes nor­mally re­spon­si­ble for form­ing new shoots. The most prim­i­tive flow­ers are thought to have had a vari­able num­ber of flower parts, often sep­a­rate from (but in con­tact with) each other. The flow­ers would have tended to grow in a spi­ral pat­tern, to be bi­sex­ual (in plants, this means both male and fe­male parts on the same flower), and to be dom­i­nated by the ovary (fe­male part). As flow­ers grew more ad­vanced, some vari­a­tions de­vel­oped parts fused to­gether, with a much more spe­cific num­ber and de­sign, and with ei­ther spe­cific sexes per flower or plant, or at least “ovary in­fe­rior”.

The gen­eral as­sump­tion is that the func­tion of flow­ers, from the start, was to in­volve an­i­mals in the re­pro­duc­tion process. Pollen can be scat­tered with­out bright col­ors and ob­vi­ous shapes, which would there­fore be a li­a­bil­ity, using the plant’s re­sources, un­less they pro­vide some other ben­e­fit. One pro­posed rea­son for the sud­den, fully de­vel­oped ap­pear­ance of flow­ers is that they evolved in an iso­lated set­ting like an is­land, or chain of is­lands, where the plants bear­ing them were able to de­velop a highly spe­cial­ized re­la­tion­ship with some spe­cific an­i­mal (a wasp, for ex­am­ple), the way many is­land species de­velop today. This sym­bi­otic re­la­tion­ship, with a hy­po­thet­i­cal wasp bear­ing pollen from one plant to an­other much the way fig wasps do today, could have even­tu­ally re­sulted in both the plant(s) and their part­ners de­vel­op­ing a high de­gree of spe­cial­iza­tion. Is­land ge­net­ics is be­lieved to be a com­mon source of spe­ci­a­tion, es­pe­cially when it comes to rad­i­cal adap­ta­tions which seem to have re­quired in­fe­rior tran­si­tional forms. Note that the wasp ex­am­ple is not in­ci­den­tal; bees, ap­par­ently evolved specif­i­cally for sym­bi­otic plant re­la­tion­ships, are de­scended from wasps.

Like­wise, most fruit used in plant re­pro­duc­tion comes from the en­large­ment of parts of the flower. This fruit is fre­quently a tool which de­pends upon an­i­mals wish­ing to eat it, and thus scat­ter­ing the seeds it con­tains.

While many such sym­bi­otic re­la­tion­ships re­main too frag­ile to sur­vive com­pe­ti­tion with main­land or­gan­isms, flow­ers proved to be an un­usu­ally ef­fec­tive means of pro­duc­tion, spread­ing (what­ever their ac­tual ori­gin) to be­come the dom­i­nant form of land plant life.

Flower evo­lu­tion con­tin­ues to the pre­sent day; mod­ern flow­ers have been so pro­foundly in­flu­enced by hu­mans that many of them can­not be pol­li­nated in na­ture. Many mod­ern, do­mes­ti­cated flow­ers used to be sim­ple weeds, which only sprouted when the ground was dis­turbed. Some of them tended to grow with human crops, and the pret­ti­est did not get plucked be­cause of their beauty, de­vel­op­ing a de­pen­dence upon and spe­cial adap­ta­tion to human affection.


See also: Color gardenReflectance spectra for the flowers of several varieties of rose. A red rose absorbs about 99.7% of light across a broad area below the red wavelengths of the spectrum, leading to an exceptionally pure red. A yellow rose will reflect about 5% of blue light, producing an unsaturated yellow (a yellow with a degree of white in it).

Many flow­er­ing plants re­flect as much light as pos­si­ble within the range of vis­i­ble wave­lengths of the pol­li­na­tor the plant in­tends to at­tract. Flow­ers that re­flect the full range of vis­i­ble light are gen­er­ally per­ceived as white by a human ob­server. An im­por­tant fea­ture of white flow­ers is that they re­flect equally across the vis­i­ble spec­trum. While many flow­er­ing plants use white to at­tract pol­li­na­tors, the use of color is also wide­spread (even within the same species). Color al­lows a flow­er­ing plant to be more spe­cific about the pol­li­na­tor it seeks to at­tract. The color model used by human color re­pro­duc­tion tech­nol­ogy (CMYK) re­lies on the mod­u­la­tion of pig­ments that di­vide the spec­trum into broad areas of ab­sorp­tion. Flow­er­ing plants by con­trast are able to shift the tran­si­tion point wave­length be­tween ab­sorp­tion and re­flec­tion. If it is as­sumed that the vi­sual sys­tems of most pol­li­na­tors view the vis­i­ble spec­trum as cir­cu­lar then it may be said that flow­er­ing plants pro­duce color by ab­sorb­ing the light in one re­gion of the spec­trum and re­flect­ing the light in the other re­gion. With CMYK, color is pro­duced as a func­tion of the am­pli­tude of the broad re­gions of ab­sorp­tion. Flow­er­ing plants by con­trast pro­duce color by mod­i­fy­ing the fre­quency (or rather wave­length) of the light re­flected. Most flow­ers ab­sorb light in the blue to yel­low re­gion of the spec­trum and re­flect light from the green to red re­gion of the spec­trum. For many species of flow­er­ing plant, it is the tran­si­tion point that char­ac­ter­izes the color that they pro­duce. Color may be mod­u­lated by shift­ing the tran­si­tion point be­tween ab­sorp­tion and re­flec­tion and in this way a flow­er­ing plant may spec­ify which pol­li­na­tor it seeks to at­tract. Some flow­er­ing plants also have a lim­ited abil­ity to mod­u­late areas of ab­sorp­tion. This is typ­i­cally not as pre­cise as con­trol over wave­length. Hu­mans ob­servers will per­ceive this as de­grees of sat­u­ra­tion (the amount of white in the color).


Lilies are often used to denote life or resurrection

Lilies are often used to denote life or resurrectionMain article: Language of flowers

Many flow­ers have im­por­tant sym­bolic mean­ings in West­ern culture. The prac­tice of as­sign­ing mean­ings to flow­ers is known as flo­ri­og­ra­phy. Some of the more com­mon ex­am­ples in­clude:

  • Red roses are given as a symbol of love, beauty, and passion.
  • Poppies are a symbol of consolation in time of death. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and Canada, red poppies are worn to commemorate soldiers who have died in times of war.
  • Irises/Lily are used in burials as a symbol referring to “resurrection/life”. It is also associated with stars (sun) and its petals blooming/shining.
  • Daisies are a symbol of innocence.

Flowers are common subjects of still life paintings, such as this one by Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder

Flowers are common subjects of still life paintings, such as this one by Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder

Be­cause of their var­ied and col­or­ful ap­pear­ance, flow­ers have long been a fa­vorite sub­ject of vi­sual artists as well. Some of the most cel­e­brated paint­ings from well-known painters are of flow­ers, such as Van Gogh‘s sun­flow­ers se­ries or Monet‘s water lilies. Flow­ers are also dried, freeze dried and pressed in order to cre­ate per­ma­nent, three-di­men­sional pieces of flower art.

Flow­ers within art are also rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the fe­male gen­i­talia, as seen in the works of artists such as Geor­gia O’Ke­effeImo­gen Cun­ning­hamVeron­ica Ruiz de Ve­lasco, and Judy Chicago, and in fact in Asian and west­ern clas­si­cal art. Many cul­tures around the world have a marked ten­dency to as­so­ci­ate flow­ers with fem­i­nin­ity.

The great va­ri­ety of del­i­cate and beau­ti­ful flow­ers has in­spired the works of nu­mer­ous poets, es­pe­cially from the 18th–19th cen­tury Ro­man­tic era. Fa­mous ex­am­ples in­clude William Wordsworth‘s I Wan­dered Lonely as a Cloud and William Blake‘s Ah! Sun-Flower.

Their sym­bol­ism in dreams has also been dis­cussed, with pos­si­ble in­ter­pre­ta­tions in­clud­ing “blos­som­ing potential”.

The Roman god­dess of flow­ers, gar­dens, and the sea­son of Spring is Flora. The Greek god­dess of spring, flow­ers and na­ture is Chlo­ris.

In Hindu mythol­ogy, flow­ers have a sig­nif­i­cant sta­tus. Vishnu, one of the three major gods in the Hindu sys­tem, is often de­picted stand­ing straight on a lotus flower. Apart from the as­so­ci­a­tion with Vishnu, the Hindu tra­di­tion also con­sid­ers the lotus to have spir­i­tual significance. For ex­am­ple, it fig­ures in the Hindu sto­ries of creation.

Human usage

Chancel flowers, placed upon the altar of St. Arsatius's Church in Ilmmünster.

Chancel flowers, placed upon the altar of St. Arsatius’s Church in Ilmmünster.

In mod­ern times, peo­ple have sought ways to cul­ti­vate, buy, wear, or oth­er­wise be around flow­ers and bloom­ing plants, partly be­cause of their agree­able ap­pear­ance and smell. Around the world, peo­ple use flow­ers to mark im­por­tant events in their lives:

  • For new births or christenings
  • As a corsage or boutonniere worn at social functions or for holidays
  • As tokens of love or esteem
  • For wedding flowers for the bridal party, and for decorations for the hall
  • As brightening decorations within the home
  • As a gift of remembrance for bon voyage parties, welcome-home parties, and “thinking of you” gifts
  • For funeral flowers and expressions of sympathy for the grieving
  • For worship. In Christianitychancel flowers often adorn churches. In Hindu culture, adherents commonly bring flowers as a gift to temples

A woman spreading flowers over a lingam in a temple in Varanasi

A woman spreading flowers over a lingam in a temple in Varanasi

Peo­ple there­fore grow flow­ers around their homes, ded­i­cate parts of their liv­ing space to flower gar­dens, pick wild­flow­ers, or buy com­mer­cially-grown flow­ers from florists.

