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Iran Ancient method Persian Gardens باغهاي پارسي سبك باستان ايران

The Persian Garden has its roots in history. The Persian Garden is the simple of heaven and the elements installed there all create a sense of value and beauty to the place. In this video we visit Tehran’s Persian Garden and learn more about this unique place

Persian Gardens
Persian Garden Design Inspiration Garden Inspiration
Persian garden usually represents an oasis in the middle of dessert. The Persian garden often consist of big pond in the center of it with some palm trees around it. The color theme also quite light with sometimes flower used to give more colors on it. So here there are the beauty of middle east, the Persian garden. Enjoy 🙂


Eram Garden – Shiraz, Iran | باغ ارم شیراز
Mr Abe
Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram), located along the northern shore of the Khoshk River in Shiraz, is one of the most famous and beautiful Persian gardens in all of Iran. It should be noted that the word ‘Eram’ is the Persian version of the Arabic word ‘Iram’ which means heaven in Islam’s most holiest of books, the Qur’an. With its beautiful grounds, lush plant life and aesthetic attractions, it’s easy to see why Eram evokes such a description.


IRAN – Country of 4 Seasons Iran In Photos
Iran in 4 seasons-4k Reza Rafizadeh

The Persian Garden – UNESCO World Heritage Centre › … ›

World Heritage Centre › The List

Jun 27, 2011 – These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated …

The Persian Garden

The property includes nine gardens in as many provinces. They exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that evolved and adapted to different climate conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC. Always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated irrigation systems. They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain.

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Persian Garden consists of a collection of nine gardens, selected from various regions of Iran, which tangibly represent the diverse forms that this type of designed garden has assumed over the centuries and in different climatic conditions. They reflect the flexibility of the Chahar Bagh, or originating principle, of the Persian Garden, which has persisted unchanged over more than two millennia since its first mature expression was found in the garden of Cyrus the Great’s Palatial complex, in Pasargadae.  Natural elements combine with manmade components in the Persian Garden to create a unique artistic achievement that reflects the ideals of art, philosophical, symbolic and religious concepts. The Persian Garden materialises the concept of Eden or Paradise on Earth.

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World Heritage
Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration.

The Persian Garden – UNESCO World Heritage Centre


Rosa persica

(Ṯābeti: Hulthemia persica; Pers. varak), a low shrub (50-60 cm high), with a reddish brown macula at the base of the yellow petals of its simple flowers; habitat: the steppes of Azerbaijan, Hamadān, Qazvin, Tehran, Semnān and Dāmḡān, Gorgān, Khorasan, etc.; also found in Afghanistan (Herat) and Turkmenistan

Persian rose (HD1080p) MrBangthama

Persian Roses particularly belong to Shirazthe cultural capital of Iran. In fact, many people around the world know Shiraz by its enhancing Persian Roses.

Persian red rose is believed to be popular among the roses. It has a long, jagged stem and dark green leaves. This flower has a good aroma, so its aromas are used in cosmetics and hygiene products.   Shiraz RosesShiraz Rose

Persian Red Rose

Shiraz Rose

The best time to travel to Shiraz is in the spring, in May. When there is no news from the crowds of Norouz, as well as flamboyant flowers, Persian Rose, MohammadiNarges and Baboonai flowers have flown a flower festival in the city. It should breathe the city’s air with the smell of colorful flowers.Persian Rose

Persian Pink Rose

Different Colors Of Persian Roses

Persian Roses are produced in 4 colors, and all are available on the market during the whole year. Pink Roses are so favorable by Iranian which is reflected on the Persian architecture and aesthetic monuments, such as Pink Mosque and beautiful Persian gardens in Shiraz.Persian Rose , Eram Garden

Persian Rose , Eram Garden

Differences Between Persian And Dutch Roses:

Appearance of buds: Difference in the appearance of Dutch and Persian roses in the form that the stalks of Persian rose is full of thorns, and also red roses of Persian with ordinary petals and bright red and Dutch rose with the petal is dark-red. Shiraz Roses

Duration of Rose Shelf: The most important difference is the duration of flowering or its useful life, so that the useful life of roses in Iran is between 3 and 6 days and the Dutch rose in the life of 10 to 20 days is not comparable to its Iranian counterpart.

Persian Roses are more suitable for gardens, and they are more durable when you plant them on the garden not to pick them for the vase. Persian RosePersian Rose , Shiraz

Pink Rose , Shiraz

Persian Rose, Persian Tour!

Iran Destination offers a variety of Iran Tours to help you to explore the  Persian Gardens as easy as possible.  By contact to our experienced and skilled tour operators, we’d help you to visit the most amazing highlights of Iran. Don’t hesitate to contact us! 


From :

Persian Roses: The New From The Orient

The Content Of The Article:

The fascinating flower look with basal stain is known from hibiscus and some shrub peonies. Meanwhile, there is the sexy eye in the center of bright peel blossoms even in roses. For some time, a whole range of new varieties on the market, which cause a stir as Persian roses (Rosa Persica hybrids). Their exotic look is enhanced by exotic beauties with oriental-looking names like ‘Queen of Sheba’ or ‘Alissar Princess of Phenicia’ of the Persian Rose (Rosa persica).

Blossom Beauty From Iran

The Persian rose comes from steppe-like areas in Iran and neighboring countries. In leaves and flowers, it differs so much from other roses that it long formed its own genus. Therefore, the varieties are sometimes found under the botanical name Hulthemia hybrids. For over 40 years, the Wild Rose from the Orient has been cultivating rose grower all over the world. In their homeland, the robust species grows proverbially like weeds, but in our climate it has failed so far in the field.

'Esther Queen of Persia'

Persian roses ‘Esther Queen of Persia’ (left) and ‘Eyeconic’ (right)

So how was it possible to unite the beautiful savage with the advantages of modern, often-flowering garden roses? The breakthrough brought breeding with crossed Persian roses that had originated in England since the 1960s. Finally, there are garden-suitable varieties that are no longer available only to lovers. The Persica hybrids can be used as bedding or shrub roses. Read all:


How the World’s Best Rose Water Is Made
 Great Big Story You’ve probably spritzed rose water on your face, or drank rose water tea. It’s trendy now, though the aromatic liquid has been a staple for centuries in the Middle East. The world’s best rose water is made by experts like Moshen Ghaffari in Iran’s Qamsar District. The soil content, sea level, temperature and gentle winds make the area perfect for growing roses. Moshen’s family uses copper pots to produce “double-fired” rose water. How many freshly-picked flowers does it take to make one liter? The answer might surprise you.


Persian gardens From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ancient Persian Gardens: Evolution and Legacy with Dr. David Stronach

Asian Art Museum Dr. David Stronach, University of California, Berkeley, professor emeritus of Near Eastern art and archaeology, kicks off the museum’s new Perspectives on Persian Art lecture series with a talk about the influence of traditional Persian gardens in Asia and Europe. From 1961 to 1963 Stronach directed excavations of the royal garden of Cyrus the Great (559–530 BCE) at Pasargadae, in Southwest Iran. Since that time he has studied connections between the royal gardens of Mesopotamia—the gardens associated with Nineveh and Babylon—and the gardens at Pasargadae. It was at Pasargadae that Cyrus appears to have introduced the first example of a fourfold garden layout (a type known in Persian as chaharbagh). Such gardens remain in use not only in present-day Iran but also in India and Spain.

Read more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia or

Eram Garden is a famous historic Persian garden in Shiraz, Iran

Eram Garden is a famous historic Persian garden in ShirazIran

The tra­di­tion and style of gar­den de­sign rep­re­sented by Per­sian gardens or Iran­ian gardens (Per­sian: باغ ایرانی‎), an ex­am­ple of the par­adise gar­den, has in­flu­enced the de­sign of gar­dens from An­dalu­sia to India and beyond.[1][2] The gar­dens of the Al­ham­bra show the in­flu­ence of Per­sian gar­den phi­los­o­phy and style in a Moor­ish palace scale, from the era of al-An­dalus in SpainHu­mayun’s Tomb and Taj Mahal have some of the largest Per­sian gar­dens in the world, from the era of the Mughal Em­pire in India.

Concept and etymology

A schematic diagram of a Persian garden. Note the quadripartite structure with focal water feature, connecting aqueducts, and surrounding trees, as well as the placement of the palace

A schematic diagram of a Persian garden. Note the quadripartite structure with focal water feature, connecting aqueducts, and surrounding trees, as well as the placement of the palace

From the time of the Achaemenid Em­pire, the idea of an earthly par­adise spread through Per­sian lit­er­a­ture and ex­am­ple to other cul­tures, both the Hel­lenis­tic gar­dens of the Se­leu­cid Em­pire and the Ptolemies in Alexan­dria. The Aves­tan word pairidaēza-Old Per­sian *paridaida-Me­dian *paridaiza- (walled-around, i.e., a walled gar­den), was bor­rowed into Akka­dian, and then into Greek An­cient Greek: πα­ρά­δει­σος, ro­man­izedparádeisos, then ren­dered into the Latin paradīsus, and from there en­tered into Eu­ro­pean lan­guages, e.g., French par­adisGer­man Paradies, and Eng­lish par­adise.

As the word ex­presses, such gar­dens would have been en­closed. The gar­den’s pur­pose was, and is, to pro­vide a place for pro­tected re­lax­ation in a va­ri­ety of man­ners: spir­i­tual, and leisurely (such as meet­ings with friends), es­sen­tially a par­adise on earth. The Com­mon Iran­ian word for “en­closed space” was *pari-daiza- (Aves­tan pairi-daēza-), a term that was adopted by Chris­t­ian mythol­ogy to de­scribe the gar­den of Eden or Par­adise on earth.

The gar­den’s con­struc­tion may be for­mal (with an em­pha­sis on struc­ture) or ca­sual (with an em­pha­sis on na­ture), fol­low­ing sev­eral sim­ple de­sign rules. This al­lows a max­i­miza­tion, in terms of func­tion and emo­tion, of what may be done in the gar­den.

Gardens outside of the Palace of Darius I of Persia in Persepolis.

Gardens outside of the Palace of Darius I of Persia in Persepolis.

Per­sian gar­dens may orig­i­nate as early as 4000 BC, but it is clear that this Iran­ian tra­di­tion began with the Achaemenid dy­nasty around the 6th cen­tury BCE. Dec­o­rated pot­tery of that time dis­plays the typ­i­cal cross plan of the Per­sian gar­den. The out­line of Pasar­gadae, built around 500 BC, is still view­able today. Clas­si­cal Ira­ni­ans were seen by the Greeks as the ‘great gar­den­ers’ of an­tiq­uity; Cyrus II (known also as Cyrus the Younger) is al­leged to have told the Spar­tan com­man­der Lysander that he gar­dened daily when not cam­paign­ing, and had him­self laid out the park at Sardis, which he called his ‘par­adise’ (a Greek cor­rup­tion of the Old Per­sian word for garden).

Dur­ing the suzerainty of the Sasan­ian Em­pire, under the in­flu­ence of Zoroas­tri­an­ismwater in art grew in­creas­ingly im­por­tant. This trend man­i­fested it­self in gar­den de­sign, with greater em­pha­sis on foun­tains and ponds in gar­dens.

Dur­ing the Umayyad and Ab­basid pe­ri­ods, the aes­thetic as­pect of the gar­den in­creased in im­por­tance, over­tak­ing util­ity. Dur­ing this time, aes­thetic rules that gov­ern the gar­den grew in im­por­tance. An ex­am­ple of this is the chahār bāgh (چهارباغ), a form of gar­den that at­tempts to em­u­late the Abra­hamic no­tion of a Gar­den of Eden, with four rivers and four quad­rants that rep­re­sent the world. The de­sign some­times ex­tends one axis longer than the cross-axis and may fea­ture water chan­nels that run through each of the four gar­dens and con­nect to a cen­tral pool.

Under the Ab­basid dy­nasty (8th cen­tury AD), this type of gar­den be­came an in­te­gral part of rep­re­sen­ta­tional architecture.

The Per­sian gar­den is a land­scape gar­den, de­signed in­di­vid­u­ally and cre­ated in­ten­tion­ally as a space em­bed­ded in the aes­thetic and spir­i­tual con­text of its past and con­tem­po­rary cul­tural, po­lit­i­cal, and so­cial en­vi­ron­ment. Hall­marks of these for­mal gar­dens are a geo­met­ric lay­out fol­low­ing geo­met­ric and vi­sual prin­ci­ples, im­ple­mented to na­ture by water chan­nels and basins which di­vide the en­closed space into clearly de­fined quar­ters, a prin­ci­ple that has be­come known as Cha­har Bagh (four gar­dens), wa­ter­works with chan­nels, basins, foun­tains and cas­cades, pavil­ions, promi­nent cen­tral axes with a vista, and a plan­ta­tion with a va­ri­ety of care­fully cho­sen trees, herbs. and flow­ers. The old-Iran­ian word for such gar­dens “pari-daizi’ ex­presses the no­tion of an earthly par­adise that is in­her­ent to them. As such, they are a metaphor for the di­vine order and the uni­fi­ca­tion and pro­tec­tion of the ones who do good. Their coun­ter­parts on earth ful­fill a sim­i­lar func­tion. These prin­ci­ples are brought to per­fec­tion in the gar­dens of the em­peror as the “good gardener”.

Notwith­stand­ing a for­mal stan­dard­iza­tion, the land­scape gar­dens also re­flect di­ver­sity and de­vel­op­ment, bound to func­tion, re­gional and chrono­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics, as well as tech­no­log­i­cal, know how per­sonal pref­er­ences, am­bi­tions, and de­mands. Per­sian gar­dens are multi-func­tional: they not only serve con­tem­pla­tion and re­lax­ation, but are also a rep­re­sen­ta­tion and man­i­fes­ta­tion of power. De­sign­ing and im­ple­ment­ing a gar­den demon­strates the oc­cu­pa­tion of land, hold­ing au­di­ences and cel­e­brat­ing vic­to­ries or mar­riages in these gar­dens sig­nal su­pe­ri­or­ity, or so­cial and po­lit­i­cal bonds. Start­ing from the 12th to 13th cen­tury, tombs for mem­bers of the royal fam­ily or im­por­tant per­son­al­i­ties were placed into such for­mal gar­dens, pro­vid­ing be­liev­ers a chance to ben­e­fit from the spir­i­tu­al­ity of a ven­er­ated per­son and the par­tic­u­lar aura of the garden.

The in­va­sion of Per­sia by the Mon­gols in the thir­teenth cen­tury led to a new em­pha­sis on highly or­nate struc­ture in the gar­den. Ex­am­ples of this in­clude tree pe­onies and chrysan­the­mums. The Mon­gols then car­ried a Per­sian gar­den tra­di­tion to other parts of their em­pire (no­tably India).

Bagh-e Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan

Bagh-e Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan

Mughal gardens at the Taj Mahal

Mughal gardens at the Taj Mahal

The Mughal em­peror Babur in­tro­duced the Per­sian gar­den to India, at­tempt­ing to repli­cate the cool, re­fresh­ing aura of his home­land in the Fer­ghana Val­ley through the con­struc­tion of Per­sian-style gar­dens, like those at other Timurid cities like Samarkand and Herat. Babur was a zeal­ous gar­dener and per­son­ally de­signed and su­per­vised at least ten gar­dens in his cap­i­tal of Kabul in mod­ern Afghanistan, such as the Bagh-e Babur, where he recorded the al­lure of the pome­gran­ate, cherry and or­ange trees he had planted. Though his em­pire soon ex­panded as far as north-cen­tral India, he ab­horred the stag­nant heat and drab en­vi­ron­ment of the hot, dusty plains of India; he was thus in­terred at Bagh-e Babur in Kabul by his widow in 1544.

The Aram Bagh of Agra was the first of many Per­sian gar­dens he cre­ated in India it­self. Mughal gar­dens have four basic re­quire­ments, sym­bol­iz­ing four al­le­gor­i­cal es­sen­tials for the af­ter­life: shade, fruit, fra­grance and run­ning water, and this pat­tern was used to build many Per­sian gar­dens through­out the In­dian sub­con­ti­nent, such as the Shal­i­mar Gar­dens of La­hore, the Shal­i­mar Bagh and Nishat Bagh of Kash­mir, and the Taj Mahal gar­dens. The Taj Mahal gar­dens em­body the Per­sian con­cept of an ideal par­adise gar­den, and were built with ir­ri­ga­tion chan­nels and canals from the Ya­muna River. These gar­dens have re­cently been re­stored to their for­mer beauty after decades of pol­lu­tion by the In­dian au­thor­i­ties, who cut down the fruit- and shade-bear­ing veg­e­ta­tion of the garden.

The Safavid dy­nasty (sev­en­teenth to eigh­teenth cen­tury) built and de­vel­oped grand and epic lay­outs that went be­yond a sim­ple ex­ten­sion to a palace and be­came an in­te­gral aes­thetic and func­tional part of it. In the fol­low­ing cen­turies, Eu­ro­pean gar­den de­sign began to in­flu­ence Per­sia, par­tic­u­larly the de­signs of France, and sec­on­dar­ily that of Rus­sia and the United King­dom. West­ern in­flu­ences led to changes in the use of water and the species used in bed­ding.

Tra­di­tional forms and style are still ap­plied in mod­ern Iran­ian gar­dens. They also ap­pear in his­toric sites, mu­se­ums and af­fixed to the houses of the rich.

Elements of the Persian garden
Chehel Sotoun pavilion and garden in Isfahan

Chehel Sotoun pavilion and garden in Isfahan

Sun­light and its ef­fects were an im­por­tant fac­tor of struc­tural de­sign in Per­sian gar­dens. Tex­tures and shapes were specif­i­cally cho­sen by ar­chi­tects to har­ness the light.

Iran‘s dry heat makes shade im­por­tant in gar­dens, which would be nearly un­us­able with­out it. Trees and trel­lises largely fea­ture as bi­otic shade; pavil­ions and walls are also struc­turally promi­nent in block­ing the sun.

The heat also makes water im­por­tant, both in the de­sign and main­te­nance of the gar­den. Ir­ri­ga­tion may be re­quired, and may be pro­vided via a form of tun­nel called a qanat, that trans­ports water from a local aquiferWell-like struc­tures then con­nect to the qanat, en­abling the draw­ing of water. Al­ter­na­tively, an an­i­mal-dri­ven Per­sian well would draw water to the sur­face. Such wheel sys­tems also moved water around sur­face water sys­tems, such as those in the cha­har bāgh style. Trees were often planted in a ditch called a juy, which pre­vented water evap­o­ra­tion and al­lowed the water quick ac­cess to the tree roots.

The Per­sian style often at­tempts to in­te­grate in­doors with out­doors through the con­nec­tion of a sur­round­ing gar­den with an inner court­yard. De­sign­ers often place ar­chi­tec­tural el­e­ments such as vaulted arches be­tween the outer and in­te­rior areas to open up the di­vide be­tween them.

Shazdeh Garden is one of the largest gardens of Kerman Province.

Shazdeh Garden is one of the largest gardens of Kerman Province.

An early de­scrip­tion (from the first half of the fourth cen­tury BCE) of a Per­sian gar­den is found in Xenophon‘s Oe­co­nom­i­cus in which he has Socrates re­late the story of the Spar­tan gen­eral Lysander‘s visit to the Per­sian prince Cyrus the Younger, who shows the Greek his “par­adise at Sardis”. In this story Lysander is “as­ton­ished at the beauty of the trees within, all planted at equal in­ter­vals, the long straight rows of wav­ing branches, the per­fect reg­u­lar­ity, the rec­tan­gu­lar sym­me­try of the whole, and the many sweet scents which hung about them as they paced the park”

Fin Garden in Kashan

Fin Garden in Kashan

The old­est rep­re­sen­ta­tional de­scrip­tions and il­lus­tra­tions of Per­sian gar­dens come from trav­el­ers who reached Iran from the west. These ac­counts in­clude Ibn Bat­tuta in the four­teenth cen­tury, Ruy González de Clav­ijo in the fif­teenth cen­tury and En­gel­bert Kaempfer in the sev­en­teenth cen­tury. Bat­tuta and Clav­ijo made only pass­ing ref­er­ences to gar­dens and did not de­scribe their de­sign, but Kaempfer made care­ful draw­ings and con­verted them into de­tailed en­grav­ings after his re­turn to Eu­rope. They show charbagh-type gar­dens that fea­tured an en­clos­ing wall, rec­tan­gu­lar pools, an in­ter­nal net­work of canals, gar­den pavil­ions and lush plant­ing. There are sur­viv­ing ex­am­ples of this gar­den type at Yazd (Dowlatabad) and at Kashan (Fin Gar­den). The lo­ca­tion of the gar­dens Kaempfer il­lus­trated in Is­fa­han can be iden­ti­fied.


The six pri­mary styles of the Per­sian gar­den may be seen in the fol­low­ing table, which puts them in the con­text of their func­tion and style. Gar­dens are not lim­ited to a par­tic­u­lar style, but often in­te­grate dif­fer­ent styles, or have areas with dif­fer­ent func­tions and styles.