Flow­ers pro­vide less food than other major plant parts (seedsfruitsrootsstems and leaves), but still pro­vide sev­eral im­por­tant veg­eta­bles and spices. Flower veg­eta­bles in­clude broc­colicau­li­flower and ar­ti­choke. The most ex­pen­sive spice, saf­fron, con­sists of dried stig­mas of a cro­cus. Other flower spices are cloves and ca­persHops flow­ers are used to fla­vor beerMarigold flow­ers are fed to chick­ens to give their egg yolks a golden yel­low color, which con­sumers find more de­sir­able; dried and ground marigold flow­ers are also used as a spice and colour­ing agent in Geor­gian cui­sine. Flow­ers of the dan­de­lion and elder are often made into wine. Bee pollen, pollen col­lected from bees, is con­sid­ered a health food by some peo­ple. Honey con­sists of bee-processed flower nec­tar and is often named for the type of flower, e.g. or­ange blos­som honey, clover honey and tu­pelo honey.

Hun­dreds of fresh flow­ers are ed­i­ble, but only few are widely mar­keted as food. They are often added to sal­ads as gar­nishesSquash blos­soms are dipped in bread­crumbs and fried. Some ed­i­ble flow­ers in­clude nas­tur­tiumchrysan­the­mumcar­na­tioncat­tailJapan­ese hon­ey­sucklechicorycorn­flowercanna, and sun­flower. Ed­i­ble flow­ers such as daisyrose, and vi­o­let are some­times candied.

Flow­ers such as chrysan­the­mum, rose, jas­mine, Japan­ese hon­ey­suckle, and chamomile, cho­sen for their fra­grance and med­i­c­i­nal prop­er­ties, are used as ti­sanes, ei­ther mixed with tea or on their own.

Flow­ers have been used since pre­his­toric times in fu­neral rit­u­als: traces of pollen have been found on a woman’s tomb in the El Miron Cave in Spain. Many cul­tures draw a con­nec­tion be­tween flow­ers and life and death, and be­cause of their sea­sonal re­turn flow­ers also sug­gest re­birth, which may ex­plain why many peo­ple place flow­ers upon graves. The an­cient Greeks, as recorded in Eu­ripi­des‘s play The Phoeni­cian Women, placed a crown of flow­ers on the head of the deceased; they also cov­ered tombs with wreaths and flower petals. Flow­ers were widely used in an­cient Egypt­ian buri­als, and the Mex­i­cans to this day use flow­ers promi­nently in their Day of the Dead cel­e­bra­tions in the same way that their Aztec an­ces­tors did.

 Eight Flowers, a painting by artist Qian Xuan, 13th century, Palace Museum, Beijing.

Eight Flowers, a painting by artist Qian Xuan, 13th century, Palace Museum, Beijing.


Flower market – Detroit's Eastern Market

Flower market – Detroit‘s Eastern Market

The flower-giv­ing tra­di­tion goes back to pre­his­toric times when flow­ers often had a med­i­c­i­nal and herbal at­trib­utes. Ar­chae­ol­o­gists found in sev­eral grave sites rem­nants of flower petals. Flow­ers were first used as sac­ri­fi­cial and bur­ial ob­jects. An­cient Egyp­tians and later Greeks and Ro­mans used flow­ers. In Egypt, bur­ial ob­jects from the time around 1540 BC were found, which de­picted red poppy, yel­low Araun, corn­flower and lilies. Records of flower giv­ing ap­pear in Chi­nese writ­ings and Egypt­ian hi­ero­glyph­ics, as well as in Greek and Roman mythol­ogy. The prac­tice of giv­ing a flower flour­ished in the Mid­dle Ages when cou­ples showed af­fec­tion through flow­ers.

The tra­di­tion of flower-giv­ing ex­ists in many forms. It is an im­por­tant part of Russ­ian cul­ture and folk­lore. It is com­mon for stu­dents to give flow­ers to their teach­ers. To give yel­low flow­ers in a ro­man­tic re­la­tion­ship means break-up in Rus­sia. Nowa­days, flow­ers are often given away in the form of a flower bou­quet.

See also

Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Flowers


4K Blooming Flowers Time Lapse for Relaxation Soft Piano Music Go the Fork to Sleep

Watching a flower bloom is peaceful and calming. Relax while watching a stunning 4K time lapse of blooming flowers, while listening to soft, gentle piano music. Blooming flowers are mesmerizing to watch, especially in 4K. Piano music is wonderful for stress relief, meditation, relaxation, and sleep.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://wiki2.org/en/Petal

For other uses, see Petal (disambiguation).Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals)

Petals are mod­i­fied leaves that sur­round the re­pro­duc­tive parts of flow­ers. They are often brightly col­ored or un­usu­ally shaped to at­tract pol­li­na­tors. To­gether, all of the petals of a flower are called corolla. Petals are usu­ally ac­com­pa­nied by an­other set of spe­cial leaves like struc­tures called sepals, that col­lec­tively form the calyx and lie just be­neath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla to­gether make up the pe­ri­anth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are dif­fi­cult to dis­tin­guish, they are col­lec­tively called tepals. Ex­am­ples of plants in which the term tepal is ap­pro­pri­ate in­clude gen­era such as Aloe and Tulipa. Con­versely, gen­era such as Rosa and Phase­o­lus have well-dis­tin­guished sepals and petals. When the un­dif­fer­en­ti­ated tepals re­sem­ble petals, they are re­ferred to as “petaloid”, as in petaloid mono­cots, or­ders of mono­cots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they in­clude Lil­iales, an al­ter­na­tive name is lil­ioid mono­cots.

Al­though petals are usu­ally the most con­spic­u­ous parts of an­i­mal-pol­li­nated flow­ers, wind-pol­li­nated species, such as the grasses, ei­ther have very small petals or lack them en­tirely (apetalous).

Tetrameric flower of a Primrose willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals

Tetrameric flower of a Primrose willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals

Tetrameric flower of a Primrose willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals

Tulip‘s actinomorphic flower with three petals and three sepals, that collectively present a good example of an undifferentiated perianth. In this case, the word “tepals” is used.



Diagram of apopetalous corolla

Apopetalous corolla

Tubular-campanulate corolla, bearing long points and emergent from tubular calyx ( Brugmansia aurea, Golden Angel's Trumpet, family Solanaceae ).

Tubular-campanulate corolla, bearing long points and emergent from tubular calyx ( Brugmansia aurea, Golden Angel’s Trumpet, family Solanaceae ).

The role of the corolla in plant evo­lu­tion has been stud­ied ex­ten­sively since Charles Dar­win pos­tu­lated a the­ory of the ori­gin of elon­gated corol­lae and corolla tubes.

A corolla of sep­a­rate petals, with­out fu­sion of in­di­vid­ual seg­ments, is apopetalous. If the petals are free from one an­other in the corolla, the plant is polypetalous or choripetalous; while if the petals are at least par­tially fused to­gether, it is gamopetalous or sym­petalous. In the case of fused tepals, the term is syn­tepalous. The corolla in some plants forms a tube.


Pelargonium peltatum , the Ivy-leaved Pelargonium : its floral structure is almost identical to that of geraniums, but it is conspicuously zygomorphic

Pelargonium peltatum , the Ivy-leaved Pelargonium : its floral structure is almost identical to that of geraniums, but it is conspicuously zygomorphic

Geranium incanum, with an actinomorphic flower typical of the genus

Geranium incanum, with an actinomorphic flower typical of the genus

The white flower of Pisum sativum , the Garden Pea : an example of a zygomorphic flower.

The white flower of Pisum sativum , the Garden Pea : an example of a zygomorphic flower.

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, the Wild Daffodil, showing ( from bend to tip of flower ) spathe, floral cup, tepals, corona

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, the Wild Daffodil, showing ( from bend to tip of flower ) spathefloral cuptepalscorona

Petals can dif­fer dra­mat­i­cally in dif­fer­ent species. The num­ber of petals in a flower may hold clues to a plant’s clas­si­fi­ca­tion. For ex­am­ple, flow­ers on eu­di­cots (the largest group of di­cots) most fre­quently have four or five petals while flow­ers on mono­cots have three or six petals, al­though there are many ex­cep­tions to this rule.

The petal whorl or corolla may be ei­ther ra­di­ally or bi­lat­er­ally sym­met­ri­cal (see Sym­me­try in bi­ol­ogy and Flo­ral sym­me­try). If all of the petals are es­sen­tially iden­ti­cal in size and shape, the flower is said to be reg­u­lar[3] or actin­omor­phic (mean­ing “ray-formed”). Many flow­ers are sym­met­ri­cal in only one plane (i.e., sym­me­try is bi­lat­eral) and are termed ir­reg­u­lar or zy­go­mor­phic (mean­ing “yoke-” or “pair-formed”). In ir­reg­u­lar flow­ers, other flo­ral parts may be mod­i­fied from the reg­u­lar form, but the petals show the great­est de­vi­a­tion from ra­dial sym­me­try. Ex­am­ples of zy­go­mor­phic flow­ers may be seen in or­chids and mem­bers of the pea fam­ily.

In many plants of the aster fam­ily such as the sun­flower, He­lianthus an­nuus, the cir­cum­fer­ence of the flower head is com­posed of ray flo­rets. Each ray flo­ret is anatom­i­cally an in­di­vid­ual flower with a sin­gle large petal. Flo­rets in the cen­tre of the disc typ­i­cally have no or very re­duced petals. In some plants such as Nar­cis­sus the lower part of the petals or tepals are fused to form a flo­ral cup (hy­pan­thium) above the ovary, and from which the petals proper extend.

Petal often con­sists of two parts: the upper, broad part, sim­i­lar to leaf blade, also called the blade and the lower part, nar­row, sim­i­lar to leaf peti­ole, called the claw, sep­a­rated from each other at the limb. Claws are de­vel­oped in petals of some flow­ers of the fam­ily Bras­si­caceae, such as Erysi­mum cheiri.

The in­cep­tion and fur­ther de­vel­op­ment of petals shows a great va­ri­ety of patterns. Petals of dif­fer­ent species of plants vary greatly in colour or colour pat­tern, both in vis­i­ble light and in ul­tra­vi­o­let. Such pat­terns often func­tion as guides to pol­li­na­tors, and are var­i­ously known as nec­tar guides, pollen guides, and flo­ral guides.


The ge­net­ics be­hind the for­ma­tion of petals, in ac­cor­dance with the ABC model of flower de­vel­op­ment, are that sepals, petals, sta­mens, and carpels are mod­i­fied ver­sions of each other. It ap­pears that the mech­a­nisms to form petals evolved very few times (per­haps only once), rather than evolv­ing re­peat­edly from stamens.

Significance of pollination

Pol­li­na­tion is an im­por­tant step in the sex­ual re­pro­duc­tion of higher plants. Pollen is pro­duced by the male flower or by the male or­gans of her­maph­ro­ditic flow­ers.

Pollen does not move on its own and thus re­quires wind or an­i­mal pol­li­na­tors to dis­perse the pollen to the stigma (botany) of the same or nearby flow­ers. How­ever, pol­li­na­tors are rather se­lec­tive in de­ter­min­ing the flow­ers they choose to pol­li­nate. This de­vel­ops com­pe­ti­tion be­tween flow­ers and as a re­sult flow­ers must pro­vide in­cen­tives to ap­peal to pol­li­na­tors (un­less the flower self-pol­li­nates or is in­volved in wind pol­li­na­tion). Petals play a major role in com­pet­ing to at­tract pol­li­na­tors. Hence­forth pol­li­na­tion dis­per­sal could occur and the sur­vival of many species of flow­ers could pro­long.

Functions and purposes

Petals have var­i­ous func­tions and pur­poses de­pend­ing on the type of plant. In gen­eral, petals op­er­ate to pro­tect some parts of the flower and at­tract/repel spe­cific pol­li­na­tors.


This is where the po­si­tion­ing of the flower petals are lo­cated on the flower is the corolla e.g. the but­ter­cup hav­ing shiny yel­low flower petals which con­tain guide­lines amongst the petals in aid­ing the pol­li­na­tor to­wards the nec­tar. Pol­li­na­tors have the abil­ity to de­ter­mine spe­cific flow­ers they wish to pollinate.[9] Using in­cen­tives flow­ers draw pol­li­na­tors and set up a mu­tual re­la­tion be­tween each other in which case the pol­li­na­tors will re­mem­ber to al­ways guard and pol­li­nate these flow­ers (un­less in­cen­tives are not con­sis­tently met and com­pe­ti­tion prevails).


The petals could pro­duce dif­fer­ent scents to al­lure de­sir­able pollinators or repel un­de­sir­able pollinators. Some flow­ers will also mimic the scents pro­duced by ma­te­ri­als such as de­cay­ing meat, to at­tract pol­li­na­tors to them.


Var­i­ous colour traits are used by dif­fer­ent petals that could at­tract pol­li­na­tors that have poor smelling abil­i­ties, or that only come out at cer­tain parts of the day. Some flow­ers are able to change the colour of their petals as a sig­nal to mu­tual pol­li­na­tors to ap­proach or keep away.

Shape and size

Fur­ther­more, the shape and size of the flower/petals is im­por­tant in se­lect­ing the type of pol­li­na­tors they need. For ex­am­ple, large petals and flow­ers will at­tract pol­li­na­tors at a large dis­tance or that are large themselves. Col­lec­tively the scent, colour and shape of petals all play a role in at­tract­ing/re­pelling spe­cific pol­li­na­tors and pro­vid­ing suit­able con­di­tions for pol­li­nat­ing. Some pol­li­na­tors in­clude in­sects, birds, bats and the wind. In some petals, a dis­tinc­tion can be made be­tween a lower nar­rowed, stalk-like basal part re­ferred to as the claw, and a wider dis­tal part re­ferred to as the blade (or limb). Often the claw and blade are at an angle with one an­other.

Types of pollination

Wind pollination

Main article: Anemophily

Wind-pol­li­nated flow­ers often have small, dull petals and pro­duce lit­tle or no scent. Some of these flow­ers will often have no petals at all. Flow­ers that de­pend on wind pol­li­na­tion will pro­duce large amounts of pollen be­cause most of the pollen scat­tered by the wind tends to not reach other flowers.

Attracting insects

Flow­ers have var­i­ous reg­u­la­tory mech­a­nisms in order to at­tract in­sects. One such help­ful mech­a­nism is the use of colour guid­ing marks. In­sects such as the bee or but­ter­fly can see the ul­tra­vi­o­let marks which are con­tained on these flow­ers, act­ing as an at­trac­tive mech­a­nism which is not vis­i­ble to­wards the human eye. Many flow­ers con­tain a va­ri­ety of shapes act­ing to aid with the land­ing of the vis­it­ing in­sect and also in­flu­ence the in­sect to brush against an­thers and stig­mas (parts of the flower). One such ex­am­ple of a flower is the po­hutukawa (Met­rosideros excelsa) which acts to reg­u­late colour within a dif­fer­ent way. The po­hutukawa con­tains small petals also hav­ing bright large red clus­ters of stamens.[14] An­other at­trac­tive mech­a­nism for flow­ers is the use of scents which are highly at­trac­tive to hu­mans. One such ex­am­ple is the rose. On the other hand, some flow­ers pro­duce the smell of rot­ting meat and are at­trac­tive to in­sects such as flies. Dark­ness is an­other fac­tor which flow­ers have adapted to as night­time con­di­tions limit vi­sion and color-per­cep­tion. Fra­grancy can be es­pe­cially use­ful for flow­ers which are pol­li­nated at night by moths and other fly­ing insects.

Attracting birds

Flow­ers are also pol­li­nated by birds and must be large and col­or­ful to be vis­i­ble against nat­ural scenery. In New Zealand, such bird–pol­li­nated na­tive plants in­clude: kowhai (Sophora species), flax (Phormium tenax) and kaka beak (Clianthus puniceus). Flow­ers adapt the mech­a­nism on their petals to change colour in act­ing as a com­mu­nica­tive mech­a­nism for the bird to visit. An ex­am­ple is the tree fuch­sia (Fuch­sia excorticata) which are green when need­ing to be pol­li­nated and turn red for the birds to stop com­ing and pol­li­nat­ing the flower.

Bat-pollinated flowers

Flow­ers can be pol­li­nated by short tailed bats. An ex­am­ple of this is the dacty­lan­thus (Dacty­lan­thus taylorii). This plant has its home under the ground act­ing the role of a par­a­site on the roots of for­est trees. The dacty­lan­thus has only its flow­ers point­ing to the sur­face and the flow­ers lack colour but have the ad­van­tage of con­tain­ing much nec­tar and a strong scent. These act as a use­ful mech­a­nism in at­tract­ing the bat.

Read more: https://wiki2.org/en/Petal


2019 Symphonie der Farben -Keukenhof- der Film jonas Kokosnuss

2019 Symphonie der Farben -Keukenhof- der Film


WOW! Magnificent Colors of Wisteria – Beautiful Flowers TSK-24

Magnificent Colors of Wisteria – Beautiful Flowers. Wisteria (also spelled Wistaria or Wysteria) is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae, that includes ten species of woody climbing vines native to the Eastern United States and to China, Korea, and Japan. Some species are popular ornamental plants, especially in China and Japan. An aquatic flowering plant with the common name wisteria or ‘water wisteria’ is in fact Hygrophila difformis, in the family Acanthaceae.


pink rose in bloom with black background
close up photography red rose flower
selective focus photography of pink flowers
red flower

Shakespeare Flower Gardens

Shakespeare Flower Gardens plus Shakespeare Roses

To Be, Or Not To Be, That Is The Question.



Shakespeare Garden

From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
An illustration from Walter Crane's 1906 book, Flowers from Shakespeare's Garden: a Posy from the Plays

An illustration from Walter Crane‘s 1906 book, Flowers from Shakespeare’s Garden: a Posy from the Plays

Shake­speare garden is a themed gar­den that cul­ti­vates some or all of the 175 plants men­tioned in the works of William Shake­speare. In Eng­lish-speak­ing coun­tries, par­tic­u­larly the United States, these are often pub­lic gar­dens as­so­ci­ated with parks, uni­ver­si­ties, and Shake­speare fes­ti­vals. Shake­speare gar­dens are sites of cul­tural, ed­u­ca­tional, and ro­man­tic in­ter­est and can be lo­ca­tions for out­door wed­dings.