PrivateHayātChahār BāghBāgh


Naghsh-i Jahan square, the charbagh Royal Square (Maidan) in Isfahan, constructed between 1598 and 1629

Naghsh-i Jahan square, the charbagh Royal Square (Maidan) in Isfahan, constructed between 1598 and 1629

Sunset at Nishat Bagh Gardens

Sunset at Nishat Bagh Gardens

Laleh Park, Tehran

Laleh ParkTehran

Pub­licly, it is a clas­si­cal Per­sian lay­out with heavy em­pha­sis on aes­thet­ics over func­tion. Man-made struc­tures in the gar­den are par­tic­u­larly im­por­tant, with arches and pools (which may be used to bathe). The ground is often cov­ered in gravel flagged with stone. Plant­i­ngs are typ­i­cally very sim­ple – such as a line of trees, which also pro­vide shade.

Pri­vately, these gar­dens are often pool-cen­tred and, again, struc­tural. The pool serves as a focus and source of hu­mid­ity for the sur­round­ing at­mos­phere. There are few plants, often due to the lim­ited water avail­able in urban areas.


This is a pub­lic, for­mal gar­den that puts more em­pha­sis on the bi­otic el­e­ment than the hayāt and that min­imises struc­ture. Plants range from trees, to shrubs, to bed­ding plants, to grasses. Again, there are el­e­ments such as a pool and gravel path­ways which di­vide the lawn. When struc­tures are used, they are often built, as in the case of pavil­ions, to pro­vide shade.

Chahar Bāgh

Main article: Charbagh

These gar­dens are pri­vate and for­mal. The basic struc­ture con­sists of four quad­rants di­vided by wa­ter­ways or path­ways. Tra­di­tion­ally, the rich used such gar­dens in work-re­lated func­tions (such as en­ter­tain­ing am­bas­sadors). These gar­dens bal­ance struc­ture with green­ery, with the plants often around the pe­riph­ery of a pool and path based struc­ture.


Much like many other parks, the Per­sian park serves a ca­sual pub­lic func­tion with em­pha­sis on plant life. They pro­vide path­ways and seat­ing, but are oth­er­wise usu­ally lim­ited in terms of struc­tural el­e­ments. The pur­pose of such places is re­lax­ation and so­cial­i­sa­tion.


Main article: Bāgh (garden)

Like the other ca­sual gar­den, the park, bāgh em­pha­sizes the nat­ural and green as­pect of the gar­den. Un­like the park it is a pri­vate area often af­fixed to houses and often con­sist­ing of lawns, trees, and ground plants. The wa­ter­ways and path­ways stand out less than in the more for­mal coun­ter­parts and are largely func­tional. The pri­mary func­tion of such areas is fa­mil­ial re­lax­ation.

World Heritage Sites

UNESCO World Heritage Site
IncludesAncient Garden of Pasargadae Bagh-e Eram Bagh-e Chehel Sotun Bagh-e Fin Bagh-e Abas Abad Bagh-e Shahzadeh Bagh-e Dolat Abad Bagh-e Pahlavanpur Bagh-e Akbariyeh
CriteriaCultural: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
Inscription2011 (35th session)
Area716.35 ha (2.7658 sq mi)
Buffer zone9,740.02 ha (37.6064 sq mi)
  1. Pasargad Garden at PasargadaeIran (WHS 1372-001)
  2. Eram GardenShiraz, Iran (WHS 1372-002)
  3. Chehel SotounIsfahan, Iran (WHS 1372-003)
  4. Fin GardenKashan, Iran (WHS 1372-004)
  5. Abbasabad Garden, Abbasabad, Mazandaran, Iran (WHS 1372-005)
  6. Shazdeh GardenMahanKerman Province, Iran (WHS 1372-006)
  7. Dolatabad Garden, Yazd, Iran (WHS 1372-007)
  8. Pahlevanpour Garden, Iran (WHS 1372-008)
  9. Akbarieh Garden, South Khorasan Province, Iran (WHS 1372-009)
  10. Taj MahalAgraIndia (WHS 252)
  11. Humayun’s TombNew Delhi, India (WHS 232bis)
  12. Shalimar Gardens, LahorePakistan (WHS 171-002)
  13. Gardens of BaburKabulAfghanistan (WHS —)
  14. GeneralifeGranadaSpain (WHS 314-001)



referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure, numerous gardens mentioned in historical texts are designated by name, either of the founder, or of the flora or fauna associated with them and Poetical names….

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BĀḠ ii. General

In Iranian agriculture, the word bāḡ, though usually translated as “garden,” means more precisely an enclosed area bearing permanent cultures—i.e., all kinds of cultivated trees and shrubs, as opposed to fields under annual crops (zamīn-e zīr-e kešt or kešt-e sālāna)—in land-use statistics (the Village Gazetteer of 1966) as well as in everyday speech. It includes orchards (bāḡ-e mīva), vineyards (bāḡ-e mow), olive groves (bāḡ-e zeytūn), tea plantations (bāḡ-e čāy), but not vegetable gardens (sabzīkārī or ṣayfīkārī).


GOL O BOLBOL, rose and nightingale, a popular literary and decorative theme.

 “rose and nightingale,” a popular literary and decorative theme. Together, rose and nightingale are the types of beloved and lover par excellence; the rose is beautiful, proud, and often cruel, while the nightingale sings endlessly of his longing and devotion.

From The Encyclopædia Iranica


The Nightingale and the Rose – J.F. Nightingale
Spring wildflowers from the Greek flora with amazing Nightingale song – For relaxation – 4K video Escape to nature
Breathtaking colors of wildflowers in UHD 4k video – Blossom flowers in the Greek countryside
BEST NIGHTINGALE SONG – 3 Hours REALTIME Nightingale Singing, NO LOOP – Birdsong, Birds Chirping
Relaxing clear sound of Nightingale singing accompanied by the gentle trickling sound of a peaceful river flowing through a lush green forest. This video of Nature in its pure natural state creates an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity. It can help relax the mind and body, enabling greater clarity and a more balanced and productive state of being.
Best nightingale songs- Wonderful sound in nature-1hr 20 relaxation best known for its powerful and beautiful song. This video contains the best nightingale songs with wonderful sound in nature. It can help relax the mind and body, more balanced your life and improve productive work. Colorful Life
Persia or Iran in the Bible: The Forgotten Story | Presented by Our Daily Bread Films

Our Daily Bread For centuries Iran was known as Persia–the greatest empire the world had ever seen. But part of her story is often forgotten. Woven together in the Bible are prophecies and accounts of Persian kings, epic battles, and royal decrees that changed the world. And surprisingly to many, the Bible speaks of Persia as being chosen and favored for God’s grand purposes. In ‘Iran in the Bible,’ this remarkable story is told using ancient Persian texts, archaeological discoveries, and insights from scholars. What’s revealed is that both Persia and the Jewish people played a strategic role in the fulfillment of God’s promise to Abraham–the promise that through him God would bless the world. Showing how God is directly involved in history, ‘Iran in the Bible’ offers comfort to those living in a world of uncertainty.

Map of the Persian Empire - 550-486 B.C. (Bible History Online)
Map of the Persian Empire – 550-486 B.C. (Bible History Online)


Paradise is ideal garden or place with worldly limitation made by human.

 Switzerland is perhaps the most magnificent destination in Europe that is mostly known as paradise of the earth.

This is what Emperor Jehangir is reported to have said soulfully about Kashmir -” If there is paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here.

Paradise means a heavenly beautiful place on this Earth.

But for the believer, Heaven refers to a place beyond the atmospheric limitation where the God resides.

A place regarded in various religions as the abode of God (or the gods) and the angels, and of the good after death, often traditionally depicted as being above the sky.

Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural place where beings such as God or godsangelsspiritssaints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.

white angel figurine on gray concrete surface

Heaven is where God is and paradise is something that can be on Earth.

Some people believe, is if anyone prays and tries to make earth like heaven above, or paradise on earth, be rewarded afterlife to be closer to God in Heaven above with forever joy and satisfaction, but always with love, forgiveness, bless and grace of God. Heaven is often described as a “highest place”, a Paradise, the holiest place, and universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinitygoodnesspietyfaith, or other virtues or right beliefs or simply divine will. Some believe in the possibility of a kingdom of heaven within on Earth.

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But Paradise is for every one believer or not a believer in God or Heaven, specially for those like to make earth better place to live, for themself and everyone.

Paradise Garden of Persia around 2 to 5000 years ago, simply was garden with wall around, and the person with a family, water, animals, and knowledge to grow some kinds of foods safely and living there. First time after million years hunting and gathering with all dangers in the wilderness.

So garden with wall was, Ideal place for that time, specially the best and top big gardens.


Paradise Plants Garden Centre & Landscape Design … › paradise-plants

Paradise Plants Garden Centre, Garden Center, Comox Valley, Courtenay, Comox. Landscaping, Landscape Design, Landscapers install irrigation, sprinklers, ..


Paradise Park Resort – Old Orchard Beach

At Paradise Park Resort you can enjoy camping in our tranquil country setting, and be within walking distance of the beautiful 7 miles of golden sandy beaches.

Bird Of Paradise Flower (HD1080p) MrBangthamai
คำอธิบาย *** The stunning tropical plants known as the Bird of Paradise family all stop people dead in their tracks when displayed in a shop window. If you’ve seen one of these distinctive flowers and want to know more, read up on both the symbolic and botanical facts about this eye-catching flower
Birds-of-Paradise Project Introduction Cornell Lab of Ornithology


Beautiful Slow Persian / Iranian Dinner Music – موسیقی زیبا و ملایم بی کلام ایرانی Shar Lyfe
A compilation of instrumental pieces of music from various renown artists. Scenes of nature and Iran overlaying a smooth blend of songs.
The Paradise Gardens of Persia

From Iran Review by Hedieh Ghavidel 

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For the ancient Persians the symbol of eternal life was a tree with a stream at its roots. The sacred miracle tree contained the seeds of all within itself.

Tree planting was a sacred occupation and this reverence was deeply seated in the souls of the Persians.

Historical accounts tell us about gardens named Paradise filled with all things fair and good that the earth can bring forth.

The Persian Paradise garden gets its name from the old Persian word pairadaeza, meaning an enclosed area. The Achaemenid idea of an earthly paradise eventually infiltrated other cultures and was later translated into Latin as hortus conclusus, the enclosed garden, which came to symbolize the Garden of Eden.

Subsequently the English word paradise has its roots in the old Persian word pairadaeza.

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The first writer to make reference to a Persian garden using the word “paradise” was the Greek narrator Xenophon. The word appears in Avestan text only in the form of Pairadaeza.

The Old Testament describes Pleasure gardens as sacred enclosures rising in terraces planted with trees and shrubs, forming an artificial hill such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Not only were palaces and temples enclosed within gardens, but every city had private and sometimes public gardens which were opened to all during Persian New Year celebrations.

Persian gardens were places where shade and cool water could be privately enjoyed. They were places of spiritual solace, meeting places for friends and formal adjuncts to the houses or palaces they surrounded.

For more than three thousand years, the Persian garden has been the focus of Iranian imagination, influencing the country’s art as well as literature.

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Persian garden carpet

The lavish use of flowers in such gardens inspired the weaving of floral designs into what are known as garden-carpets.

Persian gardens influenced garden design around the world and became the foundation of Islamic and later European garden traditions, an example of which can be seen in the Mughal gardens of India namely the Taj Mahal in Agra.

The paved and tiled Andalusian courtyards with arcades, pools and fountains testify to their Persian roots.

It is reputed that the main design for the Versailles Gardens has replicated the outlines of the paradise gardens of Pasargadae and provided inspiration for the gardens of the Louvre.

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The remains of a garden pavilion, Pasargadae

According to historical accounts, paradise gardens were primarily hunting-parks with fruit-trees grown for food. The bronze works datable to 1000 BCE unearthed in Luristan province are adorned with trees next to streams.

The first excavations at the ruins of the palaces in Persepolis ignored the question of gardens and neglected Garden Archaeology, the scientific study of the physical evidence of gardens recovered through excavation.

However, palaces scattered according to no rule and raised above three terraces with large open stairways brought to the mind of Garden archaeologists the simplest form of Persian garden; a rectangle of water, with enough of a flow to give it life and movement, and a raised platform to view it from.

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An example of a Chahar Bagh water channel, Pasargadae

Further excavation in Pasargadae led to the discovery of the first monumental garden, at least in western Asia, securing a place for Persian gardens in the history of garden design.

Archaeologists discovered that the four-fold garden accords with the traditional Persian garden plan known today as Chahar Bagh.

Considering the fact that the Achaemenid monarch Cyrus was known as the “King of the Four Quarters”, it can be asserted that later-day Persian gardens owed their origins to the novel garden plan of Cyrus.

The Chahar Bagh plan is a quadrangular/rectangular canal pattern in which waterways or pathways are used to quarter the garden, a layout intended to bring to mind the four rivers of the Garden of Eden.

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All Persian gardens have vertical lines in their design, a central structure built on the highest point of the garden, a main waterway, a large pool in front of the structure to reflect the building, and a close relationship with nature.

Earth, water, vegetation and atmosphere are the most important elements in paradise gardens. Underground water canals called Qanat irrigated the gardens which were often built on slopes to facilitate the natural flow of water or create artificial waterfalls.

Trees and flowers are planted in gardens based on their usefulness; therefore, a Persian garden has more fruit trees, then shade trees and finally flowers.

Achaemenid inscriptions bear witness to the importance of symmetrical designs in Persian gardens. The Chahar Bagh School stresses the necessity of planting trees and flowers in regular rows.

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Fruit trees bring to mind rebirth and spring; strictly aligned sycamore trees, the symbol of eternal life, provide shade while roses, jasmines and other flowers intoxicate with their heavenly scent.

The most basic feature of a Persian garden is the enclosure of the cultivated area, which excludes the wildness of nature, includes the tended greenery of the garden and makes elaborate use of water in canals, ponds, rills and sometimes fountains.

A recurring theme in many paradise gardens is the contrast between the formal garden layout and the informality provided by free-growing plants.

Persians placed great importance on having their tombs surrounded by woodlands and gardens. According to historical accounts, the tomb of Cyrus the Great was enclosed by four gardens and a grove.

This tradition has continued to the present time and can be seen at the graves of prominent Iranian figures such as the poets Hafez and Sa’di in Shiraz.

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The resting place of Hafiz, Shiraz, Iran

The resting place of Hafiz, a famous tourism hub, pleases the eyes of visitors with its cypresses, poplars, cedars flowering shrubs and rose bushes.

Persian gardens are pleasances of water, meadow, trees and flowers in which buildings take a subordinate position.

To this day, the size and beauty of these gardens continues to amaze visitors sitting under the shade of cypress trees to enjoy looking at the sky reflected in the central pool while taking in the sweet aroma of beautiful flowers.

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The Beautiful Landscapes of Iran (HD1080p) MrBangthamai
Paradise garden
Read more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia or

The par­adise garden is a form of gar­den of Old Iran­ian ori­gin, specif­i­cally Achaemenid which is for­mal, sym­met­ri­cal and most often, en­closed. The most tra­di­tional form is a rec­tan­gu­lar gar­den split into four quar­ters with a pond in the cen­ter, a four-fold de­sign called cha­har bagh (“four gardens”). One of the most im­por­tant el­e­ments of par­adise gar­dens is water with ponds, canals, rills, and foun­tains all being com­mon fea­tures. Scent is an es­sen­tial el­e­ment with fruit-bear­ing trees and flow­ers se­lected for their fra­grance.

It is also often re­ferred to as an Is­lamic gar­den. The form of gar­den spread through­out Egypt and the Mediter­ranean dur­ing the Mus­lim Ara­bic con­quests, reach­ing as far as India and Spain.


Orig­i­nally de­nom­i­nated by a sin­gle noun de­not­ing “a walled-in com­pound or gar­den“, from “pairi” (“around”) and “daeza” or “diz” (“wall”, “brick”, or “shape”), philoso­pher and his­to­rian Xenophon of Athens trans­lated the Per­sian pairi­daeza into the Greek pa­radeisos.[2]:8 This term is used for the Gar­den of Eden in Greek trans­la­tions of the Old Tes­ta­ment.[2]:8

In Per­sian, the word par­dis means both par­adise and garden.[2]:8

The idea of the en­closed gar­den is often re­ferred to as the par­adise gar­den be­cause of ad­di­tional Indo-Eu­ro­pean con­no­ta­tions of “paradise”.


The old­est Per­sian gar­den of which there are records be­longed to Cyrus the Great, in his cap­i­tal at Pasar­gadae in the province of Fars to the north of Shi­raz. It is the old­est in­tact lay­out that sug­gests el­e­ments of the par­adise garden.[2]:7 Likely planted with cy­presspome­gran­ate and cherry, the gar­den had a geo­met­ri­cal plan and stone wa­ter­courses. These wa­ter­courses formed the prin­ci­pal axis and sec­ondary axes of the main gar­den at Pasar­gadae, pre­fig­ur­ing the four-fold de­sign of the cha­har bagh.[2]:8 In the Achaemenid Em­pire, gar­dens con­tained fruit trees and flow­ers, in­clud­ing the lily and rose. In 330 BC Alexan­der the Great saw the tomb of Cyrus the Great and recorded that it stood in an ir­ri­gated grove of trees.[3]

It is be­lieved that the Achaemenid kings built par­adise gar­dens within en­closed royal hunt­ing parks, a tra­di­tion in­her­ited from the As­syr­i­ans, for whom the rit­ual lion hunt was a rite that au­then­ti­cated kingship. The As­syr­i­ans in turn had in­her­ited their land­scap­ing tech­niques from the Babylons.

The four-fold layout was later reinterpreted in Islamic terms by Muslim Arabs after the 7th-century conquest of Persia, becoming associated with the Abrahamic concept of paradise and the Garden of EdenGenesis 2:10 reads, “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.”[4] and the Prophet Muhammad spoke of four rivers: of water, milk, wine and honey.[5]

By the 13th century the gardens had spread with Islam throughout EgyptMediterranean north Africa and into Spain. This style of garden came into India during the 16th century in the reign of Prince Babur, the first Emperor of the Mughal Empire.[2]:9 Most Mughal gardens came to have a tomb or pavilion in the centre, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal although with the decline of the Mughal Empire and British colonial rule, the original garden has been substantially changed.[6]


The essential plan of a paradise garden is a four-fold layout (charbagh) with a pond or fountain in the centre. Later designs incorporated a pavilion or mausoleum when they began to develop into elaborate status symbols. The rectangular or rectilinear design is typically quartered by water channels made using the ancient qanat system.

An important and common feature is the elaborate use of water, often in canalsponds, or rills, sometimes in fountains, and less often in waterfalls. This created the soothing sound of running water and also had the practical purpose of cooling the air.

Aromatic flowers and fruit-bearing trees are quintessential elements. The ground where the flora were planted was sunken or the walkways raised so that passers-by would be able to easily pluck fresh fruit as they walked throughout the garden. Olivefigdate and pomegranate were ubiquitous and symbolically important. Orange trees arrived from India via the Silk Road by the 11th century and were incorporated for their fragrance and the beauty of their flowers.[7]

They are typically enclosed by high walls providing shade and protection, especially desirable in the harsh, arid climate where this type of garden flourished.


Much of the use and symbolism of the paradise garden is thought to have derived from the Garden of Eden, despite most elements of the design pre-dating the Abrahamic religions.

The four-fold design appears to echo the Garden of Eden, which in the Book of Genesis is described as having a central spring that feeds four rivers, which each flow out into the world beyond. In the Quran, the Garden is described as being abundant with material delights including delicious foods and constantly flowing water.

Having emerged in the desert, the thirst and gratitude for water are abundant in Islamic traditions. In the Quran, rivers are the primary constituents of the paradise, and references to rain and fountains abound. In the Quran 31:30: “God preferred water over any other created thing and made it the basis of creation, as He said: ‘And We made every living thing of water’.”

Water is associated with the virtues of purity and obedience: “Then the water was told, ‘Be still’. And it was still, awaiting God‘s command. This is implied water, which contains neither impurity nor foam” (Tales of the Prophets, al-Kisa’).

Although the concept of chahar bagh gardens representing ‘paradise on earth’ predates the Islamic adoption of the style, the paradisaical retreats of the Persians became known as “the embodiment of the celestial paradise promised to a practicing Muslim”.[2]:11 Gardens representing paradise on earth or paradise gardens spread throughout the Muslim-conquered world and developed into different, grander and more elaborate styles.


The paradise garden is one of the few original and fundamental kinds of garden from which all gardens in history derive, sometimes in combinations. In its simplest form, the paradise garden consists of a formal, rectangular pool, having a flow just sufficient to give it movement, and a dais from which to observe it. However, a pavilion provides more permanent shelter than the original tent. Strictly aligned, formally arranged trees, especially the chenar or Platanus, provide shade.