Signs near the plants usu­ally pro­vide rel­e­vant quo­ta­tions. A Shake­speare gar­den usu­ally in­cludes sev­eral dozen species, ei­ther in herba­ceous pro­fu­sion or in a geo­met­ric lay­out with box­wood di­viders. Typ­i­cal ameni­ties are walk­ways and benches and a weather-re­sis­tant bust of Shake­speare. Shake­speare gar­dens may ac­com­pany re­pro­duc­tions of Eliz­a­bethan ar­chi­tec­ture. Some Shake­speare gar­dens also grow species typ­i­cal of the Eliz­a­bethan pe­riod but not men­tioned in Shake­speare’s plays or po­etry.


YouTube Encyclopedic 

  • ✪ Wujigong in Shakespeare Garden, Golden Gate Park, S.F. CA


In Jan­u­ary or Feb­ru­ary 1631 Sir Thomas Tem­ple, 1st Baronet, of Stowe, was eager to send his man for cut­tings from the grapevines at New Place, Strat­ford, the home of Shake­speare’s re­tire­ment. Tem­ple’s sur­viv­ing let­ter, how­ever, makes no note of a Shake­speare con­nec­tion: he knew the good­ness of the vines from his sis­ter-in-law, whose house was nearby. The re­vival of in­ter­est in the flow­ers men­tioned in Shake­speare’s plays arose with the re­vival of flower gar­den­ing in the United King­dom. An early doc­u­ment is Paul Jer­rard, Flow­ers from Stratford-on-Avon (Lon­don 1852), in which Jer­rard at­tempted to iden­tify Shake­speare’s flo­ral ref­er­ences, in a purely lit­er­ary and botan­i­cal ex­er­cise, such as those by J. Har­vey Bloom (Shake­speare’s Garden Lon­don:Methuen, 1903) or F.G. Sav­age, (The Flora and Folk Lore of Shakespeare Chel­tenham:E.J. Bur­row, 1923). This par­al­lel in­dus­try con­tin­ues today.

A small ar­bore­tum of some forty trees men­tioned by Shake­speare was planted in 1988 to com­ple­ment the gar­den of Anne Hath­away’s Cot­tage in Shot­tery, a mile from Strat­ford-on-Avon. “Vis­i­tors can sit on the spe­cially de­signed bench, gaze at the cot­tage, press a but­ton and lis­ten to one of four Shake­spearean son­nets read by fa­mous ac­tors,” the of­fi­cial web­site in­forms the prospec­tive visitor. A live wil­low cabin made of grow­ing wil­lows, in­spired by lines in Twelfth Night, is an­other fea­ture, and a maze of yew.

New Place, Stratford-On-Avon

New Place Gardens,Stratford-upon-Avon

New Place Gardens,

The major Shake­speare gar­den is that imag­i­na­tively re­con­structed by Ernest Law at New Place, Strat­ford-on-Avon, in the 1920s. He used a wood­cut from Thomas Hill, The Gar­diners Labyrinth (Lon­don 1586), not­ing in his press cov­er­age when the gar­den was in the plan­ning stage, that it was “a book Shake­speare must cer­tainly have con­sulted when lay­ing out his own Knott Gar­den“. The same en­grav­ing was used in lay­ing out the Queen’s Gar­den be­hind Kew Palace in 1969. Ernest Law’s, Shake­speare’s Gar­den, Stratford-upon-Avon (1922), with pho­to­graphic il­lus­tra­tions show­ing quar­tered plats in pat­terns out­lined by green and grey clipped edg­ings, each cen­tred by roses grown as stan­dards, must have sup­plied im­pe­tus to many flower-filled re­vival­ist Shake­speare’s gar­dens of the 20s and 30s. For Amer­i­cans, Es­ther Sin­gle­ton pro­duced The Shake­speare Garden (New York, 1931). Sin­gle­ton’s and Law’s plant­i­ngs, as with most Shake­speare gar­dens, owed a great deal to the boun­ti­ful aes­thetic of the partly re­vived but largely in­vented “Eng­lish cot­tage gar­den” tra­di­tion dat­ing from the 1870s. Few at­tempts were made in re­vived gar­den plans to keep strictly to his­tor­i­cal plants, until the Na­tional Trust led the way in the 1970s with a knot gar­den at Lit­tle More­ton Hall, Cheshire, and the re­stored parterre at Hamp­ton Court Palace (1977).

Recent Developments

The con­ven­tions of Shake­speare Gar­dens were fa­mil­iar enough in the 1920s that E.F. Ben­son sets the open­ing of Mapp and Lucia (1931) in the not-quite-re­cently wid­owed Lucia’s “Perdita‘s Gar­den” at Rise­holme, in words that epit­o­mise Ben­son’s dry touch:

Perdita’s gar­den re­quires a few words of ex­pla­na­tion. It was a charm­ing lit­tle square plot in front of the tim­bered façade of the Hurst, sur­rounded by yew-hedges and in­ter­sected with paths of crazy pave­ment, care­fully smoth­ered in stone-crop, which led to the Eliz­a­bethan sun­dial from War­dour Street in the cen­tre. It was gay in spring with those flow­ers (and no oth­ers) on which Perdita doted. There were ‘vi­o­lets dim’, and prim­roses and daf­fodils, which came be­fore the swal­low dared and took the winds (usu­ally of April) with beauty.

But now in June the swal­low had dared long ago, and when spring and the daf­fodils were over, Lucia al­ways al­lowed Perdita’s gar­den a wider, though still strictly Shake­spear­ian scope. There was eglan­tine (Pen­zance briar) in full flower now, and hon­ey­suckle and gillyflow­ers and plenty of pan­sies for thoughts, and yards of rue (more than usual this year), and so Perdita’s gar­den was gay all the sum­mer.

Here then, this morn­ing, Lucia seated her­self by the sun­dial, all in black, on a stone bench on which was carved the motto ‘Come thou north wind, and blow thou south, that my gar­den spices may flow forth.’ Sit­ting there with Pepino’s poems and The Times she ob­scured about one-third of this text, and fat lit­tle Daisy would ob­scure the rest…”

Shakespeare’s Flora

Shake­speare grew up in a small town with gar­dens, sur­rounded by meadow, river and wood­lands. His ref­er­ences to trees, herbs, kitchen and flower gar­den plants are cor­rect botan­i­cally, and are a source for plants’ names and uses in Eliz­a­bethan times. Eng­lish ships ex­plor­ing the New World brought back new plants to join the local ones being de­signed for es­tates or in the kitchen gar­den out­side the tradeswoman’s door. The Eliz­a­bethans gave sym­bolic mean­ing to cer­tain plants, as Ophe­lia’s speech (below) il­lus­trates. Shake­speare uses in­di­vid­ual plants, gar­dens, gar­den­ing knowl­edge and skills (e.g. prun­ing), forests and other land­scapes to de­scribe char­ac­ter and place, set or shift tone and mood, make al­lu­sions per­haps that in prose would prove po­lit­i­cally dangerous.

The best known ref­er­ence in Shake­speare of plants used for sym­bolic pur­poses, aside from pass­ing men­tion, as in Romeo and Juliet, “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.” is Ophe­lia‘s speech from Ham­let:

Ophe­lia: There’s rose­mary, that’s for re­mem­brance. Pray you, love,
re­mem­ber. And there is pan­sies, that’s for thoughts.

Laertes: A doc­u­ment in mad­ness! Thoughts and re­mem­brance fitted.

Ophe­lia: There’s fen­nel for you, and columbines. There’s rue for you,
and here’s some for me. We may call it herb of grace o’ Sundays.
O, you must wear your rue with a dif­fer­ence! There’s a daisy. I
would give you some vi­o­lets, but they wither’d all when my father
died. They say he made a good end.

Shake­speare de­votes five His­tory plays Henry VI, Parts I, 2, 3; Richard III, Henry VIII to the Wars of the Roses which lasted from 1455 to 1485. This dy­nas­tic strug­gle be­tween two houses (York and Lan­caster) was re­solved when Henry VII mar­ried Eliz­a­beth of York, and founded the Tudor dy­nasty. Shake­speare uses the his­toric sym­bol­ism of the Red Rose of Lan­caster, the White Rose of York, and ends this se­quence of plays in Richard III (V,5,19) with the line “We will unite the white rose and the red.” That union is the Tudor Rose with its white and red petals.

All the plants Shake­speare names in his plays are men­tioned in clas­si­cal med­ical texts or me­dieval herbal man­u­als.

Central Park

Shakespeare Garden in Central Park

Shakespeare Garden in Central Park

An early Shake­speare gar­den was added in the an­niver­sary year 1916 to Cen­tral Park, New York City. In ho­n­our of the Bard and the read­ing of lit­er­a­ture, this area is one of eight des­ig­nated Quiet Zones.

It in­cluded a graft from a mul­berry tree said to have been grafted from one planted by Shake­speare in 1602; that tree was cut down by Rev. Fran­cis Gas­trell, owner of New Place, however The tree blew down in a sum­mer storm in 2006 and was re­moved. This gar­den is lo­cated near the Dela­corte The­ater that houses the New York Shake­speare Fes­ti­val. Ac­cord­ing to in­for­ma­tion avail­able on the Cen­tral Park web pages, the Shake­speare Gar­den there does still con­tain some of the flow­ers and plants men­tioned in his plays.


The rich weave of as­so­ci­a­tions en­gen­dered by Shake­speare Gar­dens is ex­em­pli­fied in the Shake­speare Gar­den of Cleve­land, Ohio, where herb-bor­dered paths, con­verge on a bust of Shake­speare. The req­ui­site mul­berry tree was from a cut­ting sent by the critic Sir Sid­ney Lee, a slip said to be from the mul­berry at New Place. Elms were planted by E. H. Sothen and Julia Mar­lowe, oaks by William But­ler Yeats, and a cir­cu­lar bed of roses sent by the mayor of Verona, from the tra­di­tional tomb of Juliet, planted by Phyl­lis Neil­son Terry, niece of Ellen TerryBir­nam Wood was rep­re­sented by sycamore maples from Scot­land. The sun­dial was Byzan­tine, pre­sented by the Shake­spearean actor, Robert Man­tell. Jars planted with ivy and flow­ers were sent by Sir Her­bert Beer­bohm TreeRa­bindranath Tagore— as the “Shake­speare of India”— and Sarah Bern­hardt.

The Shake­speare Gar­den in­au­gural ex­er­cises took place on April 14th, 1916, the ter­cente­nary year… E. H. Sothen and Julia Mar­lowe were guests of honor. After speeches of wel­come by city of­fi­cials and Mayor Harry L. Davis, the or­ches­tra played se­lec­tions from Mendelssohn‘s “Mid­sum­mer Night’s Dream,” and the Nor­mal School Glee Club sang choral set­ting of “Hark, Hark, the Lark” and “Who Is Sylvia?” A group of high school pupils in Eliz­a­bethan cos­tume es­corted the guests to the gar­den en­trance and stood guard dur­ing the plant­ing of the ded­i­ca­tory elms…. Miss Mar­lowe cli­maxed the pro­ceed­ings by her read­ings of Perdita’s flower scene from A Win­ter’s Tale, the 54th Son­net of Shake­speare, and verses from the Star Span­gled Ban­ner. Her lead­ing of all pre­sent in the singing of the Na­tional An­them brought the im­pres­sive event to a close.”

In later years the Cleve­land Shake­speare Gar­den con­tin­ued to be en­riched at every Shake­spearean oc­ca­sion. Wil­lows flank­ing the foun­tain were planted by William Faver­sham and Daniel Frohman. Vachel Lind­say planted a poplar and re­cited his own Shake­speare trib­ute. Nov­el­ist Hugh Wal­pole also planted a tree. Aline Kilmer, widow of the sol­dier poet, Joyce Kilmer, made a visit in 1919, and the actor, Otis Skin­ner and the hu­morist, Stephen Lea­cockDavid Be­lasco came to plant two ju­nipers.


The Col­orado Shake­speare Gar­den is a Pub­lic Gar­den founded in 1991 by herbal­ist Mar­lene Cow­drey. Eight gar­dens line a court­yard on the Uni­ver­sity of Col­orado cam­pus in Boul­der, Col­orado. The gar­dens are placed near to the WPA built Mary Rip­pon The­atre, which is the major per­for­mance space for the Col­orado Shake­speare Fes­ti­val. The gar­dens are: Founder’s, Kitchen, War of the Roses, Mid­sum­mer Night’s Dream, Knot, Canon, Eliz­a­bethan, and a High­light gar­den fea­tur­ing each per­for­mance sea­son’s plants. Mem­bers of the Col­orado Shake­speare Gar­dens are vol­un­teers in­ter­ested in gar­dens or Shake­speare or both. They re­search, de­sign, plant, and main­tain the gar­dens with over­sight from CU. The var­i­ous gar­dens are de­signed to dis­play Eliz­a­bethan gar­den­ing tech­niques as well as fea­ture plants. An ex­ten­sive au­dio-vi­sual tour fea­tures Will Shake­speare as nar­ra­tor, and gives some his­tory of the pe­riod as well as in­for­ma­tion about the plants from Shake­speare’s view­point.

List Of Shakespeare Gardens
Bethel Public Library, Bethel, ConnecticutPublic park or botanical garden[3]
Brookfield Shakespeare’s Garden, Brookfield, ConnecticutPublic park or botanical garden[4]
Brooklyn Botanical Gardens, Brooklyn, New YorkPublic park or botanical garden[5]
Misericordia UniversityUniversity or college campus[6]
Evanston, IllinoisPublic park or botanical garden[7]
Cleveland, OhioPublic park or botanical garden[8]
Johannesburg Botanical Garden, South AfricaPublic park or botanical garden[9]
Central Park, New York CityPublic park, Shakespeare festival[10]
International Rose Test Garden, Portland, OregonPublic park or botanical garden[11]
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CaliforniaPublic park or botanical garden[12]
The Huntington, San Marino, CaliforniaPublic park or botanical garden[13]
Vienna, AustriaPublic park or botanical garden[14]
HerzogsparkRegensburg, GermanyPublic park or botanical garden
Hilltop Garden and Nature Center at Indiana University, Bloomington, INUniversity or college campus[15]
Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, ILUniversity or College Campus[16]
Illinois State UniversityUniversity or college campus[17]
Kilgore CollegeUniversity or college campus[18]
Naugatuck Valley Community CollegeWaterburyUniversity or college campus[19]
Northwestern UniversityUniversity or college campus[20]
St. Norbert CollegeUniversity or college campus[21]
University College of the Fraser ValleyUniversity or college campus[22]
University of MassachusettsUniversity or college campus[23]
The University of the SouthUniversity or college campus[24]
University of South DakotaUniversity campus[25]
Vassar CollegeUniversity or college campus[26]
Blount Cultural Park of the Alabama Shakespeare FestivalShakespeare festival[27]
Colorado Shakespeare FestivalShakespeare festival[28]
Illinois Shakespeare FestivalShakespeare festival[29]
Elizabethan Garden, Folger Shakespeare LibraryPublic park or botanical garden[30]
The Elizabethan Herb Garden, Mellon Park, Pittsburgh, PAPublic park or botanical garden[31]
The University of Tennessee at ChattanoogaUniversity campus[32]
Shakespeare Garden in Cedar Brook Park, Plainfield, New Jersey, USAPublic park or botanical garden. Operated by the Union County Park system, it was established in 1927. The Garden appears on the National Register of Historic Places.[33]
Dunedin Botanic GardenNew ZealandPublic park or botanical garden.[34]
Shakespeare Garden in Stanley Park, Vancouver, BC, CanadaPublic park or botanical garden


Things to See and Do
at New York https://www.centralparknyc.org/blog/shakespeare-garden

Secrets Of Shakespeare Garden

Discover hundreds of plants mentioned in William Shakespeare’s poems and plays, bronze plaques that feature Shakespearean quotes, and rustic benches and railings throughout Shakespeare Garden (West Side between 79th and 80th Streets).

Shakespeare Garden Plaque

Shakespeare Garden features tulips, crocuses, daffodils, fritillaries, anemones, hellebores, roses, and several other flower varieties each spring.




Garden of Shakespeare’s Flowers


SHAKESPEARE GARDEN Vancouver B.C. Canada Heritage Foundation
“I like to think of Shakespeare as someone who lived and worked with flowers. He made his gardens beautiful and you have followed his pattern in true spirit. Nothing has amazed me more than the beauty and luxuriousness of the gardens. Shakespeare, I am sure would have loved to live here. I have great pleasure in opening and dedicating these gardens.” – Lord Tweedsmuir at the opening of the Shakespeare Garden in Stanley Park, 1936.

Gardens for Shakespeare
There are over 180 plants referenced in Shakespeare’s work and many believe the Bard was not only an avid gardener, but had an advanced knowledge of horticulture. Gardens paying homage to Shakespeare became a trend in landscape architecture (particularly in Europe), and many ‘Shakespeare gardens’ were built around 1916, on the three-hundred year anniversary of his death.

Stanley Park Shakespeare Garden
In 1916, Mrs. Jonathan Rogers planted an oak tree near the site of the Rose Garden in Stanley Park, on behalf of the Vancouver Shakespeare Society, to honour the tercentenary of Shakespeare’s death. Other trees were planted in 1921 by the actress Eva Moore and Sir John Martin Harvey. In 1932, the Kilbe Shakespeare Circle and the Vancouver Shakespeare Society proposed constructing a proper Shakespeare Garden. Concept plans were drawn up by E.C. Thrupp and by 1935, the architect J. F. Watson had sculpted a Shakespeare monument with a quote from Ben Johnson’s poem ‘Memorial to Shakespeare,” “He was not of an age, but for all time.”

Golden Jubilee Opening
The Shakespeare garden was officially opened on August 28, 1936, for Vancouver’s Golden Jubilee celebration. Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir opened the garden by saying, “I like to think of Shakespeare as someone who lived and worked with flowers. He made his gardens beautiful and you have followed his pattern in true spirit. Nothing has amazed me more than the beauty and luxuriousness of the gardens. Shakespeare, I am sure would have loved to live here. I have great pleasure in opening and dedicating these gardens.” The Shakespearean Society of Vancouver and the Sheakespearean Club planted the trees mentioned in Shakespeare’s works including red oak, fir, beech, catalpa, fern leaf beech, tree of heaven, flowering ash, pacific dogwood, and laval hawthorn. Trees designated from the works of Shakespeare have been affixed with plaques that display their appropriate quotes.



Flowers and plants played an important tool of imagery throughout Shakespeare’s literary masterpieces. While some of the blooms are rather recognizable, others are not too familiar. Below are a few quotes from some of Shakespeare’s works that detail his affinity for the use of blooms throughout his plays and sonnets:


 An aluminum casting of Brenda Putnam's original statue of Puck stands in the west garden of the Folger Shakespeare Library.