Many of the Islamic horticultural traditions and later European traditions derive from that of the paradise garden. Examples of the paradise garden and its derivations are present in many of the historic gardens of Islamic and European nations. In the east, by way of the Persian garden it gave rise to the Mughal gardens of India, a late example of which is the garden of the Taj Mahal in Agra. In the farthest west, it informed the paved and tiled courtyards, arcades, and pools and fountains of Moorish Andalusia. The fundamental design of the Gardens of Versailles in France almost replicates the paradise gardens of Pasargad, and the gardens of the Louvre in Paris appear inspired by them. Another example is the Bahá’í Terraces and Mansion of Bahjí on Mount Carmel in Israel, both of which have extensive gardens of intricate design.

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Read more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia or

see Chahar Bagh.See also: Persian GardensBagh (garden)

Layout of the Charbagh at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore

See also: Persian GardensBagh (garden), and Paradise garden

Layout of the Charbagh at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore

Layout of the Charbagh at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore

Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the charbagh of Kabul

Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the charbagh of Kabul

Charbagh on an incomplete Persian "garden carpet", 17th century

Charbagh on an incomplete Persian “garden carpet”, 17th century

Charbagh or Cha­har Bagh (Per­sian: چھار باغ‎ chahār bāghHindi: चा­र­बाग़ chārbāgh, Urdu: چار باغ‎ chār bāgh, mean­ing “four gar­dens”) is a Per­sian and Indo-Per­sian quadri­lat­eral gar­den lay­out based on the four gar­dens of Par­adise men­tioned in the Qur’an. The quadri­lat­eral gar­den is di­vided by walk­ways or flow­ing water into four smaller parts.[1] They are found in coun­tries through­out West­ern Asia and South Asia, in­clud­ing Iran and India.


The quadri­lat­eral Charbagh con­cept is in­ter­preted as the four gar­dens of Par­adise men­tioned in Chap­ter (Surah) 55, Ar-Rah­man “The Ben­e­fi­cient”, in the Qur’an:

And for him, who fears to stand be­fore his Lord, are two gar­dens. (Chap­ter 55: Verse 46)
And be­side them are two other gar­dens. (Chap­ter 55: Verse 62)

One of the hall­marks of Charbagh gar­den is the four-part gar­den laid out with axial paths that in­ter­sect at the gar­den’s cen­tre. This highly struc­tured geo­met­ri­cal scheme, called the cha­har bagh, be­came a pow­er­ful method for the or­ga­ni­za­tion and do­mes­ti­ca­tion of the land­scape, it­self a sym­bol of po­lit­i­cal territory.[3]

Famous Charbagh gardens

Naghsh-i Jahan square, the charbagh Royal Square (Maidan) in Isfahan, constructed between 1598 and 1629

Naghsh-i Jahan square, the charbagh Royal Square (Maidan) in Isfahan, constructed between 1598 and 1629

The Chahrbagh-e Ab­basi (or Charbagh Av­enue) in Is­fa­hanIran, built by Shah Abbas the Great in 1596, and the gar­den of the Taj Mahal in India are the most fa­mous ex­am­ples of this style. In the Charbagh at the Taj Mahal, each of the four parts con­tains six­teen flower beds.

In India, the Char Bagh con­cept in im­pe­r­ial mau­soleums is seen in Hu­mayun’s Tomb in Delhi in a mon­u­men­tal scale. Hu­mayan’s fa­ther was the Cen­tral Asian Con­queror Babur who suc­ceeded in lay­ing the basis for the Mughal dy­nasty in the In­dian Sub­con­ti­nent and be­came the first Mughal em­peror. The tra­di­tion of par­adise gar­den brought to India by the Mughals, orig­i­nally from Cen­tral Asia, which is found at Babur‘s tomb, Bagh-e Babur, in Kabul.[4]

This tra­di­tion gave birth to the Mughal gar­dens de­sign and dis­played its high form in the Taj Mahal — built by Mughal em­peror Shah Jahan, the great, great, grand­son of the Cen­tral Asian Con­queror Babur, as a tomb for his favourite In­dian wife Mum­taz Mahal, in Agra, India. Un­like most such tombs, the mau­soleum is not in the cen­tre of the gar­den, how­ever ar­chae­o­log­i­cal ex­ca­va­tions have re­vealed an­other gar­den op­po­site in­di­cat­ing that his­tor­i­cally the mau­soleum was cen­tered as in tomb gar­den tradition.[5] The gar­den fea­tures Ital­ian cy­press trees (Cu­pres­sus sem­per­virens) that sym­bol­ize death. Fruit trees in the gar­den sym­bol­ize life. The gar­den at­tracts many birds, which are con­sid­ered one of the fea­tures of the gar­den.

In Pak­istan, the Mughal Shal­i­mar Gar­dens and the gar­den in the Tomb of Je­hangir in La­hore are based on the Charbagh con­cept.


A charbagh is lo­cated on the roof top of the Is­maili Cen­tre in South Kens­ing­tonLon­don.[6] The Del­e­ga­tion of the Is­maili Ima­mat, lo­cated on Sus­sex Drive in the Cana­dian cap­i­tal Ot­tawaOn­tario con­tains a charbagh in a mod­ern setting. The Is­maili Cen­ter and Aga Khan Mu­seum in Toronto fea­tures a mod­ern in­ter­pre­ta­tion of a charbagh be­tween the buildings.

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Related Links:


221 Best Persian Paradise Gardens images in 2020 … › robingoss8 ›


Explore Deborah Sutton’s board “Persian Paradise Gardens“, followed by 244 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Paradise garden, …

The Persian Garden has its roots in history. The Persian Garden is the simple of heaven and the elements installed there all create a sense of value and beauty to the place. In this video we visit Tehran’s Persian Garden and learn more about this unique place.




Iran in 4K : Spring in Alborz Mountains Reza Nazemi
The Alborz ( Persian: البرز‎), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.


Iran in 4K : Fall in Hyrcanian Forest Reza Nazemi
Hyrcanian Forest (Caspian Forest) Hyrcanian forest granted the areas with unique richness of biological diversity, its endemic and endangered species, its natural beauty and its masterpieces of nature creative genius in the form of this ancient forest. North of Iran as along band has diverse natural, economic and social conditions. It characterized by various ecological conditions from 550 to 2200mm precipitation, zero to 5671 m elevation and various vegetation landscape from conifers to broadleaved to Mediterranean plants. These conditions caused great diversity in species. It due to its diverse ecological condition is rich in relict species that some of them referred to the Tertiary period.


Iran in 4K : Land of Thousands of Waterfalls Reza Nazemi
Waterfalls of Zagros Mountains Zagros Mountains, mountain range in southwestern Iran, extending northwest-southeast from the border areas of eastern Turkey and northern Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz. The Zagros range is about 990 miles (1,600 km) long and more than 150 miles (240 km) wide. Situated mostly in what is now Iran, it forms the extreme western boundary of the Iranian plateau, though its foothills to the north and west extend into adjacent countries.


How the World’s Best Rose Water Is Made
Great Big Story You’ve probably spritzed rose water on your face, or drank rose water tea. It’s trendy now, though the aromatic liquid has been a staple for centuries in the Middle East. The world’s best rose water is made by experts like Moshen Ghaffari in Iran’s Qamsar District. The soil content, sea level, temperature and gentle winds make the area perfect for growing roses. Moshen’s family uses copper pots to produce “double-fired” rose water. How many freshly-picked flowers does it take to make one liter? The answer might surprise you.


This is the World’s Most Expensive Spice |National Geographic

Discover how this region in northern Iran produces the world’s most expensive spice.
Do you know what the world’s most expensive spice is? Known for its distinct flavor and ability to give food a golden yellow color, saffron is a highly-prized spice that is primarily produced in northern Iran. It comes from the stigmas of crocus flowers that thrive under the region’s dry climate. Knowledge of saffron’s intricate cultivation that has been passed in Iran from generation to generation. Besides cooking, saffron is also used in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular issues and for possible cancer prevention.

About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world’s premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what’s possible.


Saffron Flower from Iran and all around the world

Best 100 Saffron Flower Information, Books, Products and Recipes plus lots of Promotional Contents, Free for all Visitors

Saffron: A Global History (Edible)
Saffron: A Global History (Edible)

by Ramin Ganeshram  | Sep 27, 2020 Hardcover$19.95

Explore the dramatic history of the world’s most expensive spice in Saffron: A Global History. Literally worth their weight in gold, sunset-red saffron threads are prized internationally. Saffron can be found in cave art in Mesopotamia, in the frescoes of ancient Santorini, in the dyed wrappings of Egyptian mummies, in the saffron-hued robes of Buddhist monks, and in unmistakable dishes around the world. It has been the catalyst for trade wars as well as smuggling schemes and used in medicine and cosmetics. Complete with delicious recipes and surprising anecdotes, this book traces the many paths taken by saffron, revealing the allure of a spice sought globally by merchants, chefs, artists, scientists, clerics, traders, warriors, and black-market smugglers.


The Saffron Tales: Recipes from the Persian Kitchen
The Saffron Tales: Recipes From The Persian Kitchen

by Yasmin Khan  | Sep 27, 2016Hardcover$37.00


Saffron (Crocus sativus): Production and Processing

Saffron (Crocus sativus): Production and Processing

by M Kafi, A. Koocheki, et al. | Jan 4, 2006$87.95

Saffron is a precious spice which is mainly grown in Iran, India, Spain, Greece, Italy, Pakistan, Morocco, and central Asian countries. Until recently, saffron was perceived only for its value as a spice. However, with recent research findings pointing to the medicinal properties of saffron such as its antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant effects, interest in this plant has increased. The book presents a comprehensive account of saffron which includes the historical background, acerage underproduction, yield and applications, botanical ecophysiology, production technology, irrigation, pests, diseases and weeds, genetics, sterility, reproduction and production of secondary metabolites by in vitro method, economic aspects, indigenous knowledge in saffron production, processing, chemical composition and quality control, and research strategies.


Altaj Crown 100% Spanish Saffron 1 Oz (28.30 Grams)
Altaj Crown 100% Spanish Saffron 1 Oz (28.30 Grams) 1 Ounce (Pack Of 1)$49.99


Saffron Capsules with 88.50 mg of Saffron Extract. Supplement Contains 180 Capsules. Powerful Antioxidant Provides Mood Boost, Heart and Eye Health Support. High Quality Crocus Sativus Plant Extract.
Saffron Capsules With 88.50 Mg Of Saffron Extract. Supplement Contains 180 Capsules. Powerful Antioxidant Provides Mood Boost, Heart And Eye Health Support. High Quality Crocus Sativus Plant Extract. 180 Count (Pack Of 1)$23.00 


Saffron Threads,100% Pure Premium Quality Stigmas Only (5 Gram Spanish) [SUPER NEGIN] NON-GMO, organically grown

Saffron Threads,100% Pure Premium Quality Stigmas Only (5 Gram Spanish) [SUPER NEGIN] NON-GMO, organically grown



Premium Selected Spanish Saffron (1 Gram)

Premium Selected Spanish Saffron (1 Gram)


Kuumba Made Persian Garden Fragrance Oil 0.5 Ounces (1-Unit)Price: $21.98 ($43.96 / Ounce)0.5 Ounces Kuumba Made Persian Garden Fragrance Oil has a Clean, Rich, Pure Scent. Alcohol-Free, Oil Based, Long Lasting, Concentrated.
Persian Garden – Grounded, smooth, very light and clean with a hint of mystery. Strangers will fall in love with you as you walk by.
Being oil-based it smells stronger and last longer than traditional alcohol based perfumes that tend to evaporate quicker. Kuumba Made Fragrance Oils are distinctive, unique and highly concentrated; a few drops will go a long way.
These fragrances can also be used as air fresheners, colognes, or a few drops can be added to your favorite body lotion, massage oil or bath oil.
It can help to enhance meditation, increase relaxation and it’s enticing nature makes it perfect for men and women.
Kuumba Made Persian Garden Fragrance Oil 0.5 Ounces (1-Unit) Price:
$9.99 ($1.48 / Fl Oz)


Persian Garden Perfume Oil Mist (no alcohol spray) – Natural Organic Essential Oils and Hypoallergenic Vegan Perfumes for Women and Men by Zoha Fragrances,…Price: ($14.95 / Fl Oz) 



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia or

The pistachio a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food.

As of 2017, Iran accounted for over half the world’s production of pistachios.

Pistacchio di Bronte.jpg

Pistacia vera (Kerman cultivar) fruits ripening

A tan pistacho shell with the seed visible through a gap in the shell

Roasted pistachio seed with shell


The pis­ta­chio tree is na­tive to re­gions of Cen­tral Asia, in­clud­ing pre­sent-day Iran and Afghanistan.[4][5][6] Ar­chae­ol­ogy shows that pis­ta­chio seeds were a com­mon food as early as 6750 BCE.[7] The mod­ern pis­ta­chio P. vera was first cul­ti­vated in Bronze Age Cen­tral Asia, where the ear­li­est ex­am­ple is from Djarku­tan, mod­ern Uzbek­istan.

Pistachio nuts from Iran

Pistachio nuts from Persia

Pistachio production, 2018
 United States447,700
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations

Pistachio Turkish delight

Pistachio Turkish delight

The ker­nels are often eaten whole, ei­ther fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in pis­ta­chio ice creamkulfispumoni, pis­ta­chio butter,[27][28] pis­ta­chio paste[29] and con­fec­tions such as baklava, pis­ta­chio chocolate,[30] pis­ta­chio halva,[31] pis­ta­chio lokum or bis­cotti and cold cuts such as mor­tadella. Amer­i­cans make pis­ta­chio salad, which in­cludes fresh pis­ta­chios or pis­ta­chio pud­ding, whipped cream, and canned fruit.


Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,351 kJ (562 kcal)
Carbohydrates27.51 g
Sugars7.66 g
Dietary fiber10.3 g
Fat45.39 g
Saturated5.556 g
Monounsaturated23.820 g
Polyunsaturated13.744 g
Protein20.27 g
Vitamin A equiv.lutein zeaxanthin1205 μg
Thiamine (B1)76%0.87 mg
Riboflavin (B2)13%0.160 mg
Niacin (B3)9%1.300 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)10%0.52 mg
Vitamin B6131%1.700 mg
Folate (B9)13%51 μg
Vitamin C7%5.6 mg
Vitamin D0%0 μg
Vitamin E15%2.3 mg
Vitamin K13%13.2 μg
Calcium11%105 mg
Iron30%3.92 mg
Magnesium34%121 mg
Manganese57%1.2 mg
Phosphorus70%490 mg
Potassium22%1025 mg
Zinc23%2.2 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water4 g
Link to USDA database entry
Unitsμg = micrograms • mg = milligramsIU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Raw pis­ta­chios are 4% water, 45% fat, 28% car­bo­hy­drates, and 20% pro­tein (table). In a 100 gram ref­er­ence amount, pis­ta­chios pro­vide 562 calo­ries and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value or DV) of pro­tein, di­etary fiber, sev­eral di­etary min­er­als, and the B vi­t­a­minsthi­amin (76% DV) and vi­t­a­min B6 (131% DV) (table). Pis­ta­chios are a mod­er­ate source (10–19% DV) of cal­ciumri­boflavinvi­t­a­min B5fo­latevi­t­a­min E, and vi­t­a­min K (table).

The fat pro­file of raw pis­ta­chios con­sists of sat­u­rated fatsmo­noun­sat­u­rated fats and polyun­sat­u­rated fats. Sat­u­rated fatty acids in­clude palmitic acid (10% of total) and stearic acid (2%). Oleic acid is the most com­mon mo­noun­sat­u­rated fatty acid (51% of total fat) and linoleic acid, a polyun­sat­u­rated fatty acid, is 31% of total fat. Rel­a­tive to other tree nuts, pis­ta­chios have a lower amount of fat and calo­ries but higher amounts of potas­sium, vi­t­a­min K, γ-to­co­pherol, and cer­tain phy­to­chem­i­cals such as carotenoids, and phy­tos­terols.

Research and health effects

In July 2003, the United States Food and Drug Ad­min­is­tra­tion ap­proved the first qual­i­fied health claim spe­cific to con­sump­tion of seeds (in­clud­ing pis­ta­chios) to lower the risk of heart dis­ease: “Sci­en­tific ev­i­dence sug­gests but does not prove that eat­ing 1.5 ounces (42.5 g) per day of most nuts, such as pis­ta­chios, as part of a diet low in sat­u­rated fat and cho­les­terol may re­duce the risk of heart disease”. Al­though a typ­i­cal serv­ing of pis­ta­chios sup­plies sub­stan­tial calo­ries (nu­tri­tion table), their con­sump­tion in nor­mal amounts is not as­so­ci­ated with weight gain or obe­sity.

Pis­ta­chio con­sump­tion ap­pears to mod­estly lower sys­tolic and di­as­tolic blood pres­sure in per­sons with­out di­a­betes mel­li­tus.

Read more: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iranian Pistachios Salted $8.00
green-and-brown fruits


10 surprising things that were either discovered or invented by Iranians. These amazing discoveries go back to ancient Persia (now Iran). FTD Facts
10 Surprising Iranian Discoveries and Inventions – Part 2


Category:Iranian inventions – › wiki › Category:Iranian_inventions

100’s of “Iranian inventions“. The following 116 pages are in this category


Persia & Persian Art at the Louvre Mahmood Hamidi
Persian art at the Louvre museum, Paris. There are art pieces from the Royal Place in Susa from the Achaemenids, the Persian empire founded by Cyrus the Great. King Darius the Great (522-486 BC), built one of his residences in Susa, where from these pieces are taken. Also art pieces from the Sassanid empire era, from Bishapur Near current Kazerun and other places in Iran. And at last Persian art from after Arabian invasions of Persia, or Persian Islamic art.
BRITISH MUSEUM ?️: The fascinating ‘Persian Empire’ exhibit – what to see! (London) Vic Stefanu – Amazing World Videos
Let’s go visit The Persian Empire exhibit, British Museum, London. During the sixth century BC, Cyrus the Great founded a mighty Persian empire which eventually stretched from Egypt to Pakistan. Objects on display from this period include the Cyrus Cylinder and the Oxus Treasure. Monumental plaster casts of sculptures from Persepolis are also displayed in Room 52 and on the East stairs. The later periods of the Parthian and Sasanian empires mark a revival in Iranian culture and are represented through displays including silver plates and cut glass. The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been widely sourced during the era of the British Empire


Neil MacGregor: 2600 years of history in one object A clay cylinder covered in Akkadian cuneiform script, damaged and broken, the Cyrus Cylinder is a powerful symbol of religious tolerance and multi-culturalism. In this enthralling talk Neil MacGregor, Director of the British Museum, traces 2600 years of Middle Eastern history through this single object.

A new beginning for the Middle East: The Cyrus Cylinder and Ancient Persia The British Museum
The Cyrus Cylinder is one of the most famous objects to have survived from the ancient world. It was inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform on the orders of Persian King Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) after he captured Babylon in 539 BC. The cylinder is often referred to as the first bill of human rights as it appears to encourage freedom of worship throughout the Persian Empire and to allow deported people to return to their homelands. It was found in Babylon in modern Iraq in 1879 during a British Museum excavation.

Imperial crown jewels of Iran – جواهرات سلطنتی ایران mehrdade
National treasury, Witnesses of History ٍEffat Kazemi
The Iranian National Jewelry Treasury is one of the most valuable collections of jewels in the world, gathered over many centuries. Every individual piece is a testimony to the taste and talent of artists and craftsmen of different periods in history. They tell us of the various upheavals of Iranian history, and are reminders of both victories and defeats.
مراسم تاج گذاری محمدرضا شاه و شهبانو فرح ( آبانِ ۱۳۴۶) به فارسی II PARSA II
جشن‌های ۲۵۰۰ ساله که در روز “کوروش بزرگ” manototv
British monarch on a state visit to Iran in March 1961 Anoush E.P

The Shah of Persia and the Queen’s Ladt Engagement – 1955 British Movietone
The Shah of Persia made a tour of the Royal Air Force Station at Biggin Hill, shortly before leaving for Persia. Queen Soraya, meanwhile, attended a fashion show organised by the Incorporated Society of London Fashion Designers. The Duke of Gloucester was at London Airport when their Imperial Majesties left for home.

In 1961, England’s Queen Elizabeth II paid a state visit to homeland where she and Prince Philip were hosted by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi at Isfahan, capital and Persepolis. Elizabeth returned for another visit in 1975. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi of the persian monarchy.

Iranmall the largest mall in IRAN ATO TV

Interesting Places to Visit in Iran (Part 1: North and West factXtract
Iran with a history of several thousand years and a very versatile climate, is an interesting place that many have yet to explore. In this video, we are covering some of the interesting and fun places that you can explore, if you visit the Northern Western parts of Iran.