An aluminum casting of Brenda Putnam‘s original statue of Puck stands in the west garden of the Folger Shakespeare Library. https://www.folger.edu/

Folger Shakespeare Library is the world’s largest Shakespeare collection, the ultimate resource for exploring Shakespeare and his world. Folger Shakespeare Library 201 East Capitol Street, SE Washington, DC 20003


How To Plant A Shakespeare Garden
Anne Hathaway's Cottage Garden, How To Plant a Shakespeare Garden

In his collected works Shakespeare refers to over two hundred species of plants, with twenty-nine scenes taking place in gardens or in orchards. Shakespeare’s references to flowers and plants not only gave his plays a sense of place, like the Arden forest in As You Like It, the fairy forest of A MidsummerNight’s Dream or the rugged Scottish landscape of Macbeth. They also served as extended metaphors for human emotions and the human condition.

To honour the talents of the Bard why not create a Shakespeare inspired garden. Here are a few ideas on the how to do so



Shakespeare Roses

by https://bardgarden.blogspot.com/2014/03/roses.html

roses, shakespeare flowers, shakespeare quotes, shakespeare garden

“Of all flowersMethinks a rose is best.” 

– Two Noble Kinsmen, Act II, Scene II

“What’s in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet.”
– Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene II

“O rose of May
Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia.”

– Hamlet, Act IV, Scene V

“With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine:
There sleeps Titania sometime of the night,
Lull’d in these flowers with dances and delight.”

– A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act II, Scene I

“Come, sit thee down upon this flowery bed,Why I thy amiable cheeks do coyAnd stick musk roses in thy sleek smooth headAnd kiss thy fair large ears, my gentle joy.”
– A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act IV, Scene I

“The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem
For that sweet odour which doth in it live.”

Sonnet 54
Shakespeare refers to the Rose over 70 times; it is the most mentioned flower throughout his work. The varieties of Rose he mentions include the Musk Rose (Rosa moschata), the Damask Rose (Rosa damascena), the Eglantine or Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa), the Provence or Cabbage Rose (Rosa centifolia) and the Wild Dog Rose (Rosa canina).

Musk Rose (Rosa moschata)
Damask Rose (Rosa damascena)
Eglantine or Sweet Briar (Rosa rubiginosa)
Provence or Cabbage Rose (Rosa centifolia) in Shakespeare
Wild Dog Rose (Rosa canina)

John Gerard wrote “the rose doth deserve the cheefest and most principle place among all flowers whatsoever, being not only esteemed for his beauties, vertues and his fragrant and odorous smell, but also because it is the honore and ornament of our English sceptre.”
The Rose has been the national emblem of England since The War of the Roses (1455-1485,) when the royal houses of York and Lancaster fought for the crown. The Red Rose was the emblem of the House of Lancaster and the White Rose was the emblem of the House of York. Shakespeare creates an imaginary scene in Henry VI Part I where the opposing parties chose sides.
Let him that is a true born gentleman
And stands upon the honour of his birth
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth
From off this briar pluck a white rose.

Let him that is no coward and no flatterer,
But dare maintain the party of the truth,
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me.

– Henry VI Part I, Act II, Scene IV
The White Rose of York is thought to be either the Rosa alba or the Rosa canina and the Red Rose of Lancaster is thought to be the Rosa gallica. The two houses were finally united with the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York and the two flowers were joined to form the Tudor Rose.

The Tudor Rose

The Rose was considered to be the queen of all flowers and was used to represent beauty and love. However Shakespeare also used the Rose to convey the contrary nature of life, to say that like the Rose with its thorns, in life there is pleasure mixed with pain.

“Is love a tender thing? It is too rough,
Too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks like Thorn.”

– Romeo and Juliet, Act I, Scene IV
“Roses have thorns and silver fountain mudAnd loathsome canker lives in sweetest bud.”
Sonnet 35
“For women are as Roses, whose fair flowerBeing once display’d doth fall that very hour.”
– Twelfth Night, Act II, Scene IV
A number of varieties of Rose have been cultivated that are inspired by Shakespeare, they include the Glamis Castle Rose (Macbeth), the Scepter’d Isle Rose (Richard II), the Fair Bianca Rose (The Taming of the Shrew) the Othello Rose (Othello), the Prospero Rose (The Tempest), the Gentle Hermione (The Winter’s Tale) and the William Shakespeare Rose.
Labels: Cabbage RoseDamask RoseEglantineFlowersMusk RoseOpheliaRosesSweet BriarWild Dog Rose


Roses of the Shakespeare Garden

by http://plainfieldgardenclub.org/cgi-bin/p/awtp-pa.cgi?d=plainfield-garden-club&type=1757

Rosa x centifolia ( plus many more )


a) Poppy and Mandrake: The poppy has been seen as both a symbol for death (for its blood red color) and sleep (in reference to the opium it contains) in literature. The plant genus, Mandragora, belongs to the nightshades family and possesses a long history in connection with the Hebrew Bible, magic, spells, and witchcraft. In Cleopatra and Antony, Shakespeare makes mention of the plant as an ingredient in a drink that puts people to sleep for long periods of time.

“Not poppy, nor mandragora,
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou owedst yesterday.”
Othello (3.3.368-71)

b) Daisies and Violets:
“When daisies pied and violets blue
And lady-smocks all silver-white
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue
Do paint the meadows with delight, ”
Love’s Labours Lost (5.2.900-4)

c) Roses:
“I have seen roses damask’d, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks…”
Sonnet 130

d) Lilies:
“Like the lily,
That once was mistress of the field and flourish’d,
I’ll hang my head and perish.”
Henry VIII (3.1.168-70)


Shakespeare & Elizabethan Gardens

A list of Shakespeare and Elizabethan gardens in the UK and United States.


26 Best Shakespeare Roses images | David austin roses …www.pinterest.com › rosaleekoppe › shakespeare-rose


Shakespeare Quotes About Flowers

Shakespeare Quotes About Flowers by https://www.nosweatshakespeare.com/quotes/categories/shakespeare-quotes-flowers/

This page details 40 Shakespeare Quotes about flowers. One of the many arguments against the Shakespeare conspiracy theory is the knowledge of rural life displayed by the author in his plays and poems. Moreover, the author had a particularly detailed, closely observed, knowledge of the flower, flora and fauna of Warwickshire, the rural area where Shakespeare grew up.

Warwickshire is well-known for the proliferation of violets in the Spring. Shakespeare loved this humble little flower and his texts are strewn with violets. The first 11 quotes are specific to violets, with the remaining quotes covering all types of plants.

1. ‘The Forward Violet Thus I Did Chide-
Sweet Thief, Whence Didst Thou Steal Thy Sweet That Smells
If Not From My Love’s Breath?’

Sonnet 99

2. ‘A Violet In The Youth Of Primy Nature,
Forward, Not Permanent.’


3. ‘I Know A Bank Whereon The Wild Thyme Blows,
Where Oxlips And The Nodding Violet Grows.’

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

4. ‘I Think The King Is But A Man, As I
Am: The Violet Smells To Him As It Doth To Me: The
Element Shows To Him As It Doth To Me.

Henry V

5. ‘Like The Sweet Sound,
That Breathes Upon A Bank Of Violets.’

Twelfth Night

6. ‘From Her Fair And Unpolluted Flesh
May Violets Spring’


7. ‘Daisies Pied And Violets Blue
And Lady-Smocks All Silver-White.’

Love’s Labours Lost

8. ‘To Gild Refined Gold, To Paint The Lily,
To Throw A Perfume On The Violet,…
Is Wasteful And Ridiculous Excess.’
9. ‘Purple Violets And Marigolds,
Shall As A Carpet Hang Upon Thy Grave.’


10. ‘Welcome My Son: Who Are The Violets Now
That Strew The Green Lap Of The New Come Spring?’

Richard II

11. ‘The Tempter Or The Tempted, Who Sins Most?
Not She: Nor Doth She Tempt: But It Is I
That, Lying By The Violet In The Sun,
Do As The Carrion Does, Not As The Flower,
Corrupt With Virtuous Season.’

Measure for Measure

12. ‘Flower Of This Purple Dye,
Hit With Cupid’s Archery,
Sink In Apple Of His Eye.’

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

13. ‘Yet Mark’d I Where The Bolt Of Cupid Fell:
It Fell Upon A Little Western Flower,
Before Milk-White, Now Purple With Love’s Wound,
And Maidens Call It Love-In-Idleness.’

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

14. ‘…Luscious Woodbine,
With Sweet Musk-Roses And With Eglantine:
There Sleeps Titania Sometime Of The Night,
Lull’d In These Flowers With Dances And Delight.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

15. ‘When Daffodils Begin To Peer,
With Heigh! The Doxy Over The Dale,
Why, Then Comes In The Sweet O’ The Year;
For The Red Blood Reigns In The Winter’s Pale.’

The Winter’s Tale

16. ‘Now, My Fair’st Friend,
I Would I Had Some Flowers O’ The Spring That Might
Become Your Time Of Day; And Yours, And Yours,
That Wear Upon Your Virgin Branches Yet
Your Maidenheads Growing: O Proserpina,
For The Flowers Now, That Frighted Thou Let’st Fall
From Dis’s Waggon! Daffodils,
That Come Before The Swallow Dares, And Take
The Winds Of March With Beauty; Violets Dim,
But Sweeter Than The Lids Of Juno’s Eyes
Or Cytherea’s Breath; Pale Primroses
That Die Unmarried, Ere They Can Behold
Bight Phoebus In His Strength–A Malady
Most Incident To Maids; Bold Oxlips And
The Crown Imperial; Lilies Of All Kinds,
The Flower-De-Luce Being One! O, These I Lack,
To Make You Garlands Of, And My Sweet Friend,
To Strew Him O’er And O’er!’

The Winter’s Tale

17. ‘Lawn As White As Driven Snow;
Cyprus Black As E’er Was Crow;
Gloves As Sweet As Damask Roses.’

The Winter’s Tale

18. ‘Here’s Flowers For You;
Hot Lavender, Mints, Savoury, Marjoram;
The Marigold, That Goes To Bed Wi’ The Sun
And With Him Rises Weeping: These Are Flowers
Of Middle Summer, And I Think They Are Given
To Men Of Middle Age.’

The Winter’s Tale

19. ‘Sir, The Year Growing Ancient,
Not Yet On Summer’s Death, Nor On The Birth
Of Trembling Winter, The Fairest
Flowers O’ The Season
Are Our Carnations And Streak’d Gillyvors,
Which Some Call Nature’s Bastards: Of That Kind
Our Rustic Garden’s Barren; And I Care Not
To Get Slips Of Them.’

The Winter’s Tale

21. ‘Like The Lily,
That Once Was Mistress Of The Field And Flourish’d,
I’ll Hang My Head And Perish.’

Henry VIII

22. ‘What’s In A Name? That Which We Call A Rose
By Any Other Name Would Smell As Sweet.’

Romeo and Juliet

23. ‘What, No More Ceremony? See, My Women!
Against The Blown Rose May They Stop Their Nose
That Kneel’d Unto The Buds.’

Antony and Cleopatra

24. ‘The Rose Looks Fair, But Fairer We It Deem
For That Sweet Odour Which Doth In It Live.’

Sonnet 54

25. ‘I Have Seen Roses Damask’d, Red And White,
But No Such Roses See I In Her Cheeks…’

Sonnet 130

26. ‘No More Be Grieved At That Which Thou Hast Done:
Roses Have Thorns, And Silver Fountains Mud;
Clouds And Eclipses Stain Both Moon And Sun,
And Loathsome Canker Lives In Sweetest Bud.’

Sonnet 35

27. ‘Yet Nor The Lays Of Birds Nor The Sweet Smell
Of Different Flowers In Odour And In Hue
Could Make Me Any Summer’s Story Tell,
Or From Their Proud Lap Pluck Them Where They Grew;
Nor Did I Wonder At The Lily’s White,
Nor Praise The Deep Vermilion In The Rose;
They Were But Sweet, But Figures Of Delight,
Drawn After You, You Pattern Of All Those.’

Sonnet 98

28. ‘The Lily I Condemned For Thy Hand,
And Buds Of Marjoram Had Stol’n Thy Hair:
The Roses Fearfully On Thorns Did Stand,
One Blushing Shame, Another White Despair;
A Third, Nor Red Nor White, Had Stol’n Of Both
And To His Robbery Had Annex’d Thy Breath;
But, For His Theft, In Pride Of All His Growth
A Vengeful Canker Eat Him Up To Death.
More Flowers I Noted, Yet I None Could See
But Sweet Or Colour It Had Stol’n From Thee.’

Sonnet 99

29. ‘At Christmas I No More Desire A Rose
Than Wish A Snow In May’s New-Fangled Mirth;
But Like Of Each Thing That In Season Grows.’

Love’s Labours Lost

30. ‘When Daisies Pied And Violets Blue
And Lady-Smocks All Silver-White
And Cuckoo-Buds Of Yellow Hue
Do Paint The Meadows With Delight’

Love’s Labours Lost

31. ‘Not Poppy, Nor Mandragora,
Nor All The Drowsy Syrups Of The World,
Shall Ever Medicine Thee To That Sweet Sleep
Which Thou Owedst Yesterday.’


32. ‘His Steeds To Water At Those Springs
On Chaliced Flowers That Lies;
And Winking Mary-Buds Begin
To Ope Their Golden Eyes:
With Every Thing That Pretty Is,
My Lady Sweet, Arise.’


33. ‘There’s Rosemary, That’s For Remembrance; Pray,
Love, Remember: And There Is Pansies. That’s For Thoughts.’


34. ‘There’s Fennel For You, And Columbines: There’s Rue
For You; And Here’s Some For Me: We May Call It
Herb-Grace O’ Sundays: O You Must Wear Your Rue With
A Difference. There’s A Daisy’


35. ‘There Is A Willow Grows Aslant A Brook,
That Shows His Hoar Leaves In The Glassy Stream;
There With Fantastic Garlands Did She Come
Of Crow-Flowers, Nettles, Daisies, And Long Purples
That Liberal Shepherds Give A Grosser Name,
But Our Cold Maids Do Dead Men’s Fingers Call Them:
There, On The Pendent Boughs Her Coronet Weeds
Clambering To Hang, An Envious Sliver Broke;
When Down Her Weedy Trophies And Herself
Fell In The Weeping Brook.’


36. ”Tis Dangerous To Take A Cold, To Sleep, To
Drink; But I Tell You, My Lord Fool, Out Of This
Nettle, Danger, We Pluck This Flower, Safety.’

Henry IV Part 1

37. ‘He Was Met Even Now
As Mad As The Vex’d Sea; Singing Aloud;
Crown’d With Rank Fumiter And Furrow-Weeds,
With Bur-Docks, Hemlock, Nettles, Cuckoo-Flowers,
Darnel, And All The Idle Weeds That Grow
In Our Sustaining Corn.’

King Lear

38. ‘…The Fairest Flowers O’ Th’ Season
Are Our Carnations And Streaked Gillyvors
Which Some Call Nature’s Bastards’

The Winter’s Tale

39. ‘Daffodils,
That Come Before The Swallow Dared, And Take
The Winds Of March With Beauty.’

The Winter’s Tale

40. ‘Of All The Flowers, Methinks A Rose Is Best.’

The Two Noble Kinsmen

41. ‘Women Are As Roses, Whose Fair Flower, Being Once Displayed, Doth Fall That Very Hour.’

Twelfth Night


The growth of this rose is on the short side and not very robust, but with suitable feeding and spraying it will make an excellent little garden rose. Othello (title …


Shakespeare Birthplace Trust – Flowers From Shakespeare’s Garden Wall Calendar 2020 (Art Calendar) Calendar – Wall Calendar, March 11, 2019

by Flame Tree Studio (Creator )


This beautiful Shakespeare Birthplace Trust wall calendar showcases the beautiful illustrations of Walter Crane, an artist and illustrator who is now considered to be one of the most influential of his generation. His illustrations in this calendar were published in Flowers from Shakespeare’s Garden and were inspired by Shakespeare’s most poetic words on flowers. Informative text accompanies each work and the datepad features previous and next month’s views. 


Shakespeare Birthplace Trust – Flowers From Shakespeare’s Garden Wall Calendar 2020 (Art Calendar) Calendar – Wall Calendar, March 11, 2019

by Flame Tree Studio (Creator)


This beautiful Shakespeare Birthplace Trust wall calendar showcases the beautiful illustrations of Walter Crane, an artist and illustrator who is now considered to be one of the most influential of his generation. His illustrations in this calendar were published in Flowers from Shakespeare’s Garden and were


Flower's from Shakespeare's Garden by [Walter Crane]
Flower’s From Shakespeare’s Garden Kindle Edition

by Walter Crane  (Author)  Format: Kindle Edition

Hardcover $21.95 Kindle from $0.99

A posy from Shakespeare’s plays. Features beautiful illustrated artwork showcasing some concepts and scenes from Shakespeare’s plays.


There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance. 
 Pray you, love, remember.
 And there is pansies, that’s for thoughts …
There’s fennel for you, and columbines.There’s rue for you, and here’s some for me. 
We may call it “herb of grace” o’ Sundays.
– Oh, you must wear your rue with a difference.
There’s a daisy. I would give you some violets, 
But they withered all when my father died.”
– Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5


Botanical Shakespeare: An Illustrated Compendium Of All The Flowers, Fruits, Herbs, Trees, Seeds, And Grasses Cited By The World’s Greatest Playwright Hardcover – April 4, 2017

by Gerit Quealy  (Author), Sumie Hasegawa Collins (Author), Helen Mirren (Foreword)

Hardcover $16.82 Kindle from $3.99

A captivating, beautifully illustrated, one-of-a-kind color compendium of the flowers, fruits, herbs, trees, seeds, and grasses cited in the works of the world’s greatest playwright, William Shakespeare, accompanied by their companion quotes from all of his plays and poems. With a foreword by Dame Helen Mirren—the first foreword she has ever contributed.

In this striking compilation, Shakespeare historian Gerit Quealy and respected Japanese artist Sumié Hasegawa combine their knowledge and skill in this first and only book that examines every plant that appears in the works of Shakespeare.

Botanical Shakespeare opens with a brief look at the Bard’s relationship to the plants mentioned in his works—a diversity that illuminates his knowledge of the science of botany, as well as the colloquy, revealing his unmatched skill for creating metaphorical connections and interweaving substantive philosophy. At the heart of the book are “portraits” of the over 170 flowers, fruits, grains, grasses, trees, herbs, seeds and vegetables that Shakespeare mentions in his plays and poems. Botanical Shakespeare features a gorgeous color illustration of each, giving a “face” to the name, alongside the specific text in which it appears and the character(s) who utter the lines in which it is mentioned.