Iran’s flower industry set to bloom globally Al Jazeera English
For years, barriers to international trade have held Iranian businesses from blossoming. But now Iranian florists are hoping seeds of success may lie in a global industry worth $104bn a year
Cut flower and plant exhibition in Iran
How the World’s Best Rose Water Is Made Great Big Story
You’ve probably spritzed rose water on your face, or drank rose water tea. It’s trendy now, though the aromatic liquid has been a staple for centuries in the Middle East. The world’s best rose water is made by experts like Moshen Ghaffari in Iran’s Qamsar District. The soil content, sea level, temperature and gentle winds make the area perfect for growing roses. Moshen’s family uses copper pots to produce “double-fired” rose water. How many freshly-picked flowers does it take to make one liter? The answer might surprise you.
Iran Tehran city, Green Belt & Flowers Greenhouses كمربند سبز و گلخانه هاي شهر تهران ايران Persian_boy
Iran Ten type of Rose flowers greenhouse, Birjand county گلخانه گل رز بيرجند ايران Persian_boy
Iran Flowers greenhouse گلخانه پرورش گل ايران Persian_boy
میدان میوه و تره بار تهران mehrdade
Tajrish Traditional Bazaar, In the heart of North Tehran, A Mixture of Colors and History IRANIANS
Tajrish Traditional Bazaar is an old, colorful bazaar gives everyone the sense joy of walking in old Tehran. It’s architecture has been developed through years. However, the real old texture has been preserved. There are multicolored fruits and vegetables that catches the eyes. Of course, there are many other things this bazaar offers. Make sure to have some money in your pockets, because you will not leave this bazaar empty-handed! The irresistibly charming commodities are great Persian souvenirs for whom you love. Some products sold here are hard to find anywhere else. There are fruits and vegetables, handicrafts, fresh traditional bread, nuts and dried fruits, various condiments and herbal medicines, artificial jewelry, fabrics with all sorts of materials, and so on. Furthermore, there are some shops selling all kinds of tasty Torshi (vegetables or fruits kept in vinegar for a while and are eaten as a side dish). There are also many small places from where you can buy some thing to eat while shopping.
Persian Nuts, Dried Fruits, and high quality Agricultural products IRAN’S GENUINE TREASURES. IRANIANS
Dried fruits and nuts are great healthy snacks that are enjoyed by people from all over the world; they are placed beside tea, coffee and other drinks, mixed into various recipes to cook up richly flavored dishes and are favorite eats while watching a movie or a sporting event. Nuts and dried fruits are grown to the best quality in the Middle East and especially in Iran. The Iranian nuts and dried fruits are world famous and even considered expensive snacks in most other countries. Grown in Iran and in vast fields all over the country, theses snacks are relatively lower priced in the country and tourists that visit Iran, enjoy the wide range and flavors of the dried fruits and nuts in Iran, especially when the cost rates are much lower than their home countries.


Caviar From Wikipedia

Caviar (also known as caviare; from Persian: خاویار‎,  is a food consisting of salt-cured roe of the family Acipenseridae. Caviar is considered a delicacy and is eaten as a garnish or a spread. Iran is a sub­stan­tial pro­ducer of caviar. Iran­ian caviar is col­lected from stur­geons near Ban­dar Torka­man.

Beluga caviar

Russian and Iranian caviar tins: Beluga to the left, Ossetra in middle, Sevruga to the right

Caviar substitutes

Caviar substitutes


Cucumber From Wikipedia

Persian cucumbers, which are mini, seedless, and slightly sweet, are available from Canada during the summer, and all year-round in the US. Easy to cut and peel, they are 10–18 cm (4–7 in) long, on average. They are commonly eaten chopped up in plain yogurt with mint, or sliced thin and long with salt and lemon juice.

Persian Cucumbers picture

Specialty Produce
Persian Cucumbers Information and Facts


Rick Steves’ Iran Rick Steves’ Europe
Rick Steves’ Travel Guide | Join Rick as he explores the most surprising and fascinating land he’s ever visited: Iran. In a one-hour, ground-breaking travel special on public television, you’ll discover the splendid monuments of Iran’s rich and glorious past, learn more about the 20th-century story of this perplexing nation, and experience Iranian life today in its historic capital and in a countryside village. Most important, you’ll meet the people of this nation whose government so exasperates our own.
Iran in Pictures- HD – No1 Nasr Taba
Pictures of Iran and its beauty, from the wide landscape, to the roads, to its majestic past and bright future.


  1. Paradise Gardens

In this series, Monty travels across the Islamic world and beyond in search of paradise gardens.

Monty Don begins his exploration in Spain, where he discovers the basic building blocks of paradise gardens at the Alhambra. In Morocco, he learns about the wide variety of these gardens, and in Iran he sees the influence of the gardens of old Persia, and visits some of the most.

His journey sees him start in the historical and stunning Islamic gardens of Andalucía before heading east to the beating heart of Islam: Turkey, Iran and India. Over the two episodes, Monty discovers and learns about the four areas of Islamic civilisation; Andalucían, Moghul, Persian and Ottoman, by visiting gardens that represent and symbolise each. Across his journey he will also discover the huge importance of gardens in Islamic culture.
Monty Don’s Paradise Gardens ep.2

Monty Don’s Paradise Gardens ep.2

Monty Don’s Paradise Gardens ep.2 continues his quest to uncover the secrets of paradise gardens. Having mastered their basic building blocks in Spain, Morocco and Iran, Monty sets out to explore the wide variety of gardens offering a slightly different vision of Paradise. In Turkey Monty is dazzled by an extraordinary display of the Ottoman Empire’s favourite flower – the tulip – and learns of its sacred significance. At Topkapi palace, the heart of this vast Eastern empire he learns how this sacred value was extended to all plants, landscapes and even panoramic views in a way that created gardens that rejoiced in nature.

Phillip Carty Around the World in 80 Gardens – Episode 1 – VideoStudio

Around the World in 80 Gardens is a television series of 10 programmes in which British gardener and broadcaster Monty Don visits 80 of the world’s most celebrated gardens. The series was filmed over a period of 18 months and was first broadcast on BBC Two at 9.00pm on successive Sundays from 27 January to 30 March 2008. A book based on the series was also published.
Phillip Carty Around the World in 80 Gardens – Episode 2 – VideoStudio



Read more From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shiraz  Persian: شیراز‎, is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province also known as Pars (پارس, Pārs) and Persis (Persia). At the 2016 census, the population of the city was 1,869,001 and its built-up area with “Shahr-e Jadid-e Sadra” (Sadra New Town) was home to 1,565,572 inhabitants. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the “Rudkhaneye Khoshk” (The Dry River) seasonal river. It has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. Shiraz is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia.

The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. The modern city was founded or restored by the Umayyads in 693 and grew prominent under the successive Iranian Saffarid and Buyid dynasties in the 9th and 10th–11th centuries, respectively. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. It was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800. Two famous poets of Iran, Hafez, and Saadi are from Shiraz, whose tombs are on the north side of the current city boundaries.

Shiraz is known as the city of poetsliteraturewine (despite Iran being an Islamic republic since 1979), and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city, for example, Eram Garden. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes

Shiraz skyline
Tomb of Hafez

Tomb of Saadi
Tomb of Saadi

Karim Khan Citadel, Shiraz

Shah Cheragh

Shiraz Botanical Garden

Nasir ol Molk Mosque, Shiraz

Clockwise from top: Skyline of Shiraz, Tomb of SaadiShah Cheragh shrineNasir ol Molk MosqueEram GardenKarim Khan Citadel and Tomb of Hafez.


The Persian Language and What Makes It Fascinating In this video I talk about the Persian language (Farsi, Dari, Tajik) and what`s fascinating about it. Persian often lives in the shadow of Arabic, but Persian is a major language in its own right. For lots of great Persian lessons for students of all levels, visit Persian Pod101:
The Persian Language IN DEPTH Langfocus
This video is all about the Persian language (aka Farsi) and its features, focusing on the variety of Iran.
How Similar are Persian and Arabic? Langfocus
This video is all about the similarities (and of course the differences) between Persian and Arabic.
The Turkish Language angfocus
Hindustani: Hindi and Urdu – A Single Language? This video is all about the Hindu and Urdu languages, which can be referred to together as Hindustani. It is one of the major languages of the Indian Subcontinent. Are you learning Hindi, Urdu, or another language? One great resource to check out is Innovative Language podcast programs:….
The Indo-European Connection This video is about the Indo-European languages and the connections between them, going all the way back to Proto-Indo-European. Are you learning a language? One great resource to check out is Innovative Language podcast programs:….
2000 Words Every Persian Beginner Must Know Learn Persian with
This is the best video to get started with the Persian language!
500 Most Common Farsi Expressions and Phrases Reza Nazari
Persian language From Wikipedia

Persian, also known by its Farsi (فارسی, Fārsī[fɒːɾˈsiː], is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.

Indo-European branches map.svg
Present-day distribution of Indo- Iranian European languages in Eurasia:

It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within IranAfghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian PersianDari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958) and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.

The Persian language is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, which was used in the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC). It originated in the region of Fars (Persia) in southwestern Iran. Its grammar is similar to that of many European languages

Persian has left a considerable influence on its neighboring languages, including other Iranian languages, the Turkic languagesArmenianGeorgian and the Indo-Aryan languages (especially Urdu). It also exerted some influence on Arabic,[21] while borrowing vocabulary from it under medieval Arab rule. The Persian language was the chosen official language for bureaucracy even among those who were not native speakers, for example the Turks in the Ottoman Empire, or the Pashtuns in Afghanistan who preferred it over their native tongue Pashto before the 20th century.

There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including PersiansTajiksHazarasCaucasian Tats and Aimaqs. Read more:

Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات فارسی‎, Adabiyâte fârsipronounced [ʔædæbiːˌjɒːte fɒːɾˈsiː]) comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and is one of the world’s oldest literatures. It spans over two-and-a-half millennia. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day IranIraqAfghanistan, the Caucasus, and Turkey, regions of Central Asia (such as Tajikistan) and South Asia where the Persian language has historically been either the native or official language. For example, Rumi, one of the best-loved Persian poets, born in Balkh (in modern-day Afghanistan) or Wakhsh (in modern-day Tajikistan), wrote in Persian and lived in Konya (in modern-day Turkey), at that time the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia. The Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, MesopotamiaAzerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, Turkey, PakistanBangladeshIndia, Tajikistan and other parts of Central Asia. Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians or Iranians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic poets and writers have also used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures.

A scene from the Shahnameh describing the valour of Rustam

A scene from the Shahnameh describing the valour of Rustam

William Shake­speare re­ferred to Iran as the “land of the Sophy”. Some of Per­sia’s best-beloved me­dieval poets were Sufis, and their po­etry was, and is, widely read by Sufis from Mo­rocco to In­done­sia.

The influence of Persian literature on world literature notable , and also, described as one of the great literatures of humanity.

Read more:

List of Persian poets and authors Read all: From Wikipedia

The list is not comprehensive, but is continuously being expanded and includes Persian writers and poets from Iran, Afghanistan,Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. This list is alphabetized by chronological order.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is free-video-855976.jpg


Multilingualism and the UN United Nations United Nations – One world, many languages
A Thousand Years of the Persian Book: A Curator’s Tour Library of Congress
The exhibition “A Thousand Years of the Persian Book” opened in March 2014 and ended in September 2014. Hirad Dinavari gives a guided tour showcasing the most exquisite Persian manuscripts, lithographs, early imprints and modern printed works in the Library’s collections. Speaker Biography: Hirad Dinavari is Iranian world reference specialist in the Library’s African and Middle Eastern Division and a co-curator of the exhibition, “A Thousand Years of the Persian Book.”


The World of Persian Literary Humanism: Spreading Culture through Books Library of Congress
As part of the Library’s celebration of a thousand years of the Persian book, Hirad Dinavari discusses Persian literary humanism and how Persian culture was spread through books. Speaker Biography: Hamid Dabashi is the Hagop Kevorkian Professor of Iranian Studies and Comparative Literature at Columbia University. He received a dual Ph.D. in Sociology of Culture and Islamic Studies from the University of Pennsylvania in 1984, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University. He wrote his dissertation on Max Weber’s theory of charismatic authority with Philip Rieff (1922-2006), the most distinguished Freudian cultural critic of his time. Dabashi has taught and delivered lectures in many North American, European, Arab and Iranian universities. He has written 25 books, edited four, and contributed chapters to many more. He is also the author of more than 100 essays, articles and book reviews on subjects ranging from Iranian studies, medieval and modern Islam and comparative literature to world cinema and the philosophy of art (trans-aesthetics).
Persophilia: Persian Culture on the Global Scene Hamid Dabashi discussed his book, “Persophilia: Persian Culture on the Global Scene.”
Persian Manuscripts in India: Collections, Collectors & Their Future Library of Congress
Chander Shekhar spoke about the Persian manuscript tradition from India. Speaker Biography: Chander Shekhar is senior Persian specialist in the department of Persian at the University of Delhi. He is the author of numerous books and articles on India’s rich Persian language manuscript, lithograph and early imprint tradition.
The Persian Book in Pre-Modern Turkey Library of Congress
As part of the Library’s celebration of a thousand years of the Persian book, Ahmet Karamustafa discusses Persian literature in pre-modern Turkey. Speaker Biography: Ahmet T. Karamustafa is professor of history at the University of Maryland, College Park. His expertise is in social and intellectual history of medieval and early modern Islam in the Middle East and Southwest Asia as well as in theory and method in the study of religion. He is the author several books and has held several administrative positions, including director of the religious studies program at Washington University in St. Louis and co-chair of the study of Islam section at the American Academy of Religion.


Gardens of Persia
Gardens of Persia by Penelope Hobhouse , Erica Hunningher Paperback$140.00

A distinguished chronicle of the Persian garden that explores its profound spiritual, historical, and virtually unacknowledged influence on the development of Western garden design in the 21st century.Gardens of Persia demonstrates world-renowned author Penelope Hobhouse’s rare ability to combine meticulous research and a practical knowledge of gardens and plants with a love of garden history and travel. By telling the story of the development of gardens throughout the Persian culture’s 5,000-year-old history, she imparts a passionate view of the Persian paradise garden as a model for today’s gardeners.

Buildings, water, and plants combine to give the gardens of Persia a beautiful spiritual quality that has served to inspire garden design across time and diverse cultures. Indeed, Ms. Hobhouse begins with the oldest living garden, Pasargadae, created by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It represented paradise on earth and spawned other gardens to be seen as settings for sacred contemplation and spiritual nourishment. In later centuries, these gardens evolved further around the world as representations for romance, power, prestige, and symbols of the afterlife.

Gardens of Persia is beautifully illustrated with Jerry Harpur’s specially commissioned photographs of Persian gardens as well as with similarly inspired ones from around the world, and with lovely images of sumptuous carpets and Persian miniatures. Full-color photographs throughout


Flowers from a Persian Garden and Other Papers

Flowers from a Persian Garden and Other Papers W. A. Clouston Paperback$16.95

The smiling Garden of Persian Literature”: a Garden which I would describe, in the Eastern style, as a happy spot, where lavish Nature with profusion strews the most fragrant and blooming flowers, where the most delicious fruits abound, which is ever vocal with the plaintive melancholy of the nightingale, who, during day and night, “tunes her love-laboured song”: … where the voice of Wisdom is often heard uttering her moral sentence, or delivering the dictates of experience.—Sir W. Ouseley.


Iran has opened possibly the world’s biggest bookstore
Old books are seen on a shelf in Gazi Husrev-bey library in Sarajevo, January 16, 2014. When Bosnia's National Library went up in flames in 1992 in a bombardment during the Bosnian Serb siege of Sarajevo, Mustafa Jahic knew he had to act to save his own institution's priceless collection. As curator of the almost 500-year-old Gazi Husrev Bey Library, Jahic was guardian of a treasure trove of Oriental literature in the heart of Sarajevo, a city under siege during Bosnia's 1992-95 war. The fruit of his and others' efforts will be rewarded next week when a new state-of-the-art library, a stone's throw from the original in the cobbled streets of Sarajevo's historic Bascarsija district, opens its doors. Picture taken January 16, 2014. REUTERS/Dado Ruvic (BOSNIA - Tags: SOCIETY) - RTX17IDW
Is the country turning the page on literary censorship?Image: REUTERS/Dado Ruvic

21 Jul 2017

  1. John McKennaSenior Writer, Formative Content

In a country where literary censorship is official government policy, the fact that Iran has opened what could be the world’s biggest bookstore is all the more astonishing.

Located in the Abbasabad Hills in the north-east of the Iranian capital, the Tehran Book Garden was officially opened in July.

Its opening was described by Tehran mayor Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf as “a big cultural event in the country so that our children can make better use of this cultural and academic opportunity”.

The Book Garden hosts bookshops, an art gallery and 10 theatres and amphitheatres.

It also has a dedicated section for children and young adults that houses age-appropriate literature and offers a variety of activities aimed at encouraging reading.

According to Newsweek, more than 400,000 titles are available for children.


World beater?

Construction of the Tehran Book Garden was completed in 2016. It occupies a 110,000 square-metre site within the Abbasabad Complex, which also includes the Sacred Defence Garden Museum and the National Library and Archives of Iran.

The internal space hosting its bookstores, galleries and theatres measures 65,000 square metres.

If all of this indoor space is counted, then the book garden easily wins the title of the world’s largest bookstore.

The current Guinness world record holder is the Barnes & Noble Bookstore on Fifth Avenue, New York City. However, this US store, less than a quarter of the size of the Tehran Book Garden, closed its doors to customers in 2014.

Easing censorship

The Book Garden was first proposed back in 2004, due to the popularity of the Tehran International Book Fair showing a clear appetite among Iranians to both read and discuss books.

Following decades of literary censorship, Iran today is a country of 78 million people with just 1500 book shops.

In previous years publishers have been known to be banned and books confiscated at the book fair.

However, when Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei spent time speaking with avant-garde publishers at the book fair in 2015, some believed it was a sign that restrictions on what could and could not be published within the Islamic Republic were being loosened.

The Financial Times credits the centrist government of president Hassan Rouhani with allowing Iran to be more culturally open.

Previously banned novels such as Tracy Chevalier’s Girl With a Pearl Earring, To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway, and Dostoevsky’s The Gambler have all in recent years been published in Farsi.

Equally, the length of time it takes to vet books has shortened from several years to a few months.

However, censorship remains in place.

Despite the Islamic Republic’s Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance claiming that 8,000 books had been published in 2016, it last year introduced a new series of bans to counter a “Western cultural onslaught”.

Mohammad Selgi, head of book publishing at the ministry, said words such as wine, the names of foreign animals and pets, and names of certain foreign presidents were banned from publication.

These latest censures come in addition to a series of bans on Iranian authors introduced by the government of previous president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Books banned include Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s prize-winning novel The Colonel, which takes a critical look at the fallout from the Islamic Revolution of 1979.ShareLicense and Republishing

World Economic Forum articles may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.Written by

John McKenna, Senior Writer, Formative Content


Photo taken at Iran Mall Public Library by A. S. on 5/18/2020
Photo taken at Iran Mall Public Library by Shabnam H. on 11/29/2019
See more : Iran Mall Public Library

(کتابخانه ایران‌ مال)

Photo taken at Iran Mall Public Library by mohammad k. on 7/18/2020


Persian Gardens & Garden Pavilions
Persian Gardens & Garden Pavilions by Donald N. Wilber

Hardcover from $69.99 Kindle$9.99

This Persian gardening book showcases classic gardens and pavilions and presents gardening advice for the aspiring amateur landscaper looking to add an Eastern flair to his or her yard.

The garden has always had a special meaning for Persian (Iran). The Persian garden, with its flowing pools, fountains, waterways, rows of tall trees, rich arrays of fruit trees and flowers, and cool pavilions, has represented an image of paradise.

Persian Gardens & Garden Pavilions is both a comprehensive survey and an appreciation of this Persian tradition of gardens and garden pavilions. The text traces the historical development of Persian gardens, describes their basic features, presents existing examples, and discusses the literature and tradition behind them. 


The Persian Garden:  Echoes of Paradise
The Persian Garden: Echoes of Paradise
by Mehdi Khansari , M. Reza Moghtader,

Hardcover $118.98

For more than three thousand years, the Persian garden has been a focus of Iran’s national imagination, influencing its art, literature, and even religion. The Persian garden’s inspirational role has, however, extended far beyond the land of its origin; its precepts have exerted a profound influence on garden design around the world. The Persian Garden: Echoes of Paradise chronicles the history of the Persian garden, from the magnificent sanctuaries and hunting parks of fifth-century b.c. Persepolis to the magical nightingale gardens of nineteenth-century Tehran. All were seen as a kind of earthly paradise (the English word paradise has its roots in the old Persian word pairi-daeza meaning a walled space). To an astonishing extent, that vision seems justified.

This book was meticulously researched and created over a period of six years in, Paris, Tehran and Washington by photographer, Mehdi Khansari and architect Minouch Yavari, together with the renowned Persian architect and architectural historian Reza Moghtader. It explains the philosophy behind Persian garden design and offers an authoritative account of its developmentintroducing new historical material in the process. This extraordinary story is enhanced by vivid descriptions of Persian gardens as seen through the eyes of travelers to Iran during the past five hundred years. Over 240 illustrations in full color, complement the text. They include magnificent color photographs, old plates and engravings, as well as exquisite architectural renderings and plans of the sites and the gardens. A selection of the finest Persian garden-carpets, textiles, miniature paintings, stone reliefs, painted tiles, pottery, and poetry, augment the reader’s experience of an ancient art form that for centuries has sought to meld the physical and the spiritual.