This fascinating visual compendium also includes a dictionary describing each plant—such as Eglantine, a wild rose with a slight prickle, cherished for its singular scent, superior to any other rose; and the difference between apples and apple-john—along with indices listing the botanical by play/poem, by character, and genus for easy reference, ideal for gardeners and thoughtful birthday gift-giving.

This breathtaking, incomparable collection of exquisite artwork and companion quotes offers unique depth and insight into Shakespeare and his timeless work through the unusual perspective of the plants themselves.


A Shakespearean Botanical Hardcover – December 15, 2015

by Margaret Willes (Author) Hardcover $22.50



Shakespeare’s Gardens Hardcover – March 3, 2016

by Shakespeare Birthplace Trust (Author),

Shakespeare’s Gardens is a highly illustrated, informative book about the gardens that William Shakespeare knew as a boy and tended as a man, published to coincide with the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death in April 2016. This anniversary will be the focus of literary celebration of the man’s life and work throughout the English speaking world and beyond. The book will focus on the gardens that Shakespeare knew, including the five gardens in Stratford upon Avon in which he gardened and explored. From his birthplace in Henley Street, to his childhood playground at Mary Arden’s Farm, to his courting days at Anne Hathaway’s Cottage and his final home at New Place – where he created a garden to reflect his fame and wealth. Cared for by the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, these gardens are continually evolving to reflect our ongoing knowledge of his life. The book will also explore the plants that Shakespeare knew and wrote about in 17th century England: their use in his work and the meanings that his audiences would have picked up on – including mulberries, roses, daffodils, pansies, herbs and a host of other flowers. More than four centuries after the playwright lived, whenever we think of thyme, violets or roses, we more often than not still remember a quote from the 39 plays and 154 sonnets written by him.


Shakespeare In The Garden Hardcover – September 1, 2006

Hardcover $39.92 by Mick Hales (Author)

Glorious images of gardens and the words of the immortal Bard of Avon make an enchanting combination in Shakespeare in the Garden. Mick Hales, one of the world’s preeminent landscape photographers, captures unforgettable images of 14 gardens in England, the United States, and Canada, including Shakespeare’s own gardens as well as the three great restorations of major Elizabethan properties by the Dowager Countess of Salisbury. Hale’s accompanying text sets the scene, with notes on the provenance of each exquisite site. There is also an Illustrated Alphabet of Plants, a unique visual document of 80 flowers, herbs, shrubs, and trees that Shakespeare mentions in his plays, each accompanied by a corresponding quotation.

Rare is the illustrated book that can enhance the power of Shakespeare’s poetry, but this one succeeds masterfully.


by Walter Crane  (Author) Hardcover $21.95

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.

This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.

As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.


The Quest For Shakespeare’s Garden 1st Edition

Hardcover $14.52 by Roy Strong (Author)

A lavishly illustrated history of gardens drawing from Shakespeare’s works and garden writing―published to commemorate the 400th anniversary year of his death

Published in association with the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, The Quest for Shakespeare’s Garden traces the origins of garden history and the Elizabethan garden, as well as telling the story of the Bard’s own garden in Stratford-upon-Avon. Beautifully presented, the text is accompanied by quotations from Shakespeare’s works and lush illustrations of his gardens, past and present, plucked from a multitude of sources including embroidered Elizabethan clothing and Victorian gardening books, as well as various gardens around the world.

Roy Strong’s detailed account is inspired by Shakespeare’s works and supplemented by Francis Bacon’s 1625 essay “Of Gardens” which provides Elizabethan-era advice to garden enthusiasts on such topics as topiary, seasonal gardens, scents, aviaries, and more.126 illustrations


The Language of Flowers: A Fully Illustrated Compendium of Meaning, Literature, and Lore for the Modern Romantic by [Odessa Begay]

The Language Of Flowers:

A Fully Illustrated Compendium Of Meaning, Literature, And Lore For The Modern Romantic Kindle Edition

by Odessa Begay  (Author)  Format: Kindle Edition

Hardcover $20.49 Kindle from $2.99

With gorgeous full-color illustrations, ornate decorative elements, lettering in metallic ink, and engaging text, The Language of Flowers: A Fully Illustrated Compendium of Meaning, Literature, and Lore for the Modern Romantic is a treasure for flower lovers. A sumptuous, contemporary anthology of 50 of the world’s most storied and popular flowers, each of its entries offers insight to the meaning associated with the flower, and is a fascinating mix of foklore, classic mythology, literature, botanical information and popular culture. 

Following an introduction that provides a short history of the language of flowers, a fad which reached its peak during the reign of Queen Victoria, each uniquely illustrated and designed entry is an enjoyable read full of history and little-known facts. Here is the story of Tulipmania; how the pansy got its “face,” and why the most particular pollination process of a certain orchid has made the vanilla bean a very dear commodity. You’ll also dicover how Christian Dior’s passion for lily of the valley inspired his classic perfume Diorissimo and its extraordinary bottle; why Oscar Wilde had a penchant for wearing green carnations in his lapel; and how Greeks and Romans believed snapdragons could ward off witchcraft, so they planted them at entryways to their homes.

With more than a dozen two-page paintings evoking the romance of noteworthy Victorian gardens and symbolic bouquets, a cross-referenced index of flowers and meanings, and suggestions for further reading, this book is a must for lovers of floriology and Victoriana.


A Victorian Flower Dictionary: The Language of Flowers Companion by [Mandy Kirkby, Vanessa Diffenbaugh]
A Victorian Flower Dictionary:
The Language Of Flowers Companion Kindle Edition

by Mandy Kirkby  (Author), Vanessa Diffenbaugh (Foreword)

Hardcover $15.89 Kindle from $14.99

Daffodils signal new beginnings, daisies innocence. Lilacs mean the first emotions of love, periwinkles tender recollection. Early Victorians used flowers as a way to express their feelings—love or grief, jealousy or devotion. Now, modern-day romantics are enjoying a resurgence of this bygone custom, and this book will share the historical, literary, and cultural significance of flowers with a whole new generation. With lavish illustrations, a dual dictionary of flora and meanings, and suggestions for creating expressive arrangements, this keepsake is the perfect compendium for everyone who has ever given or received a bouquet.


Flowerpaedia: 1000 flowers and their meanings by [Cheralyn Darcey]

Flowerpaedia: 1000 Flowers And Their Meanings Kindle Edition
Follow The Author Cheralyn Darcey+ Follow

Paperback $16.99 Kindle from $12.99

Flowerpaedia is an A–Z reference guide of over 1000 flowers, researched and compiled by botanical explorer Cheralyn Darcey.This comprehensive dictionary includes each flower’s correct botanical name for easy and exact identification.You will delight in understanding what each flower means – emotionally, spiritually and symbolically – and are also able to search by the feeling or emotion you wish to convey or change.Expertly written with easy-to-understand insights, Cheralyn shares how we can work with a myriad of flowers to achieve balance, calm or healing in our lives, homes and gardens.For both the enthusiastic gardener and anyone charmed by the beauty and energy of flowers, this guide to understanding and selecting the right flower for every occasion and meaning will be felt and enjoyed by all.


The Language of Flowers: The dictionary of flowers and their timeless meanings by [Nicolae Tanase]
The Language Of Flowers:
The Dictionary Of Flowers And Their Timeless Meanings Kindle Edition

by Nicolae Tanase  (Author)

Paperback $7.99 Kindle from $4.99

This book will make you bloom! It contains a list of 800 flowers and their beautiful and timeless meanings. Easy to look through.

This pocket book will accompany you all the time in your phone, tablet, or in your Kindle. You can access the meaning of a flower anytime and everywhere, day or night, at a dating or a wedding, and early in the morning in the fragrant garden.

Bejewel your heart with the language of a flower. Give someone a flower imbued with fragrance and a word from the soul. Adorn your garden of flowers with values and virtues. Let your garden become the garden of love. Let your heart radiate like the fragrance of a flower…

Agrimony (Agrimonia) – Gratitude
Allspice (Pimenta) – Compassion
Baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata) – Everlasting love
Betony (Stachys); also: heal-all, self-heal, woundwort, betony, lamb’s ears – Surprise


bridge over waterfalls
Sunflower field
yellow sunflower
yellow sunflower field during daytime
sunflower fields
The Best Relaxing Garden in 4K – Butterflies, Birds and Flowers?? 2 hours – 4K UHD Screensaver


House and Flower – The Most Beautiful House in the world by TSK-24


Stunning Butterflies & The Best Relaxing Music – Meditation Relaxing Music – 2 Hours – HD 1080P


4K HDR Video – Beautiful Flower Garden in Canada, The Butchart Gardens

Beautiful 4K And HDR Videos

The Butchart Gardens is a group of floral display gardens in Brentwood Bay, British Columbia, Canada, located near Victoria on Vancouver Island and the gardens have been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. As you see in this video clip, it is the compilation of beautiful flowers garden to be displayed along with roses flowers from other gardens that have been remixed in this video.


Keukenhof 2018 – The most beautiful flower park in the world HL – Holiday Life

Keukenhof is located in Lisse town, South Holland province, The Netherlands. The garden is open annually from mid-March to mid-May. Also known as one of the largest gardens in the world, Keukenhof garden covers an area of 32 hectares and 7 million flower bulbs are planted every year in the park. Keukenhof is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Netherlands. Every year Keukenhof welcomes over a million visitors and 75% of visitors to the park come from more than 100 countries all over the world.


Dubai Miracle Garden 2020 (Day Tour)