Paradise As a Garden: In Persia and Mughal India (World Landscape Art and Architecture Series)
Paradise As a Garden: In Persia and Mughal India (World Landscape Art and Architecture Series)

by Elizabeth B. Moynihan  Hardcover $33.86

A study of the Paradise Garden in Persia from the sixth through the seventeenth century explores its design, architectural development, and relation to the Paradise myth and ancient nature worship


Gulistan Saadi (The Rose Garden Saadi)
Gulistan Saadi (The Rose Garden Saadi)

by Sheikh Muslih-uddin Sa’di Shirazi, Lt Col (R) Muhammad Ashraf Javed, et al. | Oct 8, 2013


Gulistan Saadi (گلستان سعدی) (The Rose Garden Saadi) written by Sheikh Muslih-uddin Sa’di Shirazi (1258) in Persian. Translated in English by Sir Edwin Arnold, Edited & Formatted by Lt Col (R) Muhammad Ashraf Javed.


The Gulistan of Saadi in English Language: SHEIKH SAADI (GOLESTAN SAADI Book 13)

The Gulistan of Saadi in English Language: SHEIKH SAADI (GOLESTAN SAADI Book 13)RICHARD AUTHOR…Kindle Edition$9.00

Laudation to the God of majesty and glory! Obedience to him is a cause of approach and gratitude in increase of benefits. Every inhalation of the breath prolongs life and every expiration of it gladdens our nature; wherefore every breath confers two benefits and for every benefit gratitude is due. Whose hand and tongue is capable To fulfil the obligations of thanks to him? Words of the most high: Be thankful, O family of David, and but few of my servants are thankful. It is best to a worshipper for his transgressions To offer apologies at the throne of God, Although what is worthy of his dignity No one is able to accomplish. The showers of his boundless mercy have penetrated to every spot, and the banquet of his unstinted liberality is spread out everywhere. He tears not the veil of reputation of his worshippers even for grievous sins, and does not withhold their daily allowance of bread for great crimes. O bountiful One, who from thy invisible treasury Suppliest the Guebre and the Christian with food, How could’st thou disappoint thy friends, Whilst having regard for thy enemies? He told the chamberlain of the morning breeze to spread out the emerald carpet and, having commanded the nurse of vernal clouds to cherish the daughters of plants in the cradle of the earth, the trees donned the new year’s robe and clothed their breast with the garment of green foliage, whilst their offspring, the branches, adorned their heads with blossoms at the approach of the season of the roses. Also the juice of the cane became delicious honey by his power, and the date a lofty tree by his care. Cloud and wind, moon and sun move in the sky That thou mayest gain bread, and not eat it unconcerned. For thee all are revolving and obedient.


The Gulistan of Sa'adi
The Gulistan of Sa’adiSa’adi Shirazi
Kindle Edition $9.99

The Gulistan (Persian: گلستان‎ Golestȃn “The Rose Garden”) is a landmark of Persian and Shia Islamic Irfan/Sufi literature, perhaps its single most influential work of prose. Written in 1259 CE, it is one of two major works of the Persian poet Sa’di, considered one of the greatest medieval Persian poets. It is also one of his most popular books, and has proved deeply influential in the West as well as the East. The Gulistan is a collection of poems and stories, just as a rose-garden is a collection of roses. It is widely quoted as a source of wisdom and esoterics. The well-known aphorism still frequently repeated in the western world, about being sad because one has no shoes until one meets the man who has no feet “whereupon I thanked Providence for its bounty to myself” is from the Gulistan.


The Gulistan (Rose Garden) of Sa'di: Bilingual English and Persian Edition with Vocabulary
The Gulistan (Rose Garden) of Sa’di: Bilingual English and Persian Edition with Vocabulary Paperback – August 1, 2017

by Sa’di Shirazi (Author), Thackston M. Wheeler (Author) Hardcover $64.95


Is the Gulistan the most influential book in the Iranian world? In terms of prose, it is the model, which all writers of Persian seek to emulate. In terms of moral, philosophical or practical wisdom, it is endlessly quoted to either illustrate or prove a point. Sir John Malcolm even relates being told that it is the basis of the law of the Persians. It also traveled abroad. Voltaire, Goethe, Arnold, Longfellow, Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, and Franklin discovered, read, and took inspiration from the work. Moreover, travelers to Iran have often point out that to understand the mind of the inhabitants, one should read the Gulistan.
Written some seven and a half centuries ago by Sa di of Shiraz the Gulistan or Rose Garden is a collection of moral stories divided into eight themes: The Conduct of Kings, The Character of Dervishes, The Superiority of Contentment, The Benefits of Silence, Love and Youth, Feebleness and Old Age, The Effects of Education, and The Art of Conversation. In each section stories are told from which the reader learns how to behave in a given situation. Sa di can be moral. Honesty gives God pleasure. I haven t seen anyone get lost on the right road. He may be practical. If you can t stand the sting, don t put your finger into a scorpion s hole. He is philosophical in these lines which are engraved at the entrance of the United Nations: The members of the human race are limbs one to another, for at creation they were of one essence. When one limb is pained by fate, the others cannot rest. 
The Gulistan is considered the essence of elegant but simple Persian prose. For 600 years, it was the first book placed in the learner s hand. In Persian-speaking countries today, quotations from the Gulistan appear in every conceivable type of literature and is the source of numerous everyday proverbial statements, much as Shakespeare is in English.
This is the first complete English translation of the Gulistan in more than a century. Wheeler M. Thackston, Professor of Persian at Harvard University, has faithfully translated Sa di into clear contemporary English. To help the student, the original Persian is presented facing the English translation. A 3,600 word Persian-English and Arabic-English glossary is included to aide with the more difficult meanings.
The Gulistan is imbued with a practical wisdom of life. Sa di recognizes people for what they are. Every personality type that exists is found in the Rose Garden, the good, the bad, the weak, the strong, the pious, the impious, honest folk, and the most conniving of cheats. Hypocrites abound, foolish kings appear with their wily ministers, wise rulers vie with their malevolent courtiers, boastful young warriors turn tail and run. The beauty of Sa di s wisdom is that it is timeless. What is expressed is in a setting so close and familiar to the modern experience that it is as relevant today as it was six hundred years ago.


The Gulistan of Saadi: In Persian with English Translation (Persian Edition)
The Gulistan of Saadi: In Persian with English Translation (Persian Edition)

by Saadi Shirazi | Jul 28, 2016 Paperback$24.99 $9.99

One of the Greatest Persian Books of All Time!

Born in Shiraz, Iran, in 1184, Saadi is considered one of the greatest Persian poets of all time. Saadi’s two books, the poetic Bostan, or Orchard (in 1257), and the prose Gulistan, the Rose Garden (in 1258), are regarded as supreme accomplishments of Persian literature. The Persian literature and culture are deeply indebted to Saadi’s publications.  

The Gulistan (The Rose Garden) is a landmark of Persian literature, and one of the most influential works of prose in Persian. Written in 1258 CE, it is considered as one of the greatest medieval Persian poets. The Gulistan is a collection of stories and poems, just as a rose-garden is a collection of roses.  
The translation appearing in this book is provided by Edward Rehatsek in 1888. This bilingual book can be useful for students and enjoyable for poetry lovers of any age. Not only will poems and stories improve your Persian language, but they’ll help your understanding of Persian culture. Students will have ample opportunities to enrich their Persian learning experience and extend a range of language abilities through exploring these poems.  

The English – Persian Glossary at the end of the book can help Persian students better understand keywords in the poems. 

Enjoy reading one of the best Perisan books in history!

Ideal for self-study as well as for classroom usage.  For Advanced Persian Learners.


The Gulistan Or Rose Garden Of Sa'di
The Gulistan Or Rose Garden Of Sa’di Paperback – November 28, 2009

by Muslih-Uddin Sa’di (Author) Hardcover $25.00

The Gulistan is among the most famous works of Persian literature by one of Persia’s greatest poets, Muslih-uddin Sa’di Shirazi. Born in Shiraz sometime between 1184 and 1210 CE, Sa’di received his education in Baghdad and spent several decades in travel and pilgrimage. In 1256, Sa’di returned to Shiraz. He wrote the Gulistan in 1258, the same year that the Mongols sacked Baghdad. The Gulistan or Rose Garden of Sa’di, intended as a “mirror for princes,” includes prose didactic tales interspersed with short verses. The book is divided into eight parts: The Manners of Kings, The Morals of Dervishes, The Excellence of Contentment, The Advantages of Silence, Love and Youth, Weakness and Old Age, The Effects of Education, and Rules for Conduct in Life. This classic translation by Edward Rehatsek has been edited and updated with a new introduction by David Rosenbaum.


Saadi Shirazi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

also known as Saadi of Shiraz (سعدی شیرازی, Saʿdī Shīrāzī; born 1210; died 1291 or 1292), was a major Persian poet and prose writer of the medieval period. He is recognized for the quality of his writings and for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. Saadi is widely recognized as one of the greatest poets of the classical literary tradition, earning him the nickname “Master of Speech” (استاد سخن ostâd-e soxan) or simply “Master” (استاد ostâd) among Persian scholars. He has been quoted in the Western traditions as well.[1]Bustan is considered one of the 100 greatest books of all time according to The Guardian.

Sadi in a Rose garden.jpg


Saadi was born in Shi­raz, Iran, ac­cord­ing to some, shortly after 1200, ac­cord­ing to oth­ers some­time be­tween 1213 and 1219. In the Golestan, com­posed in 1258, he says in lines ev­i­dently ad­dressed to him­self, “O you who have lived fifty years and are still asleep”; an­other piece of ev­i­dence is that in one of his qasida poems he writes that he left home for for­eign lands when the Mon­gols came to his home­land Fars, an event which oc­curred in 1225.

In the Bustan and Golestan Saadi tells many colourful anecdotes of his travels, although some of these, such as his supposed visit to the remote eastern city of Kashgar in 1213, may be fictional.[15] The unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Khwarezm and Iran led him to wander for thirty years abroad through Anatolia (where he visited the Port of Adana and near Konya met ghazi landlords), Syria (where he mentions the famine in Damascus), Egypt (where he describes its music, bazaars, clerics and elites), and Iraq (where he visits the port of Basra and the Tigris river). In his writings he mentions the qadismuftis of Al-Azhar, the grand bazaar, music and art. At Halab, Saadi joins a group of Sufis who had fought arduous battles against the Crusaders. Saadi was captured by Crusaders at Acre where he spent seven years as a slave digging trenches outside its fortress. He was later released after the Mamluks paid ransom for Muslim prisoners being held in Crusader dungeons.

Saadi visited Jerusalem and then set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.[16] It is believed that he may have also visited Oman and other lands in the south of the Arabian Peninsula.

Because of the Mongol invasions he was forced to live in desolate areas and met caravans fearing for their lives on once-lively silk trade routes. Saadi lived in isolated refugee camps where he met bandits, Imams, men who formerly owned great wealth or commanded armies, intellectuals, and ordinary people. While Mongol and European sources (such as Marco Polo) gravitated to the potentates and courtly life of Ilkhanate rule, Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the war-torn region. He sat in remote tea houses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, farmers, preachers, wayfarers, thieves, and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching, advising, and learning, honing his sermons to reflect the wisdom and foibles of his people. Saadi’s works reflect upon the lives of ordinary Iranians suffering displacement, agony and conflict during the turbulent times of the Mongol invasion.

Saadi Shirazi is welcomed by a youth from Kashgar during a forum in Bukhara.

Saadi Shirazi is welcomed by a youth from Kashgar during a forum in Bukhara.

Saadi mentions honey-gatherers in Azarbaijan, fearful of Mongol plunder. He finally returns to Persia where he meets his childhood companions in Isfahan and other cities. At Khorasan Saadi befriends a Turkic Emir named Tughral. Saadi joins him and his men on their journey to Sindh where he meets Pir Puttur, a follower of the Persian Sufi grand master Shaikh Usman Marvandv.

He also refers in his writings about his travels with a Turkic Amir named Tughral in Sindh (Pakistan across the Indus and Thar), India (especially Somnath, where he encounters Brahmans), and Central Asia (where he meets the survivors of the Mongol invasion in Khwarezm). Tughral hires Hindu sentinels. Tughral later enters service of the wealthy Delhi Sultanate, and Saadi is invited to Delhi and later visits the Vizier of Gujarat. During his stay in Gujarat, Saadi learns more about the Hindus and visits the large temple of Somnath, from which he flees due to an unpleasant encounter with the Brahmans. Katouzian calls this story “almost certainly fictitious”.[18]

Saadi came back to Shiraz before 1257 CE / 655 AH (the year he finished composition of his Bustan). Saadi mourned in his poetry the fall of Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad‘s destruction by Mongol invaders led by Hulagu in February 1258.


Bustan and Gulistan

Main articles: Bustan and Gulistan

The first page of Bustan, from a Mughal manuscript.

The first page of Bustan, from a Mughal manuscript.

Gulistan Saadi (Calligraphy of Golestan Saadi in Nastaliq script)

Gulistan Saadi (Calligraphy of Golestan Saadi in Nastaliq script)

Sa’di’s best known works are Bus­tan (The Or­chard) com­pleted in 1257 and Gulis­tan (The Rose Gar­den) com­pleted in 1258. Bus­tan is en­tirely in verse (epic metre). It con­sists of sto­ries aptly il­lus­trat­ing the stan­dard virtues rec­om­mended to Mus­lims (jus­tice, lib­er­al­ity, mod­esty, con­tent­ment) and re­flec­tions on the be­hav­ior of dervishes and their ec­sta­tic prac­tices. Gulis­tan is mainly in prose and con­tains sto­ries and per­sonal anec­dotes. The text is in­ter­spersed with a va­ri­ety of short poems which con­tain apho­risms, ad­vice, and hu­mor­ous re­flec­tions, demon­strat­ing Saadi’s pro­found aware­ness of the ab­sur­dity of human ex­is­tence. The fate of those who de­pend on the change­able moods of kings is con­trasted with the free­dom of the dervishes.

Re­gard­ing the im­por­tance of pro­fes­sions Saadi writes:O darlings of your fathers, learn the trade because property and riches of the world are not to be relied upon; also silver and gold are an occasion of danger because either a thief may steal them at once or the owner spend them gradually; but a profession is a living fountain and permanent wealth; and although a professional man may lose riches, it does not matter because a profession is itself wealth and wherever you go you will enjoy respect and sit on high places, whereas those who have no trade will glean crumbs and see hardships.

Saadi is also re­mem­bered as a pan­e­gyrist and lyri­cist, the au­thor of a num­ber of odes por­tray­ing human ex­pe­ri­ence, and also of par­tic­u­lar odes such as the lament on the fall of Bagh­dad after the Mon­gol in­va­sion in 1258. His lyrics are found in Ghaz­a­liyat (Lyrics) and his odes in Qasa’id (Odes). He is also known for a num­ber of works in Ara­bic.

In the Bus­tan, Saadi writes of a man who re­lates his time in bat­tle with the Mongols:

In Is­fa­han I had a friend who was war­like, spir­ited, and shrewd….​after long I met him: “O tiger-seizer!” I ex­claimed, “what has made thee de­crepit like an old fox?”

He laughed and said: “Since the days of war against the Mon­gols, I have ex­pelled the thoughts of fight­ing from my head. Then did I see the earth ar­rayed with spears like a for­est of reeds. I raised like smoke the dust of con­flict; but when For­tune does not favour, of what avail is fury? I am one who, in com­bat, could take with a spear a ring from the palm of the hand; but, as my star did not be­friend me, they en­cir­cled me as with a ring. I seized the op­por­tu­nity of flight, for only a fool strives with Fate. How could my hel­met and cuirass aid me when my bright star favoured me not? When the key of vic­tory is not in the hand, no one can break open the door of con­quest with his arms.

The enemy were a pack of leop­ards, and as strong as ele­phants. The heads of the he­roes were en­cased in iron, as were also the hoofs of the horses. We urged on our Arab steeds like a cloud, and when the two armies en­coun­tered each other thou wouldst have said they had struck the sky down to the earth. From the rain­ing of ar­rows, that de­scended like hail, the storm of death arose in every cor­ner. Not one of our troops came out of the bat­tle but his cuirass was soaked with blood. Not that our swords were blunt—it was the vengeance of stars of ill for­tune. Over­pow­ered, we sur­ren­dered, like a fish which, though pro­tected by scales, is caught by the hook in the bait. Since For­tune averted her face, use­less was our shield against the ar­rows of Fate

Other works
In ad­di­tion to the Bus­tan and Gulis­tan, Saadi also wrote four books of love poems (ghaz­als), and num­ber of longer mono-rhyme poems (qasi­das) in both Per­sian and Ara­bic. There are also qua­trains and short pieces, and some lesser works in prose and poetry. To­gether with Rumi and Hafez, he is con­sid­ered one of the three great­est ghazal-writ­ers of Per­sian poetry.
Bani Adam
Main article: Bani Adam

A copy of Saadi Shirazi’s works by the Bosniak scholar Safvet beg Bašagić (1870–1934)

Saadi is well known for his apho­risms, the most fa­mous of which, Bani Adam, is part of the Gulis­tan. In a del­i­cate way it calls for break­ing down all bar­ri­ers be­tween human beings:
The orig­i­nal Per­sian text is as follows:
بنى آدم اعضای یکدیگرند
که در آفرینش ز یک گوهرند
چو عضوى بدرد آورَد روزگار
دگر عضوها را نمانَد قرار
تو کز محنت دیگران بی غمی
نشاید که نامت نهند آدمی
banī ādam a’zā-ye yekdīgar-and
ke dar āfarīn-aš ze yek gowhar-and
čo ‘ozvī be dard āvarad rūzgār
degar ‘ozvhā-rā na-mānad qarār
to k-az mehnat-ē dīgarān bīqam-ī
na-šāyad ke nām-at nahand ādamī
The lit­eral trans­la­tion of the above is as fol­lows:
“The chil­dren of Adam are the mem­bers of each other,
who are in their cre­ation from the same essence.
When day and age hurt one of these members,
other mem­bers will be left (with) no serenity.
If you are un­sym­pa­thetic to the mis­ery of others,
it is not right that they should call you a human being.”
The above ver­sion with yekdīgar “one an­other” is the usual one quoted in Iran (for ex­am­ple, in the well-known edi­tion of Mo­ham­mad Ali For­oughi, on the car­pet in­stalled in the United Na­tions build­ing in New York in 2005, on the Iran­ian (500 rials) coin since 1387 Solar Hijri cal­en­dar (i.e. in 2008), and on the back of the 100,000-rial ban­knote is­sued in 2010); ac­cord­ing to the scholar Habib Yagh­mai is also the only ver­sion found in the ear­li­est man­u­scripts, which date to within 50 years of the writ­ing of the Golestan. Some books, how­ever, print a vari­a­tion banī ādam a’zā-ye yek peykar-and (“The sons of Adam are mem­bers of one body”), and this ver­sion, which ac­cords more closely with the ha­dith quoted below, is fol­lowed by most Eng­lish trans­la­tions.
The fol­low­ing trans­la­tion is by H. Vahid Dastjerdi:
Adam’s sons are body limbs, to say;
For they’re cre­ated of the same clay.
Should one organ be trou­bled by pain,
Oth­ers would suf­fer se­vere strain.
Thou, care­less of peo­ple’s suffering,
De­serve not the name, “human being”.

This is a verse trans­la­tion by Ali Salami:
Human be­ings are limbs of one body indeed;
For, they’re cre­ated of the same soul and seed.
When one limb is af­flicted with pain,
Other limbs will feel the bane.
He who has no sym­pa­thy for human suffering,
Is not wor­thy of being called a human being.
And by Richard Jef­frey Newman:
All men and women are to each other
the limbs of a sin­gle body, each of us drawn
from life’s shim­mer­ing essence, God’s per­fect pearl;
and when this life we share wounds one of us,
all share the hurt as if it were our own.
You, who will not feel an­other’s pain,
you for­feit the right to be called human.
Sec­re­tary-Gen­eral Ban Ki-moon said in Tehran: “[…] At the en­trance of the United Na­tions there is a mag­nif­i­cent car­pet – I think the largest car­pet the United Na­tions has – that adorns the wall of the United Na­tions, a gift from the peo­ple of Iran. Along­side it are the won­der­ful words of that great Per­sian poet, Sa’adi”:
All human be­ings are mem­bers of one frame,
Since all, at first, from the same essence came.
When time af­flicts a limb with pain
The other limbs at rest can­not remain.
If thou feel not for other’s misery
A human being is no name for thee. […]
Ac­cord­ing to the for­mer Iran­ian For­eign Min­is­ter and Envoy to the United Na­tions, Mo­ham­mad Ali Zarif, this car­pet, in­stalled in 2005, ac­tu­ally hangs not in the en­trance but in a meet­ing room in­side the United Na­tions build­ing in New York.
Bani Adam was used by the British rock band Cold­play in their song بنی آدم, with the title Bani Adam writ­ten in Per­sian script. The song is fea­tured on their 2019 album Every­day Life.
Legacy and poetic style

Saadi dis­tin­guished be­tween the spir­i­tual and the prac­ti­cal or mun­dane as­pects of life. In his Bus­tan, for ex­am­ple, spir­i­tual Saadi uses the mun­dane world as a spring board to pro­pel him­self be­yond the earthly realms. The im­ages in Bus­tan are del­i­cate in na­ture and sooth­ing. In the Gulis­tan, on the other hand, mun­dane Saadi low­ers the spir­i­tual to touch the heart of his fel­low way­far­ers. Here the im­ages are graphic and, thanks to Saadi’s dex­ter­ity, re­main con­crete in the reader’s mind. Re­al­is­ti­cally, too, there is a ring of truth in the di­vi­sion. The Sheikh preach­ing in the Khan­qah ex­pe­ri­ences a to­tally dif­fer­ent world than the mer­chant pass­ing through a town. The unique thing about Saadi is that he em­bod­ies both the Sufi Sheikh and the trav­el­ling mer­chant. They are, as he him­self puts it, two al­mond ker­nels in the same shell.
Saadi’s prose style, de­scribed as “sim­ple but im­pos­si­ble to im­i­tate” flows quite nat­u­rally and ef­fort­lessly. Its sim­plic­ity, how­ever, is grounded in a se­man­tic web con­sist­ing of syn­onymyho­mophony, and oxy­moron but­tressed by in­ter­nal rhythm and ex­ter­nal rhyme.
Chief among these works is Goethe‘s West-Oestlicher Divan. Andre du Ryer was the first Eu­ro­pean to pre­sent Saadi to the West, by means of a par­tial French trans­la­tion of Gulis­tan in 1634. Adam Olear­ius fol­lowed soon with a com­plete trans­la­tion of the Bus­tan and the Gulis­tan into Ger­man in 1654.
In his Lec­tures on Aes­thet­ics, Hegel wrote (on the Arts trans­lated by Henry Paolucci, 2001, p. 155–157):
Pan­the­is­tic po­etry has had, it must be said, a higher and freer de­vel­op­ment in the Is­lamic world, es­pe­cially among the Per­sians … The full flow­er­ing of Per­sian po­etry comes at the height of its com­plete trans­for­ma­tion in speech and na­tional char­ac­ter, through Mo­hammedanism … In later times, po­etry of this order [Fer­dowsi’s epic po­etry] had a se­quel in love epics of ex­tra­or­di­nary ten­der­ness and sweet­ness; but there fol­lowed also a turn to­ward the di­dac­tic, where, with a rich ex­pe­ri­ence of life, the far-trav­eled Saadi was mas­ter be­fore it sub­merged it­self in the depths of the pan­the­is­tic mys­ti­cism taught and rec­om­mended in the ex­tra­or­di­nary tales and leg­endary nar­ra­tions of the great Jalal-ed-Din Rumi.
Alexan­der Pushkin, one of Rus­sia’s most cel­e­brated poets, quotes Saadi in his work Eu­gene One­gin, “as Saadi sang in ear­lier ages, ‘some are far dis­tant, some are dead’.” Gulis­tan was an in­flu­ence on the fa­bles of Jean de La FontaineBen­jamin Franklin in one of his works, DLXXXVIII A Para­ble on Persecution, quotes one of Bus­tan of Saadi’s para­ble, ap­par­ently with­out know­ing the source. Ralph Waldo Emer­son was also in­ter­ested in Sadi’s writ­ings, con­tribut­ing to some trans­lated edi­tions him­self. Emer­son, who read Saadi only in trans­la­tion, com­pared his writ­ing to the Bible in terms of its wis­dom and the beauty of its narrative.
The French physi­cist Nico­las Léonard Sadi Carnot‘s third given name is from Saadi’s name. It was cho­sen by his fa­ther be­cause of his great in­ter­est to­ward Saadi and his poems, Lazare Carnot.
Voltaire was very thrilled with his works es­pe­cially Gulis­tan, even he en­joyed being called “Saadi” in his friends’ cir­cle.
U.S. Pres­i­dent Barack Obama quoted the first two lines of this poem in his New Year’s greet­ing to the peo­ple of Iran on March 20, 2009, “But let us re­mem­ber the words that were writ­ten by the poet Saadi, so many years ago: ‘The chil­dren of Adam are limbs to each other, hav­ing been cre­ated of one essence.'”
National commemoration of ‘Saadi Day’

Saadi-Shirazi's commemoration day

Saadi-Shirazi’s commemoration day
An­nu­ally, on April 21 (Apr. 20 in leap years) a crowd of for­eign tourists and Ira­ni­ans gather at Saadi’s tomb in order to mark the day.
This com­mem­o­ra­tion day is held on the 1st of Or­dibehesht, the sec­ond month of the Solar Hijri cal­en­dar (see Iran­ian cal­en­dar), the day on which Saadi states that he fin­ished the Golestan in 1256.

Saadi's mausoleum in Shiraz, Iran

Saadi’s mau­soleum in Shi­razIran
Mosaic in his mausoleum

Mo­saic in his mau­soleum
Tomb of Saadi in his mausoleum

Tomb of Saadi in his mau­soleum

Tomb of Sheikh Saadi by Eugène Flandin, 1851
Tomb of Saadi by Pascal Coste, 1867

Tomb of Saadi by Pas­cal Coste, 1867

Tomb of Saadi from sky, April 20, 2014

Tomb of Saadi from sky, April 20, 2014

Tomb of Saadi's entrance, April 20, 2014

Tomb of Saadi’s en­trance, April 20, 2014

The entrance part of Saadi's tomb, Sep 18 2017

The en­trance part of Saadi’s tomb, Sep 18 2017

Inside tomb of Saadi-Shirazi, 18 December 2016

In­side tomb of Saadi-Shi­razi, 18 De­cem­ber 2016


Read more


Gulistan (book)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of a series on
Saadi Shirazi
Related Topics
Nicolas Léonard Sadi CarnotMarie François Sadi Carnot
Tomb of Saadi • Saadi Metro Sta­tion •Saadi Literary Award

Sa'di in a Flower garden, from a Mughal manuscript of the Golestan, ca. 1645. Saadi is on the right.

Sa’di in a Flower garden, from a Mughal manuscript of the Golestan, ca. 1645. Saadi is on the right.

The Golestan (Per­sianگُلِستان‎, also translit­er­ated as Gulistân and Gulis­tan “The Flower Gar­den”) is a land­mark of Per­sian lit­er­a­ture, per­haps its sin­gle most in­flu­en­tial work of prose. Writ­ten in 1258 CE, it is one of two major works of the Per­sian poet Sa’di, con­sid­ered one of the great­est me­dieval Per­sian poets. It is also one of his most pop­u­lar books, and has proved deeply in­flu­en­tial in the West as well as the East. The Golestan is a col­lec­tion of poems and sto­ries, just as a flower-gar­den is a col­lec­tion of flow­ers. It is widely quoted as a source of wis­dom. The well-known apho­rism still fre­quently re­peated in the west­ern world, about being sad be­cause one has no shoes until one meets the man who has no feet “where­upon I thanked Prov­i­dence for its bounty to my­self” is from the Golestan.

The min­i­mal­ist plots of the Golestan’s sto­ries are ex­pressed with pre­cise lan­guage and psy­cho­log­i­cal in­sight, cre­at­ing a “po­etry of ideas” with the con­ci­sion of math­e­mat­i­cal formulas. The book ex­plores vir­tu­ally every major issue faced by hu­mankind, with both an op­ti­mistic and a sub­tly satir­i­cal tone. There is much ad­vice for rulers, in this way com­ing within the mir­ror for princes genre. But as East­wick com­ments in his in­tro­duc­tion to the work, there is a com­mon say­ing in Per­sian, “Each word of Sa’di has sev­enty-two mean­ings”, and the sto­ries, along­side their en­ter­tain­ment value and prac­ti­cal and moral di­men­sion, fre­quently focus on the con­duct of dervishes and are said to con­tain Sufi teach­ings. Idries Shah elab­o­rates fur­ther. “The place won by the Golestan as a book of moral up­lift in­vari­ably given to the lit­er­ate young has had the ef­fect of es­tab­lish­ing a basic Sufic po­ten­tial in the minds of its readers.”


Reasons for composition

The poet Sa'di converses by night with a young friend in a garden. Miniature from Golestan. Herat, 1427. Chester Beatty Library, Dublin; workshops of Baysunghur.

The poet Sa’di converses by night with a young friend in a garden. Miniature from Golestan. Herat, 1427. Chester Beatty Library, Dublin; workshops of Baysunghur.

In his in­tro­duc­tion Sa’di de­scribes how a friend per­suaded him to go out to a gar­den on 21 April 1258. There the friend gath­ered up flow­ers to take back to town. Sa’di re­marked on how quickly the flow­ers would die, and pro­posed a flower gar­den that would last much longer:Of what use will be a dish of flowers to thee?Take a leaf from my flower-garden.A flower endures but five or six daysBut this flower-garden is always delightful.

There fol­low the words il­lus­trated in the Per­sian minia­ture, be­lieved to be by the Mughal painter Go­vard­han, shown at the top of the article:”حالی که من این حکایت بگفتم دامن گل بریخت و در دامنم آویخت که الکریم اذا وعدَ وفا‎hāl-ī ke man īn hekāyat begoftam, dāman-e gol berīxt o dar dāman-am āvixt, ke al-karimu eza va’ada vafā“When I said this, he poured out the skirt of flowers and hung on my skirt, saying ‘The generous man, if he promises, keeps his word!’ “

Sa’di con­tin­ues, “On the same day I hap­pened to write two chap­ters, namely on po­lite so­ci­ety and the rules of con­ver­sa­tion, in a style ac­cept­able to or­a­tors and in­struc­tive to letter-writers.”. In fin­ish­ing the book, Sa’di writes that, though his speech is en­ter­tain­ing and amus­ing, “it is not hid­den from the en­light­ened minds of sahib­dils (pos­ses­sors of heart), who are pri­mar­ily ad­dressed here, that pearls of heal­ing coun­sel have been drawn onto strings of ex­pres­sion, and the bit­ter med­i­cine of ad­vice has been mixed with the honey of wit”.


The opening page from the introduction

After the in­tro­duc­tion, the Golestan is di­vided into eight chap­ters, each con­sist­ing of a num­ber of sto­ries, dec­o­rated with short poems:1. The Manners of Kings2. On the Morals of Dervishes3. On the Excellence of Contentment4. On the Advantages of Silence5. On Love and Youth6. On Weakness and Old Age7. On the Effects of Education8. On Rules for Conduct in Life

Al­to­gether the work con­tains some 595 short poems in Per­sian, con­sist­ing on av­er­age of just under two cou­plets each, in a va­ri­ety of metres; there are also oc­ca­sional verses in Ara­bic.

Some sto­ries are very brief. The short poems which dec­o­rate the sto­ries some­times rep­re­sent the words of the pro­tag­o­nists, some­times the au­thor’s per­spec­tive and some­times, as in the fol­low­ing case, are not clearly at­trib­uted:

Chapter 1, story 34

One of the sons of Harunu’r-rashid came to his fa­ther in a pas­sion, say­ing, “Such an of­fi­cer’s son has in­sulted me, by speak­ing abu­sively of my mother.” Harun said to his no­bles, “What should be the pun­ish­ment of such a per­son?” One gave his voice for death, and an­other for the ex­ci­sion of his tongue, and an­other for the con­fis­ca­tion of his goods and ban­ish­ment. Harun said, “O my son! the gen­er­ous part would be to par­don him, and if thou canst not, then do thou abuse his mother, but not so as to ex­ceed the just lim­its of re­tal­i­a­tion, for in that case we should be­come the ag­gres­sors.”They that with raging elephants make warAre not, so deem the wise, the truly brave;But in real verity, the valiant areThose who, when angered, are not passion’s slave.An ill-bred fellow once a man reviled,Who patient bore it, and replied, “Good friend!Worse am I than by thee I could be styled,And better know how often I offend.”

Since there is lit­tle bi­o­graph­i­cal in­for­ma­tion about Sa’di out­side of his writ­ings, his short, ap­par­ently au­to­bi­o­graph­i­cal tales, such as the fol­low­ing have been used by com­men­ta­tors to build up an ac­count of his life.

Chapter 2, story 7

I re­mem­ber that, in the time of my child­hood, I was de­vout, and in the habit of keep­ing vig­ils, and eager to prac­tise mor­ti­fi­ca­tion and aus­ter­i­ties. One night I sate up in at­ten­dance on my fa­ther, and did not close my eyes the whole night, and held the pre­cious qur’an in my lap while the peo­ple around me slept. I said to my fa­ther, “Not one of these lifts up his head to per­form a prayer. They are so pro­foundly asleep that you would say they were dead.” He replied, “Life of thy fa­ther! it were bet­ter if thou, too, wert asleep; rather than thou shouldst be back­bit­ing peo­ple.”Naught but themselves can vain pretenders mark,For conceit’s curtain intercepts their view.Did God illume that which in them is dark,Naught than themselves would wear a darker hue.

The young athlete is marooned on a pillar. Chester Beatty Library, Dublin.

The young athlete is marooned on a pillar. Chester Beatty Library, Dublin.

Most of the tales within the Golestan are longer, some run­ning on for a num­ber of pages. In one of the longest, in Chap­ter 3, Sa’di ex­plores as­pects of un­der­tak­ing a jour­ney for which one is ill-equipped:

Chapter 3, story 28

An ath­lete, down on his luck at home, tells his fa­ther how he be­lieves he should set off on his trav­els, quot­ing the words:As long as thou walkest about the shop or the houseThou wilt never become a man, O raw fellow.Go and travel in the worldBefore that day when thou goest from the world.

His fa­ther warns him that his phys­i­cal strength alone will not be suf­fi­cient to en­sure the suc­cess of his trav­els, de­scrib­ing five kinds of men who can profit from travel: the rich mer­chant, the elo­quent scholar, the beau­ti­ful per­son, the sweet singer and the ar­ti­san. The son nev­er­the­less sets off and, ar­riv­ing pen­ni­less at a broad river, tries to get a cross­ing on a ferry by using phys­i­cal force. He gets aboard, but is left stranded on a pil­lar in the mid­dle of the river. This is the first of a se­ries of mis­for­tunes that he is sub­jected to, and it is only the char­ity of a wealthy man that fi­nally de­liv­ers him, al­low­ing him to re­turn home safe, though not much hum­bled by his tribu­la­tions. The story ends with the fa­ther warn­ing him that if he tries it again he may not es­cape so luck­ily:The hunter does not catch every time a jackal.It may happen that some day a tiger devours him.

Chapter 5, story 5

In the fifth chap­ter of The Golestan of Saadi, on Love and Youth, Saadi in­cludes ex­plicit moral and so­ci­o­log­i­cal points about the real life of peo­ple from his time pe­riod (1203-1291). The story below by Saadi, like so much of his work, con­veys mean­ing on many lev­els and broadly on many top­ics. In this story, Saadi com­mu­ni­cates the im­por­tance of teach­ers ed­u­cat­ing the “whole child”—cog­ni­tively, morally, emo­tion­ally, so­cially, and eth­i­cally–using, as often in the book, ho­mo­erotic at­trac­tion as a motif. Even though adults and teach­ers have been ac­corded great sta­tus and re­spect in Iran­ian cul­ture and his­tory, in Saadi’s story, he shows that a young boy has great wis­dom in un­der­stand­ing his ed­u­ca­tional needs.A schoolboy was so perfectly beautiful and sweet-voiced that the teacher, in accordance with human nature, conceived such an affection towards him that he often recited the following verses:I am not so little occupied with you, O heavenly face,That remembrance of myself occurs to my mind.From your sight I am unable to withdraw my eyesAlthough when I am opposite I may see that an arrow comes.Once the boy said to him: “As you strive to direct my studies, direct also my behavior. If you perceive anything reprovable in my conduct, although it may seem approvable to me, inform me thereof that I may endeavor to change it.” He replied: “O boy, make that request to someone else because the eyes with which I look upon you behold nothing but virtues.”The ill-wishing eye, be it torn outSees only defects in his virtue.But if you possess one virtue and seventy faultsA friend sees nothing except that virtue. Note: for the sake of utmost correct pronunciation, in the text above the word Golestan has been corrected in spelling and may differ from the spelling which exists in the english sources.


Sa’di’s Golestan is said to be one of the most widely read books ever produced. From the time of its com­po­si­tion to the pre­sent day it has been ad­mired for its “inim­itable simplicity”, seen as the essence of sim­ple el­e­gant Per­sian prose. Per­sian for a long time was the lan­guage of lit­er­a­ture from Ben­gal to Con­stan­tino­ple, and the Golestan was known and stud­ied in much of Asia. In Per­sian-speak­ing coun­tries today, proverbs and apho­risms from the Golestan ap­pear in every kind of lit­er­a­ture and con­tinue to be cur­rent in con­ver­sa­tion, much as Shake­speare is in English. As Sir John Mal­colm wrote in his Sketches of Persia in 1828, the sto­ries and max­ims of Sa’di were “known to all, from the king to the peasant”.

In Europe

The Golestan has been sig­nif­i­cant in the in­flu­ence of Per­sian lit­er­a­ture on West­ern cul­tureLa Fontaine based his “Le songe d’un habi­tant du Mogol” on a story from Golestan chap­ter 2 story 16: A cer­tain pious man in a dream be­held a king in par­adise and a devo­tee in hell. He in­quired, “What is the rea­son of the ex­al­ta­tion of the one, and the cause of the degra­da­tion of the other? for I had imag­ined just the re­verse.” They said, “That king is now in par­adise owing to his friend­ship for dar­weshes, and this recluse is in hell through fre­quent­ing the pres­ence of kings.”Of what avail is frock, or rosary,Or clouted garment? Keep thyself but freeFrom evil deeds, it will not need for theeTo wear the cap of felt: a darwesh beIn heart, and wear the cap of Tartary.

Voltaire was fa­mil­iar with works of Sa’di, and wrote the pref­ace of Zadig in his name. He men­tions a French trans­la­tion of the Golestan, and him­self trans­lated a score of verses, ei­ther from the orig­i­nal or from some Latin or Dutch translation.

Sir William Jones ad­vised stu­dents of Per­sian to pick an easy chap­ter of the Golestan to trans­late as their first ex­er­cise in the lan­guage. Thus, se­lec­tions of the book be­came the primer for of­fi­cials of British India at Fort William Col­lege and at Hai­ley­bury Col­lege in England.

In the United States Ralph Waldo Emer­son who ad­dressed a poem of his own to Sa’di, pro­vided the pref­ace for Glad­win’s trans­la­tion, writ­ing, “Saadi ex­hibits per­pet­ual va­ri­ety of sit­u­a­tion and in­ci­dent … he finds room on his nar­row can­vas for the ex­tremes of lot, the play of mo­tives, the rule of des­tiny, the lessons of morals, and the por­traits of great men. He has fur­nished the orig­i­nals of a mul­ti­tude of tales and proverbs which are cur­rent in our mouths, and at­trib­uted by us to re­cent writ­ers.” Henry David Thoreau quoted from the book in A Week on the Con­cord and Mer­ri­mack Rivers and in his re­marks on phil­an­thropy in Walden.

Note: for the sake of ut­most cor­rect pro­nun­ci­a­tion, in the text above the word Golestan has been cor­rected in spelling and may dif­fer from the spelling which ex­ists in the eng­lish sources.


Frontispiece of André du Ryer's translation

Frontispiece of André du Ryer’s translation

Saʿdi was first in­tro­duced to the West in a par­tial French trans­la­tion by André du Ryer (1634). Friedrich Ochsen­bach based a Ger­man trans­la­tion (1636) on this. Georgius Gen­tius pro­duced a Latin ver­sion ac­com­pa­nied by the Per­sian text in 1651. Adam Olear­ius made the first di­rect Ger­man translation.

The Golestan has been trans­lated into many lan­guages. It has been trans­lated into Eng­lish a num­ber of times: Stephen Sul­li­van (Lon­don, 1774, se­lec­tions), James Du­moulin (Cal­cutta, 1807), Fran­cis Glad­win (Cal­cutta, 1808, pref­ace by Ralph Waldo Emer­son), James Ross (Lon­don, 1823), S. Lee (Lon­don, 1827), Ed­ward Back­house East­wick (Hart­ford, 1852; re­pub­lished by Oc­ta­gon Press, 1979), John­son (Lon­don, 1863), John T. Platts (Lon­don, 1867), Ed­ward Henry Whin­field (Lon­don, 1880), Ed­ward Re­hat­sek (Ba­naras, 1888, in some later edi­tions in­cor­rectly at­trib­uted to Sir Richard Bur­ton), Sir Edwin Arnold (Lon­don, 1899), Launcelot Al­fred Cran­mer-Byng (Lon­don, 1905), Cel­wyn E. Hamp­ton (New York, 1913), and Arthur John Ar­berry (Lon­don, 1945, the first two chap­ters). More re­cent Eng­lish trans­la­tions have been pub­lished by Omar Ali-Shah (1997) and by Wheeler M. Thack­ston (2008).

The Uzbek poet and writer Gafur Gulom trans­lated The Golestan into the Uzbek lan­guage.

Note: for the sake of ut­most cor­rect pro­nun­ci­a­tion, in the text above the word Golestan has been cor­rected in spelling and may dif­fer from the spelling which ex­ists in the eng­lish sources.

United Nations quotation

Main article: Bani Adam

This well-known verse, part of chap­ter 1, story 10 of the Golestan, is woven into a car­pet which is hung on a wall in the United Na­tions build­ing in New York:

بنی‌آدم اعضای یکدیگرند
که در آفرينش ز یک گوهرندچو عضوى به‌درد آورَد روزگار
دگر عضوها را نمانَد قرارتو کز محنت دیگران بی‌غمی
نشاید که نامت نهند آدمی

Human beings are members of a whole,In creation of one essence and soul.If one member is afflicted with pain,Other members uneasy will remain.If you have no sympathy for human pain,The name of human you cannot retain.

U.S. Pres­i­dent Barack Obama quoted this in his video­taped Nowruz (New Year’s) greet­ing to the Iran­ian peo­ple in March 2009: “There are those who in­sist that we be de­fined by our dif­fer­ences. But let us re­mem­ber the words that were writ­ten by the poet Saadi, so many years ago: ‘The chil­dren of Adam are limbs to each other, hav­ing been cre­ated of one essence.'”

Note: for the sake of ut­most cor­rect pro­nun­ci­a­tion, in the text above the word Golestan has been cor­rected in spelling and may dif­fer from the spelling which ex­ists in the eng­lish sources.

Dancing dervishes on a double-page composition from an illustrated manuscript of the Golestan Iran, ca. 1615

Dancing dervishes on a double-page composition from an illustrated manuscript of the Golestan Iran, ca. 1615



GOLESTĀN-E SAʿDI, probably the single most influential work of prose in the Persian tradition, completed in 656/1258 by Mošarref-al-Din Moṣleḥ, known as Shaikh Saʿdi of Shiraz (for the confusion about his name, see Ṣafā, III/1, pp. 584-614). It was dedicated to the Salghurid Atabeg in Fārs, Moẓaffar-al-Din Abu Bakr b. Saʿd b. Zangi (G51), and his son, Saʿd (G54), as well as the vizier Faḵr-al-Din Abu Bakr b. Abi Naṣr (G55; concerning these dedicatees see Qazvini, pp. 721-31, 747-49). Saʿdi hoped his work would also cause future readers to remember the “dervishes” in their prayers. He evidently did not appear at court in person to present the Golestān, feeling it inappropriate to the station of the dervishes with whom he associated (ṭāʾefa-ye darvišān), though this group did feel an obligation to acknowledge their benefactors (šokr-e neʿmat-e bozorgān wājeb). Saʿdi apologizes for the delay in presenting a token of service to the court, perhaps suggesting that he had not submitted any work since the dedication of the Bustān (q.v.) in the previous year.

سعدی پیامبر پارسی گوی
The Poetry of Sa’di – A Selection – SAADI Audiobook Talking Books


National Library of Iran 0222.jpg

National Library Building of Iran

File:بقعه شیخ محمود شبستری.jpg - Wikimedia Commons

گرامیداشت ثبت گلشن راز توسط یونسکو در همایش ملی شیخ محمود شبستری
چهارشنبه ۱۵ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۵
سرویس شهرستانها: معاون فرهنگی و هنری اداره کل فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی آذربایجان شرقی گفت: ثبت هفتصدمین سالگرد تالیف گلشن راز در سال ۲۰۱۶ و ۲۰۱۷ توسط یونسکو در همایش ملی شیخ محمود شبستری گرامی داشته می‌شود.
محمد حسن چمیده فر افزود: در این همایش دو روزه که امروز و فردا در شبستر برگزار می‌شود، از تندیس و کتاب «چراغ جان»، آخرین اثر تحقیقی در خصوص شخصیت و اندیشه و زندگی شیخ محمود شبستری، رو نمایی می‌شود. وی افزود: کتاب «چراغ جان» اثر تحقیقی محمد طاهری خسرو شاهی توسط اداره کل فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی آذربایجان شرقی به چاپ رسیده است.وی با بیان این‌که همایش بزرگداشت یاد و نام «شیخ محمود شبستری» شاعر و عارف شهیر آذربایجان در شهر شبستر، زادگاه وی، برگزار می‌شود، ادامه داد: در روز دوم همایش، مدرسه گلشن راز افتتاح و از ۱۸ تابلو خط استادان بنام خوشنویسی کشور با موضوع گلشن راز رونمایی می‌شود.چمیده‌فر اظهار داشت:شیخ محمود شبستری صاحب منظومه کم نظیر و پرمحتوای گلشن راز است که نقشی مهم در توسعه عرفان اصیل اسلامی در جهان بر عهده داشته است
دانلود رایگان کتاب گلشن راز شیخ محمود شبستری | کتابچین
The Dialogue Of The Gulshan-I-Raz, Or Mystical Garden Of Roses Of Mahmoud Shabistari: With Selections From The Rubaiyat Of Omar Khayam (1887)
Gulshan I Raz: The Mystic Rose Garden Of Sa’d Ud Din Mahmud Shabistari (1880)

by Sa’d Ud Din Mahmud Shabistari, Muhammad Bin Yahya Lahiji, et al. Hardcover$30.36 Paperback$19.90

Gulshan i Raz
Gulshan i Raz by Shabestari Shabestari Paperback $11.44 Hardcover $55.00

Gulshan i Raz was composed in A.H. 717 (A.D. 1317), in answer to fifteen questions on the doctrines of the Sufis, or Muhamrnadan Mystics, propounded by Amir Syad Hosaini,1 a celebrated Sufi doctor of Herat. The authors name was Sad uddin Mahinud Shabistari, so called from his birth-place, Shabistar,2 a village near Tabriz, in the province of A zarbaijan. From a brief notice of his life in the Mujalis ul Ushshak, repeated in substance in the Haft I klim, the Sajina i Khushgu, and the Riaz ush Slniara, it would appear that he was bom about the middle of the seventh century of the Hejira (A.D. 1250), and that he died at Tabriz, where he had passed the greater part of his life, in A.H. 720. The only particulars of his life recorded in these Tazkiras are, that he was devotedly attached to one of his disciples named Shaikh I brahim, and that in addition to the Gulshan i Raz he wrote treatises entitled Hakk ul Yakin and Risala i Shahid. No further information as to the circumstances of his life and times is to be found in the poem itself or in the commentary, but we know from the Habib us Siyar and other chronicles3 that his birth was about contemporaneous with the incursion of the heathen Moghuls under Hulaku Khan, the conquest of Persia, Syria and Mesopotamia, and the downfall cf the A bbaside Khalifs, or Vicars of God. And living as he did 1H is life is given in the Nafliat ul Uns of Jami. This name is sometimes written Jabistar or Chabistar. The Persian cliim is usually expressed by the A rabic shin. Ouseley, I bn Haukal, 156. See Malcolm, History of Persia, ii. 252.
(Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don’t occur in the book.)

Gulshan-i Raz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gul­shan-i Raz or Gul­shan-e Raz (Per­sian: گلشن راز‎, “Rose Gar­den of Se­crets”) is a col­lec­tion of poems writ­ten in the 14th cen­tury by Sheikh Mah­moud Shabestari. It is con­sid­ered to be one of the great­est clas­si­cal Per­sian works of the Is­lamic mys­ti­cal tra­di­tion known in the west as Su­fism. The poems are mostly based on IrfanIslamSu­fism and sci­ences de­pen­dent on them.

The book was writ­ten about 1311 in rhyming cou­plets. It was writ­ten in re­sponse to sev­en­teen queries con­cern­ing Sufi meta­physics posed to “the Sufi literati of Tabriz” by Rukh Al Din Amir Husayn Harawi (d. 1318).[1] It was also the main ref­er­ence used by François Bernier when ex­plain­ing Su­fism to his Eu­ro­pean friends (in: Let­tre sur le Qui­etisme des Indes; 1688). In Eng­lish the book’s title is var­i­ously given as “Gar­den of Se­crets,” “The Gar­den of Mys­tery,” “The Mys­tic Rose Gar­den,” or “The Se­cret Rose Gar­den.”

Sufi poet Sheikh Alvān of Shi­raz trans­lated Gul­shan-i Raz into Azeri Turk­ish verse.[2]

This is the open­ing verse of Gul­shan-i Raz:

به نام آنکه جان را فکرت آموخت / چراغ دل به نور جان برافروخت
In the name of Him who taught the soul to think,

and kin­dled the heart’s lamp with the light of soul

Life and work

Shabis­tari was born in the town of Shabestar near Tabriz in 1288 (687 AH), where he re­ceived his education. He be­came deeply versed in the sym­bolic ter­mi­nol­ogy of Ibn Arabi. He wrote dur­ing a pe­riod of Mon­gol in­va­sions.

His most fa­mous work is a mys­tic text called The Se­cret Rose Gar­den (Gul­shan-i Rāz) writ­ten about 1311 in rhyming cou­plets (Math­nawi). This poem was writ­ten in re­sponse to sev­en­teen queries con­cern­ing Sufi meta­physics posed to “the Sufi literati of Tabriz” by Rukh Al Din Amir Husayn Harawi (d. 1318).[6] It was also the main ref­er­ence used by François Bernier when ex­plain­ing Su­fism to his Eu­ro­pean friends (in: Let­tre sur le Qui­etisme des Indes; 1688)

Other works in­clude The Book of Felicity (Sa’adat-nāma) and The Truth of Cer­tainty about the Knowl­edge of the Lord of the Worlds (Ḥaqq al-yaqīn fi ma’rifat rabb al-‘alamīn. The for­mer is re­garded as a rel­a­tively un­known po­etic mas­ter­piece writ­ten in khafif meter, while the later is his lone work of prose.

Life and work

Shabis­tari was born in the town of Shabestar near Tabriz in 1288 (687 AH), where he re­ceived his education. He be­came deeply versed in the sym­bolic ter­mi­nol­ogy of Ibn Arabi. He wrote dur­ing a pe­riod of Mon­gol in­va­sions.

His most fa­mous work is a mys­tic text called The Se­cret Rose Gar­den (Gul­shan-i Rāz) writ­ten about 1311 in rhyming cou­plets (Math­nawi). This poem was writ­ten in re­sponse to sev­en­teen queries con­cern­ing Sufi meta­physics posed to “the Sufi literati of Tabriz” by Rukh Al Din Amir Husayn Harawi (d. 1318).[6] It was also the main ref­er­ence used by François Bernier when ex­plain­ing Su­fism to his Eu­ro­pean friends (in: Let­tre sur le Qui­etisme des Indes; 1688)

Other works in­clude The Book of Felicity (Sa’adat-nāma) and The Truth of Cer­tainty about the Knowl­edge of the Lord of the Worlds (Ḥaqq al-yaqīn fi ma’rifat rabb al-‘alamīn. The for­mer is re­garded as a rel­a­tively un­known po­etic mas­ter­piece writ­ten in khafif meter, while the later is his lone work of prose.

شیخ محمود شبستری
(سعدالدّین محمودبن امین‌الدّین عبدالکریم‌بن یحیی شبستری)
زادروز۶۸۷ هجری قمری
درگذشت۷۲۰ هجری قمری
(۳۳ سالگی)
محل زندگیشبستر و تبریز
استادامین‌الدین و بهاءالدین یعقوب تبریزی
شناخته‌شده برایعارف و شاعر
دینتصوف و عرفان
آثارمثنوی گلشن راز به نام آن که جان را فکرت آموخت،«حق الیقین»،«شاهد نامه»

سعدالدّین محمودبن امین‌الدّین عبدالکریم‌بن یحیی شبستری (معروف به شیخ محمود شبستری) یکی از عارفان و شاعران سدهٔ هشتم هجری‌ست.[۱] با توجه به مطالب مندرج در کتاب روضات الجنان جلد ۲، وی معاصر شیخ بابا ابی شبستری (متوفی به سال ۷۴۰) بوده و در همان سال فوت نموده، لذا سن شیخ محمود شبستری در زمان فوت باید ۵۲ یا ۵۳ بوده باشد.[۲] وی از مشاعر عرفای ایران است و بیشتر شهرت او به خاطر اثر معروفش گلشن راز است.

آثار وی را می‌توان به دو دسته منظوم و منثور بخش کرد.

آثار منظوم[ویرایش]

آثار منثور[ویرایش]

گلشن راز مقالهٔ اصلی: گلشن راز

مثنوی گلشن راز مهم‌ترین و مشهورترین اثر منظوم محمود شبستری است که در بردارندهٔ اندیشه‌های عرفانی وی و حدود هزار بیت می‌باشد. با وجود حجم اندکش، این کتاب یکی از یادگارهای پرارزش و بلندنام ادبیات عرفانی کهن فارسی است، که در آن بیان مفاهیم صوفیانه با شور، شوق، و روانی ویژه‌ای همراه گردیده است. مطابق شیوهٔ معمول عطار و مولانا، در این‌جا نیز، از حکایات و تمثیلات برای بیان و عرضهٔ مؤثّر معانی عرفانی و حکمی استفاده شده‌است.[۵]

شبستری این مثنوی را در پاسخ به پرسش‌های امیر حسینی هروی سروده است. در هفدهم ماه شوال سال ۷۱۷ فرستاده‌ای از خراسان مشکلات و مسائل مربوط به فهم و تبیین پاره‌ای از رموز و اشارات عرفانی را در قالب نامه‌ای منظوم در مجلسی با حضور شبستری می‌خواند.[۶]

این اثر تا کنون به دفعات چاپ گردیده‌است. یکی از موثق‌ترین نسخه‌های چاپ شده به کوشش دکتر جواد نوربخش می‌باشد که براساس ۸ نسخه خطی و ۲ نسخه چاپی معتبر تصحیح و منتشر گردیده‌است.[۳]

این کتاب، تا کنون، به زبان‌های ترکی، آلمانی،فرانسوی، انگلیسی، و نیز اردو ترجمه شده‌است.

شرح‌های بر گلشن را

عرفای بنام شروح مفصلی بر «گلشن راز» نگاشته‌اند از آنجمله:[۳]فرانسوی

  • منظومه غنچه باز در شرح گلشن راز جلال الدین علی میر ابوالفضل عنقا عارف قرن سیزدهم هجری
  • شرح کمال الدین حسینی اردبیلی (الهی) معاصر شاه اسماعیل اول
  • نسایم گلشن از شاه داعی الی الله
  • شرح لاهیجی از محمد بن یحیی لاهیجی
  • شرح مظفرالدین علی شیرازی
  • شرح منسوب به عبدالرحمن جامی
  • شرح ادریس بن حسام الدین بدیعی
  • شرح شیخ بابا نعمت‌الله بن محمود نخجوانی
  • شرح حاج میرزا ابراهیم شریعتمدار سبزواری
  • شرح قاضی میر حسین یزدی
  • شرح منظوم اسیری
  • شرح حسام الدین علی بدلیسی (پدر ادریس بدلیسی نویسندهٔ کتاب هشت بهشت)
  • شرح حسین الهی قمشه ای : انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی (۱۳۷۷)


By Mohsen Mohammadi

Iran, UNESCO to celebrate 700th anniversary of “The Secret Rose Garden”

TEHRAN – Iran and UNESCO will jointly celebrate the 700th anniversary of the composing of “The Secret Rose Garden” (Gulshan-i Raz), a collection of poems by Iranian mystic and poet Sa’d-ud-Din Mahmud Shabistari (1288–1340), Iran’s Organization of Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Handicrafts Organization (CHTHO) announced on Sunday.

“The book contains moral standards for the world,” CHTHO official Farhad Nazari said in a press release. 

“The book was written to instill moral into humanity and also to help people achieve a balance between their souls and bodies, as well as to prevent extremism, violence and damage to the environment,” he added.

He said that the Republic of Azerbaijan also will collaborate in organizing the celebration and added that so far, over 40 books have been written about “The Secret Rose Garden”, which also known as “The Mystic Rose Garden”.

According to Nazari, the book has previously been translated into English, French, German, Turkish and Urdu.

The report gave no more details about the celebration. 


گرامیداشت ثبت گلشن راز توسط یونسکو در همایش ملی شیخ محمود شبستریچهارشنبه ۱۵ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۵سرویس شهرستانها: معاون فرهنگی و هنری اداره کل فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی آذربایجان شرقی گفت: ثبت هفتصدمین سالگرد تالیف گلشن راز در سال ۲۰۱۶ و ۲۰۱۷ توسط یونسکو در همایش ملی شیخ محمود شبستری گرامی داشته می‌شود.

محمد حسن چمیده فر افزود: در این همایش دو روزه که امروز و فردا در شبستر برگزار می‌شود، از تندیس و کتاب «چراغ جان»، آخرین اثر تحقیقی در خصوص شخصیت و اندیشه و زندگی شیخ محمود شبستری، رو نمایی می‌شود. وی افزود: کتاب «چراغ جان» اثر تحقیقی محمد طاهری خسرو شاهی توسط اداره کل فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی آذربایجان شرقی به چاپ رسیده است.وی با بیان این‌که همایش بزرگداشت یاد و نام «شیخ محمود شبستری» شاعر و عارف شهیر آذربایجان در شهر شبستر، زادگاه وی، برگزار می‌شود، ادامه داد: در روز دوم همایش، مدرسه گلشن راز افتتاح و از ۱۸ تابلو خط استادان بنام خوشنویسی کشور با موضوع گلشن راز رونمایی می‌شود.چمیده‌فر اظهار داشت:شیخ محمود شبستری صاحب منظومه کم نظیر و پرمحتوای گلشن راز است که نقشی مهم در توسعه عرفان اصیل اسلامی در جهان بر عهده داشته است


ثبت مشاهیر برجسته ایران‌ در فهرست مشاهیر علم و ادب یونسکو

ثبت مشاهیر برجسته ایران‌ در فهرست مشاهیر علم و ادب یونسکو

طبق پیگیری‌های کمیسیون ملی یونسکو و همکاری دفتر نمایندگی جمهوری اسلامی ایران در یونسکو، نام سه تن از مشاهیر برجسته کشورمان در سال 2015 در مرحله مقدماتی در فهرست مشاهیر علم و ادب یونسکو ثبت شد.

اسامی این شخصیت‌ها عبارت است:
– هزارویکصد و پنجاهمین سال تولد محمد زکریای رازی
– هفتصدمین سال نگارش کتاب گلشن راز، شیخ محمود شبستری
– هزاروپنجاهمین سالروز تولد سیدمرتضی علم الهدی
دبیرخانه یونسکو پس از دریافت اسامی مشاهیر پیشنهاد شده از طرف کشورها، اسامی آنها را در اختیار کمیته‌های تخصصی مربوط در معاونت‌های فرهنگی، علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، علوم طبیعی و ارتباطات یونسکو قرار می دهد. این کمیته‌ها پس از بررسی، نتایج به‌دست آمده را دوباره در اختیار دبیرخانه یونسکو قرار می دهند. پس از طی این فرایند، دبیرخانه فهرست تاییدشده مشاهیر را به شورای اجرایی ارسال می کند تا در صورت تصویب در شورا، در نشست کنفرانس عمومی (اکتبر 2015) تصویب نهایی شود.
باتوجه به جایگاه بسیار مهم ثبت جهانی مشاهیر در فهرست مشاهیر علم و ادب یونسکو و رقابت جدی کشورهای عضو باهدف بالابردن توان چانه‌زنی فرهنگی و هنجارسازی در مجامع بین‌المللی، لزوم شناسایی و معرفی مشاهیر ایران و نیز برگزاری همایش‌ها، بزرگداشت‌ها و انتشار و انعکاس آموزه‌های مفاخر ایران-زمین در حوزه داخلی و بین‌المللی از اهمیت به‌سزایی در عرصه فرهنگ داخلی و جهانی برخوردار است.
علاقه‌مندان می توانند اسامی مشاهیر کشورمان را که تاکنون در فهرست مشاهیر یونسکو ثبت‌شده است در لینک زیر مشاهده کنند:

همایش ملی به مناسبت بزرگداشت مقام شیخ محمود شبستری آغاز به کار کرد ...

Poetry – Tagged "Spirtuality" – Dervish Designs Online
گرامیداشت هفتصدمین سال نگارش «گلشن راز» در یونسکو > خبرگزاری میراث ...
Garden of Mystery: The Gulshan-i Raz of Mahmud Shabistari
Garden of Mystery: The Gulshan-i Raz of Mahmud Shabistari

by Mahmud Shabistari Garden of Mystery, the ‘Gulshan-i Raz’, holds a unique position in Persian Sufi literature. It is a compact and concise exploration of the doctrines of Sufism at the peak of their development that has remained a primary text of Sufism throughout the world from Turkey to India. It comprises a thousand lines of inspired poetry taking the form of answers to questions put by a fellow mystic. It provides a coherent literary bridge between the Persian ‘school of love’ poetry and the rapidly growing number of metaphysical and gnostic compositions from what had come to be known as the school of the ‘Unity of Being’. Translated by Robert Darr who has for thirty-five years been a student of classical Islamic culture. 


دعای الجوشن الكبير كامل بصوت محسن فرهمند عَرَبی و زیر نویس فارسی و انگلیسی Amirhossein Maleki
Dua’a e Jaushan Kabir Complete (Joshan Kabir), Mohsen Farahmand, Arabic, Persian and English sub-title
Imam Reza Shrine - Wikipedia
Imam Reza Holy Shrine, Mashhad, Razavi  ( ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد عکس حرم امام رضا (ع – Wikipedia
Astan Quds Razavi Central Museum 2020 Tourist Attraction in ...

Astan Quds Razavi Central Museum Imam Reza , Mashhad,  ( ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد عکس حرم امام رضا (ع 
Library Astan-e-Quds - Mashhad
Astan Quds Razavi’s Central Library Mashhad, Iran
حضرت عبدالعظیم II.jpg
Shah Abdol-Azim Shrineشاه عبدالعظیم Ray, Iran Shahr-e Rey (Persian: شهر ری‎, “City of Ray”) or simply Ray (Rey; ری)
is the capital of Ray County in Tehran ProvinceIran  From Wikipedia

Flower Pot Persian Tabriz Silk Carpet Hand Knotted Tableau Rug
by Falcon Decal $699.00
Persian Handmade Carpets, Rugs and Tableau Rugs Exhibition in Tehran Iran Norooz 2020 IRANIANS
Why Are Persian Rugs So Expensive? In the world of carpeting, Persian rugs stand above all the rest. These are the luxury sports cars of the rug industry, and they typically cost in the thousands of dollars. There are many reasons why this type of rug is so expensive. Artistic Value Persian rugs have been in existence for over 2,500 years. During that time, these rugs have become a type of art that reflects the Persian culture and history. Authentic Persian rugs are hand-made, so each one is a masterpiece created by an artist who uses traditional motifs and scenes to express their own culture. When buying a Persian rug, you are buying the equivalent of a beautiful painting or a sculpture. Complex Design and Structure Persian rugs are made of thousands of tiny knots, all done by hand. The images and designs you see on the rugs are created solely through the placement of knots in colored threads, in specific patterns. Most Persian designs contain curved designs, and curved-design weaving is considered to be much more difficult to achieve well than simple geometric patterns. The knot work is considered a craft that few can master. Getting knots to be dense and lush, while still maintaining the pattern, is a difficult goal to accomplish. The more knots the weaver can get into each square inch, the clearer and more beautiful the image will be, so buying a rug from a master weaver, who can charge more, means getting a more beautiful rug. High-Quality Materials Another reason that Persian rugs can be so expensive is the quality of the materials used. Persian rugs are typically made from natural plant or animal fibers, such as silk, wool, cotton, jute, and sisal. These fibers last much longer than synthetic fibers, stay clean easier, don’t tend to fade as quickly, and are typically better for the air quality in the room. In fact, man-made materials like nylon, acrylic, and viscose, have been shown to increase issues with allergies. Because natural fibers can’t be controlled the way artificial fibers can be, this also means that each and every Persian rug will be a unique creation. No two rugs can look exactly alike because the natural fiber will always have discrepancies in the coloring. Other Considerations There are a few other things that can make one Persian rug more expensive than another. For example, if a Persian rug is much older, but in great condition, this is treated more like a rare piece of preserved art, and can be very pricey. The country the rug comes from is another important factor in determining its worth. Turkish rugs have more value than a Persian rug made in India, for example. Finding the perfect Persian rug is like hunting for a signature masterpiece, so be sure to take your time as you navigate the market for these dazzling home décor items.
Persian Carpet Exhibition | نمایشگاه فرش دستباف و صنایع دستی Mr Abe
I went to the Iranian Carpet Exhibition and found the historical carpets there. Many rugs that were more than 100 years old. I found carpets that were ten times more expensive in the US and Europe! The 28th edition of Iran Handmade Carpet Exhibition, as a unique event in the field of Persian handmade carpet, will be held at Tehran’s Permanent Fairground from August 25-31. The event, which is known as the world’s most important and biggest event in the art and industry of handmade carpets, will host a score of Iranian and foreign companies active in different parts of the industry. Iran National Carpet Center, as the sponsor and organizer of this important event, will provide special facilities and options for foreign businessmen who are active in the handmade carpet sector. A number of business and trade delegations from various countries are expected to visit the exhibition and hold trade talks with Iranian producers and exporters of handwoven carpets. The event attracts as many as 4,000 visitors each year. The previous edition of the exhibition hosted over 670 producers, export companies and manufacturing units across the country. Persian handmade carpet, besides excellent position in art and culture, is considered as a luxury commodity with a high value that has been adorned in many palaces, museums and private houses around the world. Hundreds of Iranian carpet weaving units are taking part in the event putting their latest products on display. According to official figures, carpet industry has a significant share in the country’s non-oil exports. Iranian handmade carpets are well-known worldwide for their delicate designs and good quality. The event is aimed at promoting handmade carpets in the world and paving the way for further exports carpets in global markets. The annual event attracts about 100,000 visitors including traders and researchers from Iran and the world. Latest statistics show that handwoven carpets worth some 500 million dollars were exported in the last fiscal year.
Camel Carpet 6x9ft Natural Silk Handmade Persian Tabriz Rugs Flower Pattern $6549.00

Camel Carpet 6x9ft Natural Silk Handmade Persian Area Rugs High-end Hand Knotted Tabriz Rugs $6780
Persian Carpet Flower Plant Rug Oriental Silk Carpet Handmade  $2,499
Isfahan Rug with Tassels Pure Hand Knotted $889.00


Related Links:


Flag of Iran before 1979
Imperial Coat of arms of Iran
Lion and Sun - Wikipedia
The Lion and Sun (Persian: شیر و خورشید‎ )
Lion Man: Kevin Richardson | South Africa Tim Noonan
Broadcast: 20 November 2011 on Today Tonight, Seven Network, Australia. Tim travels to South Africa to meet Kevin Richardson who truly dances with death. His love and obsession is lions and they love him back but they wanted to tear Tim apart …
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Traditional Persian Cats Wikipedia


Flag of Iran
Location of Iran
Iran From Wikipedia

Iran  ( ایران‎ ) also called Persia is a country in Western Asia.

Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BC, and reached its territorial height in the sixth century BC, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, making it one of the largest empires in history. The empire fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BC, which was succeeded in the third century AD by the Sasanian Empire, a major world power for the next four centuries.

Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis

Ruins of the Gate of All NationsPersepolis

Iran has the world’s second largest proved gas reserves after Russia, with 33.6 trillion cubic metres, and the third largest natural gas production after Indonesia and Russia. It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC‘s second largest oil exporter, and is an energy superpower, with considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.

The country’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third largest number in Asia and 10th largest in the world. Historically a multi-ethnic country, Iran remains a pluralistic society comprising numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, the largest being PersiansAzerisKurdsMazandaranis and Lurs.

GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• TotalDecrease $1.471 trillion[7] (18th)
• Per capitaDecrease $17,662[7] (66th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• TotalIncrease $458.500 billion[
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians

bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians

Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in Pasargadae

Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in 

The Allied "Big Three" at the 1943 Tehran Conference

lin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill—issued the Tehran Declaration to guarantee the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. During the rest of World War II, Iran became a major conduit for British and American aid to the Soviet Union and an avenue through which over 120,000 Polish refugees and Polish Armed Forces fled the Axis advance.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol, Mazenderan.

Mount Damavand, Iran’s highest point, is located in AmolMazenderan.

Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year

Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year

Iran’s official New Year begins with Nowruz, an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated annually on the vernal equinox. It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. It was registered on the UNESCO‘s list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009, described as the Persian New Year, shared with a number of other countries in which it has historically been celebrated.

Nowruz From Wikipedia

Nowruz (Persian: نوروز‎, pronounced [nowˈɾuːz]; lit. ‘ “new day”‘) is the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups.

Nowruz has Iranian and Zoroastrian origins; however, it has been celebrated by diverse communities for over 7,000 years in Western AsiaCentral Asia, the Caucasus, the Black Sea Basin, the Balkans, and South Asia. It is a secular holiday for most celebrants that is enjoyed by people of several different faiths, but remains a holy day for Zoroastrians, Bahais, and some Muslim communities

Illumination of the Earth by the Sun on the day of equinox

Illumination of the Earth by the Sun on the day of equinox

Nowruz is the day of the vernal equinox, and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. It marks the first day of the first month (Farvardin) of the Iranian calendars. It usually occurs on March 21 or the previous or following day, depending on where it is observed. The moment the Sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year, and families gather together to observe the rituals.

While Nowruz has been celebrated since the reform of the Iranian Calendar in the 11th century CE to mark the new year, the United Nations officially recognized the “International Day of Nowruz” with the adoption of UN resolution 64/253 in 2010. Read more:

Beautiful pictures of Iran and Iranian New Year LZar11
Nobahar – نوبهار / آمده نوروز در ایران زمین The Legends of Art
آمـــده نــــوروز در ایـــران‌زمیـــــن ، خاک ما شــــد رشک فــــردوس بریــــــن
بـــــوی نارنـــــج و ترنــــــج و عطر بیـــــد ، میتـــــوان از تربت حافظ شنیـــــد
خــــون پاک عاشقی در جــــان ماست ، ریشــــۀ این عشــــق در ایــــران ماست
هموطـــن نـــــوروز تو پیـــــروز باد ، ای وطـــن هر روز تـــــو نـــــوروز باد

Haft Seen Photos - Eid-e Nowruz! | Haft seen, Nowruz table, Nowruz ...
Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year.


solstice celebration Introduction to Yalda Night or Chelleh Shab-e Yalda  MUN Iranians

  (“Yalda night” Persian: شب یلدا‎) or Shab-e ChellehPersian: شب چله‎) is an Iranian festival celebrated on the “longest and darkest night of the year”, Yalda is a winter solstice celebration, that is, in the night of the Northern Hemisphere‘s winter solstice. Calendrically, this corresponds to the night of December 20/21 (±1) in the Gregorian calendar, and to the night between the last day of the ninth month (Azar) and the first day of the tenth month (Dey) of the Iranian civil calendar. Read more: Yaldā Night From Wikipedia
Cuisine Main article: Iranian cuisine
Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran's national dishes[516][517][518]

Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran’s national dishes

Due to its va­ri­ety of eth­nic groups and the in­flu­ences from the neigh­bor­ing cul­tures, the cui­sine of Iran is di­verse. Herbs are fre­quently used, along with fruits such as plums, pome­gran­ate, quince, prunes, apri­cots, and raisins. To achieve a bal­anced taste, char­ac­ter­is­tic fla­vor­ings such as saf­fron, dried lime, cin­na­mon, and pars­ley are mixed del­i­cately and used in some spe­cial dishes. Onion and gar­lic are com­monly used in the prepa­ra­tion of the ac­com­pa­ny­ing course, but are also served sep­a­rately dur­ing meals, ei­ther in raw or pick­led form.

Iran­ian cui­sine in­cludes a wide range of main dishes, in­clud­ing var­i­ous types of kebabpilafstew (khoresh), soup and āsh, and omelette. Lunch and din­ner meals are com­monly ac­com­pa­nied by side dishes such as plain yo­gurt or mast-o-khiarsabzisalad Shi­razi, and tor­shi, and might fol­low dishes such as bo­raniMirza Qasemi, or kashk e badem­jan as the ap­pe­tizer.

The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia's largest football stadium.

The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia’s largest football stadium.

Sports in Iran

With two-thirds of the population under the age of 25, many sports are played in Iran.

Iran is most likely the birthplace of polo, locally known as čowgān, with its earliest records attributed to the ancient MedesFreestyle wrestling is traditionally considered the national sport of Iran, and the national wrestlers have been world champions on many occasions. Iran’s traditional wrestling, called košti e pahlevāni (“heroic wrestling”), is registered on UNESCO‘s Intangible Cultural Heritage list.

Read more:

Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold
at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Sports in Iran

Football has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with the men’s national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions. The men’s national team has maintained its position as Asia’s best team, ranking 1st in Asia and 33rd in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings (as of May 2020).

Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. Having won the 2011 and 2013 Asian Men’s Volleyball Championshipsmen’s national team is currently the strongest team in Asia, and ranks eighth in the FIVB World Rankings (as of July 2017).

Basketball is also popular, with men’s national team having won three Asian Championships since 2007.

Panorama of Tabriz.jpg
Tabriz City تبریز

Shiraz skyline
hiraz City شیراز
Tomb of Saadi
Tomb of Hafez

Shiraz Botanical GardenNasir ol Molk Mosque, Shiraz
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Shiraz, Tomb of SaadiShah Cheragh shrineNasir ol Molk MosqueEram GardenKarim Khan Citadel and Tomb of Hafez.
Iron Age gold cup from Marlik, kept at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art

Iron Age gold cup from Marlik 3000 years old

Iran’s oldest literary tradition is that of Avestan, the Old Iranian sacred language of the Avesta, which consists of the legendary and religious texts of Zoroastrianism and the ancient Iranian religion, with its earliest records dating back to the pre-Achaemenid times.

Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian, various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, has the most influential literature. Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature. In spite of originating from the region of Persis (better known as Persia) in southwestern Iran, the Persian language was used and developed further through Persianate societies in Asia MinorCentral Asia, and South Asia, leaving massive influences on Ottoman and Mughal literatures, among others.

Iran has a number of famous medieval poets, most notably RumiFerdowsiHafezSaadi ShiraziOmar Khayyam, and Nezami Ganjavi. Iranian literature also inspired writers such as Johann Wolfgang von GoetheHenry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Tomb of Hafez, the medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Goethe, Thoreau, and Emerson[114][115][116]

Tomb of Hafez, the medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably GoetheThoreau, and Emerson

The blos­som­ing lit­er­a­turephi­los­o­phymath­e­mat­icsmed­i­cine,

While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being’s position in society and their view of man’s role in the universe.

The Cyrus Cylinder, which is known as “the first charter of human rights“, is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era. The earliest tenets of Zoroastrian schools are part of the extant scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion in Avestan. Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar, and Denkard, as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas

Education in Iran is centralized and divided into K-12 education plus higher education. Elementary and secondary education is supervised by the Ministry of Education and higher education is under supervision of Ministry of Science, research and Technology and Ministry of Health and Medical Education (medical fields). As of September 2015, 93% of the Iranian adult population are literate. In 2008, 85% of the Iranian adult population were literate, well ahead of the regional average of 62%. This rate increases to 97% among young adults (aged between 15 and 24) without any gender discrepancy. By 2007, Iran had a student to workforce population ratio of 10.2%, standing among the countries with highest ratio in the world. Each year, 20% of government spending and 5% of GDP goes to education, a higher rate than most other developing countries. 50% of education spending is devoted to secondary education

Foreign languages

See also: Iran Language Institute and Media in Iran

Per­sian is of­fi­cially the na­tional lan­guage of Iran. Ara­bic, as the lan­guage of Koran, is taught grades 7-12. In ad­di­tion to Ara­bic, stu­dents are re­quired to take one for­eign lan­guage class in grades 7-12. Al­though other for­eign lan­guages such as Ger­man, French, Span­ish and Chi­nese are of­fered in most urban schools, Eng­lish con­tin­ues to be the most de­sired language.

Ka­noun-e-Zabaan-e-Iran or Iran’s Lan­guage In­sti­tute af­fil­i­ated to Cen­ter for In­tel­lec­tual De­vel­op­ment of Chil­dren and Young Adults was founded in 1979. Per­sian, Eng­lish, French, Span­ish, Ger­man, Russ­ian and Ara­bic are taught to over 175,000 stu­dents dur­ing each term.

Eng­lish lan­guage is stud­ied in first and sec­ond high school. How­ever, the qual­ity of Eng­lish ed­u­ca­tion in schools is not sat­is­fac­tory and most of stu­dents in order to ob­tain a bet­ter Eng­lish flu­ency and pro­fi­ciency have to take Eng­lish courses in pri­vate in­sti­tutes.

Be­fore 2018, some pri­mary schools also taught Eng­lish. How­ever, in Jan­u­ary 2018, a se­nior ed­u­ca­tional of­fi­cial an­nounced that teach­ing Eng­lish is banned in pri­mary schools, in­clud­ing non-gov­ern­ment pri­mary schools.

Presently, there are over 5000 for­eign lan­guage schools in the coun­try, 200 of which are sit­u­ated in Tehran. A few tele­vi­sion chan­nels air weekly Eng­lish and Ara­bic lan­guage ses­sions, par­tic­u­larly for uni­ver­sity can­di­dates who are prepar­ing for the an­nual en­trance test

As of 2013, 4.5 million students are enrolled in universities, out of a total population of 75 million. Iranian universities graduate almost 750,000 annually

Education in Iran From Wikipedia
The adult literacy rated 93.0% in September 2015
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (as of January 2017), Iran’s top five universities include Tehran University of Medical Sciences (478th worldwide), the University of Tehran (514th worldwide), Sharif University of Technology (605th worldwide), Amirkabir University of Technology (726th worldwide), and the Tarbiat Modares University (789th worldwide)

Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious higher education institutions.
Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran’s most prestigious higher education institutions.

Sharif University of TechnologyAmirkabir University of Technology, and Iran University of Science and Technology also located in Tehran are nationally well known for taking in the top undergraduate Engineering and Science students; and internationally recognized for training competent under graduate students. It has probably the highest percentage of graduates who seek higher education abroad.

K.N.Toosi University of Technology is among most prestigious universities in Tehran. Other major universities are at ShirazTabrizIsfahanMashhadAhvazKermanKermanshahBabolsarRasht, and Orumiyeh. There are about 50 colleges and 40 technological institutes.

In 2009, 33.7% of all those in the 18–25 age group were enrolled in one of the 92 universities, 512 Payame Noor University branches, and 56 research and technology institutes around the country. There are currently some 3.0 million university students in Iran and 1.0 million study at the 500 branches of Islamic Azad University. Iran had 1 million medical students in 2011.In September 2012, women made up more than 60% of all universities’ student body in Iran.[35] This high level of achievement and involvement in high education is a recent development of the past decades.  According to UNESCO world survey, Iran has the highest female to male ratio at primary level of enrollment in the world among sovereign nations, with a girl to boy ratio of 1.22:1.

Field of study2010Remarks
Engineering and construction31%Highly developed with one of the highest graduation rates in the world.
Social science, business and law23%Limited because of ideology issues but is developing rapidly.
Humanities and the arts14%
Science10%Highly developed with one of the highest graduation rates in the world..
  • As of 2016 Iran has the 5th highest number of STEM graduates worldwide with 335,000 annual graduates.
  • In 2010, 64% of the country’s population was under the age of 30.
  • There are approximately 92,500 public educational institutions at all levels, with a total enrollment of approximately 17,488,000 students.
  • According to 2008 estimates, 89.3% of males and 80.7% of females over the age of 15 are literate; thus 85% of the population is literate. Virtually all children of the relevant age group enrolled into primary schools in 2008 while enrollment into secondary schools increased from 66% in 1995 to 80% in 2008. As a result, youth literacy rates increased from 86% to 94% over the same period, rising significantly for girls.
  • A <i>literacy corps</i> was established in 1963 to send educated conscripts to villages. During its first 10 years, the corps helped 2.2 million urban children and 600,000 adults become literate. This corps was replaced with the Literacy Movement Organization after the Islamic Revolution.
  • In 1997, there were 9,238,393 pupils enrolled in 63,101 primary schools, with 298,755 teachers. The student-to-teacher ratio stood at 31 to 1. In that same year, secondary schools had 8,776,792 students and 280,309 teachers. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level was 26 to 1 in 1999. In the same year, 83% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school. As of 1999, public expenditure on education was estimated at 4.6% of GDP (not budget).
  • In 2007, the majority of students (60%) enrolled in Iranian universities were women.
  • According to UNESCO world survey, Iran has the highest female to male ratio at primary level of enrollment in the world among sovereign nations, with a girl to boy ratio of 1.22 : 1.00.
  • Each year, 20% of government spending and 5% of GDP goes to education, a higher rate than most other developing countries. 50% of education spending is devoted to secondary education and 21% of the annual state education budget is devoted to the provision of tertiary education.


People of Iran Ethnic Groups IranGeo A presentation showing various ethnic groups living in modern day Iran.
History of Iran in 5 minutes (3200 BCE – 2013 CE) IranGeo
A summary of the rich History of Iran & Greater Iran from 3200 BCE to 2013 CE (present). (Atlas) (Norouz special)

70 Amazingly Beautiful Gardens Around The World TSK-24


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